Index

A

The Abilities of Man, 17

Administrators and administration,

see Test administration

Age Discrimination Act, 16

Air Force, 47, 61, 64, 78, 90–91, 92, 94–95

Black Americans in, 40

classification, personnel, 22–23, 187–188

occupations studied, 64

American Psychological Association, 19, 29

Analysis of variance, 122, 123, 124–126, 135

Apprenticeships, 16

Armed Forces Qualification Test(AFQT), 4, 47, 48, 50, 52–53, 54, 55, 62, 208

cost-performance assessment, 186, 188, 189, 198–199, 201–202

criterion-related validity, 160–164, 175–180

enlistment standards, 52–54

fairness, 12, 179

Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), 3–4, 5, 11–13, 31, 49–52, 56, 57, 58, 60, 68, 73, 91, 93, 142

classical test theory, 58

classification, general, 51–52, 148, 169–170

composites, 51–52

cost-performance assessment, 184, 186, 196, 198, 201, 207

criterion-related validity, 148–149, 156–158, 162–163, 165–170, 172–174, 179, 183, 205

fairness, 44, 50, 52, 172–174, 179

high schools, use by, 34, 49

job performance, 12–13, 61–62, 104, 184, 186, 196, 198, 201, 205, 208

minorities, 44, 50, 52, 172–174

norms, 109–110

reliability, 121

subtests, 50

Army, 61, 67, 84, 95, 155, 157, 166, 188, 202

Black Americans in, 39–40

historical perspectives, 19–22, 39



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Performance Assessment for the Workplace Index A The Abilities of Man, 17 Administrators and administration, see Test administration Age Discrimination Act, 16 Air Force, 47, 61, 64, 78, 90–91, 92, 94–95 Black Americans in, 40 classification, personnel, 22–23, 187–188 occupations studied, 64 American Psychological Association, 19, 29 Analysis of variance, 122, 123, 124–126, 135 Apprenticeships, 16 Armed Forces Qualification Test(AFQT), 4, 47, 48, 50, 52–53, 54, 55, 62, 208 cost-performance assessment, 186, 188, 189, 198–199, 201–202 criterion-related validity, 160–164, 175–180 enlistment standards, 52–54 fairness, 12, 179 Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), 3–4, 5, 11–13, 31, 49–52, 56, 57, 58, 60, 68, 73, 91, 93, 142 classical test theory, 58 classification, general, 51–52, 148, 169–170 composites, 51–52 cost-performance assessment, 184, 186, 196, 198, 201, 207 criterion-related validity, 148–149, 156–158, 162–163, 165–170, 172–174, 179, 183, 205 fairness, 44, 50, 52, 172–174, 179 high schools, use by, 34, 49 job performance, 12–13, 61–62, 104, 184, 186, 196, 198, 201, 205, 208 minorities, 44, 50, 52, 172–174 norms, 109–110 reliability, 121 subtests, 50 Army, 61, 67, 84, 95, 155, 157, 166, 188, 202 Black Americans in, 39–40 historical perspectives, 19–22, 39

