Developing a 21st Century Global
Library for Mathematics Research

Committee on Planning a Global Library of the Mathematical Sciences

Board on Mathematical Sciences and Their Applications

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                         OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

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Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research Committee on Planning a Global Library of the Mathematical Sciences Board on Mathematical Sciences and Their Applications Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation under grant number 2011-10-28. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organization that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13:  978-0-309-29848-3 International Standard Book Number 10:  0-309-29848-2 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Suggested citation: National Research Council. 2014. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research. Washington, D.C.: The National Acad- emies Press. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding e ­ ngineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The C ­ ouncil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON PLANNING A GLOBAL LIBRARY OF THE MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES INGRID DAUBECHIES, Duke University, Co-Chair CLIFFORD A. LYNCH, Coalition for Networked Information, Co-Chair KATHLEEN M. CARLEY, Carnegie Mellon University TIMOTHY W. COLE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign JUDITH L. KLAVANS, University of Maryland, College Park YANN LeCUN, New York University MICHAEL LESK, Rutgers University PETER OLVER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis JIM PITMAN, University of California, Berkeley ZHIHONG (JEFF) XIA, Northwestern University Staff MICHELLE SCHWALBE, Study Director SCOTT WEIDMAN, Board Director BARBARA WRIGHT, Administrative Assistant v

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BOARD ON MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS DONALD G. SAARI, University of California, Irvine, Chair DOUGLAS ARNOLD, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis GERALD G. BROWN, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School LOUIS ANTHONY COX, JR., Cox Associates CONSTANTINE GATSONIS, Brown University MARK L. GREEN, University of California, Los Angeles DARRYLL HENDRICKS, UBS Investment Bank BRYNA KRA, Northwestern University ANDREW W. LO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DAVID MAIER, Portland State University WILLIAM A. MASSEY, Princeton University JUAN MEZA, University of California, Merced JOHN W. MORGAN, Stony Brook University CLAUDIA NEUHAUSER, University of Minnesota, Rochester FRED ROBERTS, Rutgers University CARL P. SIMON, University of Michigan KATEPALLI SREENIVASAN, New York University EVA TARDOS, Cornell University Staff SCOTT WEIDMAN, Director NEAL GLASSMAN, Senior Program Officer MICHELLE SCHWALBE, Program Officer BARBARA WRIGHT, Administrative Assistant BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate vi

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Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The committee wishes to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Sara Billey, University of Washington Thierry Bouche, Cellule MathDoc and Institut Fourier, Université de Grenoble François G. Dorais, MathOverflow and Dartmouth College Robion Kirby, University of California, Berkeley Donald McClure, American Mathematical Society Jason Rute, Pennsylvania State University Terence Tao, University of California, Los Angeles Eva Tardos, Cornell University Heinz Weinheimer, Springer Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS its release. The review of this report was overseen by C. David Lever- more, University of Maryland, College Park. Appointed by the National R ­ esearch Council, he was responsible for making certain that an indepen- dent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institu- tional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. R ­ esponsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee also acknowledges the valuable contribution of the following individuals, who provided input at the meetings on which this report is based or by other means: Patrick Allen, Northwestern University Dean Baskin, Northwestern University Anna Marie Bohmann, Northwestern University Thierry Bouche, Cellule MathDoc and Institut Fourier, Université de Grenoble Jim Crowley, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Yanxia Deng, Northwestern University François G. Dorais, MathOverflow and Dartmouth College Kris Fowler, University of Minnesota Hongshaw Gai, Northwestern University Paul Ginsparg, arXiv.org and Cornell University Daniel Goroff, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Wayne Graves, Association for Computing Machinery Elton Hsu, Northwestern University Michael Kohlhase, Jacobs University Chao Liang, Northwestern University David Lipman, National Center for Biotechnology Information Andrew McCallum, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Donald McClure, American Mathematical Society Andrew Odlyzko, University of Minnesota Jeffrey Regier, University of California, Berkeley Clark Robinson, Northwestern University Herb Roitblat, OrcaTec George Sell, University of Minnesota Melissa Tacy, Northwestern University Michael Trott, Wolfram|Alpha John Wilkin, University of Michigan Antony Williams, Royal Society of Chemistry

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 8 Overview, 8 Study Definition and Scope and the Committee’s Approach, 8 Structure of the Report, 11 Previous Digital Mathematics Library Efforts, 11 The Universe of Published Mathematical Information, 14 Conceptual Tools, 19 Current Mathematical Resources, 21 References, 26 2 POTENTIAL VALUE OF A DIGITAL MATHEMATICS 28 LIBRARY What Is Missing from the Mathematical Information Landscape?, 28 What Gaps Would the Digital Mathematics Library Fill?, 29 References, 53 3 ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED 55 Developing Partnerships, 55 Engaging the Mathematics Community, 58 Managing Large Data Sets, 59 Open Access, 65 Maintenance, 67 References, 70 ix

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x CONTENTS 4 STRATEGIC PLAN 72 Fundamental Principles, 72 Constitution of the Digital Mathematics Library Organization, 80 Initial Development, 82 Resources Needed, 85 References, 90 5 TECHNICAL DETAILS 91 Entity Collection, 91 Technical Considerations, 101 References, 106 APPENDIXES A Meeting Agendas and Other Inputs to the Study 109 B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff 112 C The Landscape of Digital Information Resources in 118 Mathematics and Selected Other Fields