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Performance Assessment for the Workplace occupations studied, 63 recruitment strategies, 37 task selection, 69–71 Army Alpha, 19–20 Army Beta, 20 Army Air Force Classification Program, 22–23 Army College Fund Program, 37 Army General Classification Test, 46, 47 Army Vocational Interest Career Examination, 158 Assessment of Background and Life Experiences, 158 Aviators, 22–23, 45 B Benchmark measures, 60–61, 126, 147 Black Americans, 12, 173–174, 175–181 history of participation in Services, 39–43 C Civil Rights Act, 171–172 Classical test theory, 10–11, 17–18 ASVAB, 58 history, 17–18, 19 JPM, 58 reliability, 117–118, 121–122 see also Generalizability theory Classification and Assignment within Pride (CLASP), 188 Classification, personnel, 1, 3 Air Force, 22–23, 187–188 Army, 19–22, 39 ASVAB, 51–52, 148, 169–170 aviators, 22–23 computer-aided, 35, 38, 187 historical perspectives, 19, 22–23, 29, 46 Marine Corps, 188 minorities, 41–44 Navy, 188 recruits, 35 skill level, 41–43, 45 validity, 11–12, 141, 152 Cognitive assessment, 68, 170 history, 18, 19–22 paper-and-pencil tests, 61, 67, 121, 139–140, 142, 150–151, 153, 155–156, 164–166, 175, 196 see also Armed Forces Qualification Test, Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, Job knowledge tests Cognitive task analysis, 84, 85–88 College Board, 20–21, 126 Combat situations, 23, 69–70, 90, 98, 139, 197 minorities, 43–44 women, 37 Communication processes, 28 Competency testing, 4, 187, 188, 192–200 cutoff scores, 44, 46–48, 57, 99, 184, 189–190, 196, 198, 200, 204–205 minorities, 44 scales, 188–192, 203, 210 see also Mastery testing Comprehensive Occupational Data Analysis Program (CODAP), 78, 90–91 Computers and computer science expert systems, 28, 86 JPM data base, 102 personnel classification programs, 35, 38, 187 sampling, 134, 138 simulations, 67, 134, 140 task inventories, 58, 78, 90 testing assisted by, 158, 187, 140 Congress of the U.S. AFQT, 53, 160, 163 demography and policy, 36, 37 oversight role, 33, 34, 54–56, 160, 163 Conscription, military, 3, 47, 48 Construct validity, 59–60, 73, 74–75, 143, 147, 153, 155 Content validity, 75–76, 90–91, 94, 96, 128–140, 147, 164 definition, 5–6, 128 work samples, 59–60 see also Tasks and task analysis

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Performance Assessment for the Workplace Cost factors, 6–7, 31, 60–61, 62, 208 AFQT, 186, 188, 189, 198–199, 201–202 ASVAB, 184, 186, 196, 198, 201, 207 cost-performance models, 12–13, 46, 55, 56, 60, 91, 184–185, 188–189, 193–203, 209–210 hands-on testing, 6, 208, 209 JPM Project, 71–72, 91, 184–185, 209 Rand model, 194, 196–200, 201–203 recruitment and retention, 37, 54, 184, 193–194, 197–199 sampling, 105, 106, 128, 132, 138, 139 social, 29–30 task analysis, 86, 91, 120, 128, 132, 138, 139 training failures, 141 utility difference approach, 194–196, 199–200, 201–204 wages and salaries, 194–195 Criterion issues, 11–12, 26, 28–30, 68, 73, 78, 91, 102 fairness, 29, 171–183 historical perspectives, 22–28, 142–143, 189 job knowledge tests, 150–152, 153, 155–156, 164–166, 168–169, 175 job performance, general, 19, 26–29, 30, 142–145, 152–153, 169–171, 172–173, 177, 183 minorities, 172–178 reliability, 158–159 sampling, 159–160 scores and scoring, general, 144 selection of personnel, general, 29–30, 141, 152, 159 social factors, general, 29 training outcomes, 141–143, 155–156, 170 work samples, 59–60 Criterion-related validity, 26, 59–60, 102, 141–183, 191, 196–197, 204, 205 AFQT, 160–164, 175–180 ASVAB, 148–149, 156–158, 162–163, 165–170, 172–174, 179, 183, 205 graphs and tables illustrating, 145–146 hands-on testing, 147–149, 153–155, 160–163, 168–172, 179 JPM project, 142–143, 147–183, 179, 183 predictive validity and, general, 26, 59–60, 102, 144–147, 149, 152, 156–171, 172, 174–178, 196–197, 204, 205 Cutoff scores, 44, 46–48, 57, 99, 184, 189–190, 196, 198, 200, 204–205 D Data bases, JPM, 102 Delphi technique, 71, 192 Demography, 32, 36–38 historical perspectives, 15–16, 18–19, 32, 36, 39–44 recruits, 36–38, 198, 210 sampling, 106, 108 see alsoGender factors; Minorities Department of Defense, 2, 4, 13, 32–33, 37–38, 207, 209 Congressional oversight role, general, 33, 34, 54–56 minorities, 39–43 standards, recruitment, 46–49, 58 see also Joint-Service Job Performance Measurement/Enlistment Standards Project ; specific Services Department of Labor, 16, 50 Deskilling, 45 Differential validity/prediction, 169–171, 177, 201 Draft, see Conscription, military E Econometrics, 185 Rand model, 194, 196–200, 201–203 utility difference approach, 194–196, 199–200, 201–204 Economic factors, 32, 198 military budgets, 33, 34

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Performance Assessment for the Workplace minority participation in military, 38, 43 recruitment incentives, 37 see also Cost factors Educational testing, general, 15, 18, 22, 34, 49 Elementary and secondary education, 15, 18 ASVAB, use by high schools, 34, 49 Enlisted Personnel Assignment System(EPAS), 188, 202 Enlistment standards cutoff scores, 44, 46–48, 99, 184, 189–190, 196, 198, 200, 204–205 enlistment, 12–13, 32, 44, 46–49, 52–55, 58, 61–62, 104, 184–188, 197–198, 208–209 jobs, general, 109–110, 128–140, 183, 184–206, 208 jobs, minimum, 35, 44, 49, 53–55, 57, 61–62, 77–78, 104, 187, 188, 192–200 jobs, minimum entry–level, 190, 192, 197–198, 201, 204–206, 210 jobs, multiple, 188, 200–205, 209 predictive validity, 108–109 Entry-level jobs, 5, 33–36, 57, 207, 208 minimum standards, 190, 192, 197–198, 201, 204–206, 210 Equal opportunity, see Fairness analysis Error of measurement, 3, 26–27 generalizability theory, 11, 122–127 item heterogeneity, 119 multiple sources, 121–127 purposive sampling, 132–133, 136 random vs. systematic errors, 123 range restriction, 160 rater error, 10–11, 113–115, 118, 126 sampling, 105, 106, 123, 132–133, 136 scoring, task performance, 98–99 standard deviation, 117–118, 135, 136, 175–176, 181–182, 195, 204 test administration factors, 111–114, 208 type II errors, 176–177 Experience, on job, 163–164, 196–200, 201, 202 Expert systems, 28, 86 F Factor structure, 21 Fairness analysis, 12, 29 ASVAB, 44, 50, 52, 172–174, 179 criterion values, 171–183 job performance, general, 12, 172–173 predictive validity, 172, 174–178, 182 recruiting, 38–44 Fairness in Employment Testing, 179 Fidelity, 139–140 see also Simulations; Surrogates G Gender factors, 47, 172–173, 175, 181–183 computer-aided classification, 35 see also Women General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), 16 Generalizability theory, 10–11, 122–127, 151, 204–205 Grade-point average, 57 Group mean, 17–18 Group testing, 18, 19–20 H Halo effect, 26, 27 Hands-on testing, 7, 11–12, 30, 60, 65–67, 68–69, 75, 101, 103, 208, 209 as benchmark, 60–61, 126, 147 content representativeness, 129–138 cost factors, 6, 208, 209 fidelity, 139–140 reliability, 11, 119–120 scoring, 98–100 standardization, 110–115, 139–140 validity, 147–149, 153–155, 160–163, 168–172, 179 walk-through performance tests, 66–67, 94–95, 140, 152–153 Hispanics, 43 Historical perspectives, 1–2, 15–30, 78 armed services organizational structure, 32–33

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Performance Assessment for the Workplace Black Americans participation in Services, 39–43 classical test theory, 17–18, 19 classification, personnel, 19, 22–23, 29, 46 criterion problem, 22–28, 142–143, 189 fairness analysis, 12 intelligence testing, 18, 19–22 JPM project, 3–5, 8, 56–72 military demographics, 15–16, 18–19, 32, 36, 39–44 multiple-choice tests, 18, 19, 20, 21 psychometrics, 17–18 recruitment, general, 46–49, 53, 54, 55, 186 selection of personnel, 19, 22–23 statistical analyses, 17–18, 21, 22 work samples, 59 Human engineering design, 45 Human resource management, 184–210 Human-technology interface, see Technological innovation I Individual Training Standards, 58, 77–78, 95–96 Intelligence tests, history, 18, 19–22 Internal consistency reliability, 119, 120–121 Interrater reliability, 118, 119–120, 121, 123, 126 Interviewing, 7, 61, 152–153 historical perspectives, 23–25 walk-through performance tests, 66–67, 94–95, 140, 152–153 Item analysis, 119, 205 J Job Orientation Bank, 158 Job analysis, 74–91 Job knowledge tests, 67 criterion-related validity, 150–152, 153, 155–156, 164–166, 168–169, 175 paper-and-pencil tests, 61, 67, 121, 139–140, 142, 150–151, 153, 155–156, 164–166, 175, 196 Job performance, 25, 208–209 as a construct, 74–75 definitional issues, 58, 75, 93, 101; see also Tasks and task analysis enlistment standards and, 12–13, 55, 61–62, 104, 184–188, 208–209 experience and, 163–164, 196–200, 201, 202 salary-based, 194–195 standards, general, 109–110 Job performance measures benchmarks, 60–61, 126, 147 competency scales, 188–192, 203 content representativeness, 128–140 development, 68–71, 73–102 differential validity/prediction, 169–171, 177, 201 fairness analysis and, 12, 172–173 peer ratings, 7, 23–25, 67, 167 scoring, general supervisor ratings, 26–27, 67, 93–94, 104, 139, 153–155, 195, 196 walk-through performance tests, 66–67, 94–95, 140, 152–153 see also criterion-related validity Joint-Service Job Performance Measurement/Enlistment Standards Project (JPM), 2–11 (passim), 13, 30, 55, 56, 57–72, 103, 140, 184, 210 classical test theory, 58 cost-performance models, 71–72, 91, 184–185, 209 history, 3–5, 8, 56–72 Judges, see Raters and ratings K Korean War, 39, 47 L Labor unions, 16 Language skills, 20, 46, 150 Laws, specific federal Age Discrimination Act, 16 Civil Rights Act, 171–172 Selective Service Act, 47

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Performance Assessment for the Workplace Universal Military Training and Service Act, 47 Leniency effects, 26, 27 Likert scales, 26–27 Linear regression, 146, 174 M Manpower management, 7, 32–33, 45–46, 184–210 historical perspectives, 19, 26, 28 Manuals, see Soldier's Manuals Marine Corps, 64–65, 67, 95, 68, 72, 91, 114, 165–166, 168–168, 188 Black Americans in, 40 occupations studied, 64–65 reliability assessments, 124–126, 127 sampling, 107, 130, 133 task analysis, 77–78, 94, 95–98, 130, 147–149 Mastery testing, 8, 189 Military Entrance Processing Stations, 35, 187 Minorities, 12, 71, 172–180 ASVAB, 44, 50, 52, 172–174 Black Americans, 12, 39–43, 173–174, 175–181 classification, general, 41–44 combat participation, 43–44 computer-aided classification, 35, 38 differential validity/prediction, 172– fairness, 172–181 racial bias, 19, 38–39 recruitment, 38–44 sampling, 106 Models cost-performance, 12–13, 46, 55, 56, 60, 91, 184–185, 188–189, 193– econometrics, 185, 194, 196–199, 200, 201–203 Motivation proficiency vs., 59 under testing conditions, 139 Multiple-choice tests, 1, 7 history, 18, 19, 20, 21 minorities, 44 Multistage sampling, 106 Multivariate analysis, 21, 134–135 N National Intelligence Test, 20 National Research Council, 19, 25, 39–40 Naval Aviation Program, 22 Navy, 22, 47, 63–64, 66, 67, 69, 72, 188, 192 Black Americans in, 40 classification of personnel, general, 188, 192 occupations studied, 63–64 recruitment strategies, 37 reliability assessments, 119–120, 121, 124–126, 127 sampling, 106–108, 129–130, 135–137 task analysis, 92–93, 120, 129–130, 135–136 Norms and norming, 3–4, 50–51, 56, 91, 109–110, 208–209 O Observation techniques, 28, 74, 81 test administration, 119–120 Organizational factors, 6 armed services organizational structure, 32–33 see also Human resource management P Paper-and-pencil tests, 61, 67, 121, 139–140, 142, 150–151, 153, 155–156, 164–166, 175, 196 see alsoArmed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Pearson's product-moment correlation, 18 Peer evaluation, 7, 23–25, 67, 167 Persian Gulf War, 37, 41 Personality traits, 25, 78, 81, 84, 88–91, 95, 102, 167, 209 interviewing, 152 Personnel Research Bureau, 22

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Performance Assessment for the Workplace Personnel selection, see Selection Placement, see Classification, personnel Position Analysis Questionnaire, 204–205 Predictive validity, 25–26, 61–62, 68, 72, 104 differential validity/prediction, 169–171, 177, 201 fairness, 172, 174–178, 182 standardization and, 108–109 work samples, 59–60 see also criterion-related validity Problem-solving skills, 142 Processing and Classification of Enlistees (PACE), 187–188 Procurement Management System(PROMIS), 187, 188 Profile of American Youth, 4, 50 Project Psychometrics, general, 10 defined, 1–2 history, 17–18 see also Fairness analysis; Reliability; Validity Psychomotor skills, 142, 157, 158 Purposive sampling, 131–132, 133–138 Q Qualified Man Month (QMM), 196–200, 201, 202 R Rand model, 194, 196–200, 201–203 Random sampling, 105–106, 123, 132–134, 159 purposive vs., 133–134, 133–138 stratified, 106, 133, 138 Raters and ratings, 10, 11, 67–68, 153, 155 cognitive processes of, 28 effects on examinees, 139, 152 expertise, 9, 28, 69, 71 interrater reliability, 118, 119–120, 121, 123, 126 peer, 7, 23–25, 67, 167 supervisor, 26–27, 67, 93–94, 104, 139, 153–155, 195, 196 Reading ability, 46 Army Beta, 20 Recruit Distribution Model, 188 Recruit quality, 4, 52–55, 184–186, 207 Recruitment and retention, 32, 33–44, 46, 52 ASVAB, 57 conscription, military, 3, 47, 48 cost factors, 37, 54, 184, 193–194, 197–199 demography, 36–38, 198, 210 enlistment standards, 12–13, 32, 44, 46–49, 52–55, 58, 61–62, 104, 184–188, 197–198, 208–209 fairness, 38–44 historical perspectives, 46–49, 53, 54, 55, 186 incentives, 37 minorities, 38–44 quality control, general, 4, 52–56 specialization, 33, 34–35, 36, 53 technical schools, role, 36, 53–54, 57 volunteer army, 3–4, 33–36, 47, 49, 56, 57–58 Reliability, 10–11, 21, 26, 27, 116–127, 147 analysis of variance, 122, 123, 124– classical test theory, 117–118, 121–122 criterion reliability, 158–159 generalizability theory, 10–11, 122–127, 151, 204–205 hands-on testing, 11, 119–120 internal consistency reliability, 119, 120–121 interrater reliability, 118, 119–120, 121, 123, 126 JPM project, 119–121, 124–127 Marine Corps, 124–126, 127 Navy, 119–120, 121, 124–126, 127 paper-and-pencil tests, 150–151, 153, 155–156, 164–166, 175 test-retest reliability, 148 Reservists, 38 Restriction of range, 26, 159–160 S Salaries, see Wages and salaries

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Performance Assessment for the Workplace Sampling issues Army techniques, 107 availability, 107 content representativeness, 129–138 cost factors, 105, 106, 128, 132, 138, 139 demography, 106, 108 errors, 105, 106, 123, 132–133, 136 JPM project, 104–105 Marine Corps, 107, 130, 133 multistage, 106 Navy, 106–108, 129–130, 135–137 personnel, 8–9, 71–72, 103, 104–108 purposive, 131–132, 133–138 size, 136, 137, 173, 175, 176 specialties, 8, 63–66 tasks, 9, 59–60, 62–66, 68–69, 74–75, 93, 96–97, 101, 126–127, 128–130, 131–138 see also Random sampling Scholastic Aptitude Test, 20–21 Scores and scoring, 2, 3–4, 11, 98–100, 108, 109–111 computation of, 99–100, 114–115 cutoff, 44, 46–48, 57, 99, 184, 189–190, 196, 198, 200, 204–205 errors and error analysis, general, 98–99 hands-on testing, 98–100 job performance criteria, 144 JPM project, 99–100 weighting, 147–149 see also Raters and rating Selection, personnel, general, 1, 3, 5, 32–33, 46, 141, 207 aviators, 22–23 conscription, military, 3, 47, 48 historical perspectives, 19, 22–23 minorities, 44 performance criteria, 13, 56–72 validity, 11–12, 141 see also Recruitment and retention Selective Service Act, 47 Simulations, 7, 9, 67, 138–140 benchmarks and surrogates, 60–61, 126, 147 computer, 67, 134, 140 fidelity, 139–140 see also Surrogates Skill level, classification deskilling, 45 minorities and women, 41–43 see alsoSpecialization Skill Qualification Test (SQT), 196, 197, 199–200 Soldier's Manuals, 58, 69, 76, 77–78 Spatial ability, 157–158 Standardized testing, general, 103, 108–115, 139 elementary/secondary education, 15 hands-on tests, 110–115, 139–140 norms and norming, 3–4, 50–51, 56, 91, 109–110 work samples, 59–60 see also Criterion issues; Multiple-choice tests Standards, seeEnlistment standards Statistical analyses, 116 ANOVA, 122, 123, 124–126, 135 Bayesian, 105 criterion-related validity, 29, 145–146, 158–159 factor structure, 21 graphs and tables, 145–146 historical perspectives, 17–18, 21, 22 linear regression, general, 146, 174 multivariate analysis, 21, 134–135 random sampling, 105–106, 132–133 sampling, other, 104, 105 see also Analysis of variance; Construct validity; Predictive validity Student Testing Program, 49 Subgroups sampling, 106 see also Fairness analysis; Minorities; Women Subjectivity raters, 11, 153 supervisor ratings, 26 Superior Evaluation Technique, 195 Supervisors, seeRaters and ratings Surrogates, 60–61 benchmarks and, 60–61, 126, 147 computer simulations, 67, 134, 140 paper-and-pencil tests, 61, 67, 121, 139–140, 142, 150–151, 153, 155–156, 164–166, 175, 196

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Performance Assessment for the Workplace T Tasks and task analysis, 58–59, 62–66, 74, 76–98, 95–98, 164, 208 cognitive task analysis, 84, 85–88 computer inventories, 58, 78, 90 cost factors, 86, 91, 120, 128, 132, 138, 139 Delphi technique, 71, 192 difficulty level, 8, 89, 134, 136, 137, 188, 204 editing, 94–95, 96 errors and error analysis, 134, 135, 136 expertise, general, 9, 28, 69, 71 frequency, 88–89, 134, 136, 137–138 inventories, 6, 58, 78, 80 JPM project, 90–91, 93, 99–102, 130–131 Marine Corps, 77–78, 94, 95–98, 130, 147–149 modifiability, 89 Navy, 92–93, 120, 129–130, 135–136 personality traits in, 78, 81, 84, 88–91, 95, 209 relative vs. absolute measures, 8, 189 sampling, 9, 59–60, 62–66, 68–69, 74–75, 93, 96–97, 101, 126–127, 128–130, 131–138 sequencing, 98, 139 specialists, 63–69, 78, 130, 167, 203, 204 task importance, 88, 89, 98, 101, 129, 130–131, 132–133, 138 variability, 89 weighting, 147–149 see also Content validity Technical schools, military, 36, 53–54, 57 Technological innovation, 44–45, 90 Test administration, 9–10, 110–115 computer-aided, 158, 187, 140 error of measurement due to, 111–114, 208 history, 20 JPM project, 112–113, 114–115 location, 35, 111–113 observational techniques, 119–120 repeat, 118–119 time factors, 104–105, 111–112, 122 training for, 113–114, 119 Test construction, 21, 94–98, 100, 101 see also Tasks and task analysis Test-retest reliability, 148 see also Reliability Training criteria, 45, 141–142, 143, 155–156, 170, 197–198 cost factors, 141 expertise and, 188 manuals, 58. technical schools, 36, 53–54, 57 test administrators, 113–114, 119 Trait analysis, 25, 78, 81, 84, 88–91, 95, 102 Type II errors, 176–177 U Universal Military Training and Service Act, 47 Utility difference approach, 194–196, 199–200, 201–204 V Validity, 2, 11–12 classification and, 11–12, 141, 152 construct validity, 59–60, 73, 74–75, 143, 147, 153, 155 content validity/representativeness, 59–60, 75–76, 90–91, 94, 96, 128–140, 147, 164 differential, 169–171 historical perspectives, 18, 21, 22–30 Pearson's product-moment correlation, 18 selection, general, 11–12, 141 see also Criterion-related validity; Predictive validity Variability, tasks, 89 Vietnam War, 40, 48 Volunteer Armed Forces, 3–4, 33–36, 47, 49, 56, 57–58 W Wages and salaries, 194–195 Walk-through performance tests, 66–67, 94–95, 140, 152–153

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Performance Assessment for the Workplace Wars, see Combat situations; Korean War; Vietnam War; World War I; World War II Women, 36, 37, 41-43, 44, 71, 181-183 computer-aided classification, 35 sampling, 106, 108 World War I, 18, 19-20 World War II, 22-25, 38, 46-47 Written tests, see Paper-and-pencil tests