Opportunities for

High-Power,
High-Frequency Transmitters
to Advance Ionospheric/
Thermospheric Research

Report of a Workshop

Committee on the Role of High-Power, High-Frequency-Band Transmitters in Advancing
Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research: A Workshop

Space Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                         OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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Committee on the Role of High-Power, High-Frequency-Band Transmitters in Advancing Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research: A Workshop Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report is based on work supported by Award FP30976 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Air Force Research Lab via University of Alaska, Fairbanks, and Grant No. AGS-1245566 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any views or observations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-29859-9 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-29859-8 Copies of this report are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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OTHER RECENT REPORTS OF THE SPACE STUDIES BOARD Landsat and Beyond: Sustaining and Enhancing the Nation’s Land Imaging Program (Space Studies Board [SSB], 2013) Lessons Learned in Decadal Planning in Space Science: Summary of a Workshop (SSB, 2013) Review of the Draft 2014 Science Mission Directorate Science Plan (SSB, 2013) Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society (SSB, 2013) Assessment of a Plan for U.S. Participation in Euclid (BPA with Space Studies Board [SSB], 2012) Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar System Bodies (SSB, 2012) Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA’s Implementation of the Decadal Survey (SSB, 2012) The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth’s Climate: A Workshop Report (SSB, 2012) NASA’s Strategic Direction and the Need for a National Consensus (Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, 2012) Report of the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from the New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey (BPA and SSB, 2012) Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation (SSB, 2012) Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Collaboration on Space and Earth Science Missions (SSB, 2011) An Assessment of the Science Proposed for the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) (BPA, 2011) Panel ReportsNew Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (BPA and SSB, 2011) Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era (SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board [ASEB], 2011) Sharing the Adventure with the PublicThe Value and Excitement of “Grand Questions” of Space Science and Exploration: Summary of a Workshop (SSB, 2011) Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 (SSB, 2011) Capabilities for the Future: An Assessment of NASA Laboratories for Basic Research (Laboratory Assessments Board with SSB and ASEB, 2010) Controlling Cost Growth of NASA Earth and Space Science Missions (SSB, 2010) Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth-Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies: Final Report (SSB with ASEB, 2010) An Enabling Foundation for NASA’s Space and Earth Science Missions (SSB, 2010) Forging the Future of Space Science: The Next 50 Years (SSB, 2010) Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2010) New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (BPA and SSB, 2010) Revitalizing NASA’s Suborbital Program: Advancing Science, Driving Innovation, and Developing a Workforce (SSB, 2010) Limited copies of SSB reports are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council The Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3477/ssb@nas.edu www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html

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COMMITTEE ON THE ROLE OF HIGH-POWER, HIGH- FREQUENCY-BAND TRANSMITTERS IN ADVANCING IONOSPHERIC/THERMOSPHERIC RESEARCH: A WORKSHOP LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Chair PAUL A. BERNHARDT, Naval Research Laboratory HERBERT C. CARLSON, Utah State University ANTHEA J. COSTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN C. FOSTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SIXTO A. GONZALEZ, Arecibo Observatory/SRI International DAVID L. HYSELL, Cornell University BRETT ISHAM, Interamerican University, Bayamón, Puerto Rico ELIZABETH A. KENDALL, SRI International KRISTINA A. LYNCH, Dartmouth College KONSTANTINOS (DENNIS) PAPADOPOULOS, University of Maryland Staff ARTHUR CHARO, Senior Program Officer, Study Director LEWIS B. GROSWALD, Associate Program Officer LINDA WALKER, Senior Project Assistant MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director, Space Studies Board v

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SPACE STUDIES BOARD CHARLES F. KENNEL, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Chair JOHN KLINEBERG, Space Systems/Loral (retired), Vice Chair MARK R. ABBOTT, Oregon State University JAMES ANDERSON, Harvard University JAMES BAGIAN, University of Michigan YVONNE C. BRILL, Aerospace Consultant ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ANDREW B. CHRISTENSEN, Dixie State College of Utah ALAN DRESSLER, The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution THOMAS R. GAVIN, California Institute of Technology HEIDI B. HAMMEL, AURA FIONA A. HARRISON, California Institute of Technology JOSEPH S. HEZIR, EOP Group, Inc. ANTHONY C. JANETOS, University of Maryland JOAN JOHNSON-FREESE, U.S. Naval War College ROBERT P. LIN, University of California, Berkeley MOLLY K. MACAULEY, Resources for the Future, Inc. JOHN F. MUSTARD, Brown University ROBERT T. PAPPALARDO, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology MARCIA J. RIEKE, University of Arizona DAVID N. SPERGEL, Princeton University MEENAKSHI WADHWA, Arizona State University CLIFFORD M. WILL, University of Florida THOMAS H. ZURBUCHEN, University of Michigan MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate CHRISTINA O. SHIPMAN, Financial Officer SANDRA WILSON, Financial Assistant vi

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Preface At the request of the Department of Defense (Air Force Research Laboratory) and the National Science Foundation (NSF; Directorate for Geosciences/Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences), the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council (NRC) held a workshop on May 20-21, 2013, in Washington, D.C., entitled “The Role of High-Power, High Frequency-Band Transmitters in Advancing Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research.” The workshop provided a forum for information exchange between the comparatively small group of scientists engaged in programs of upper atmospheric research using high-power, high-frequency (HF) radar transmitters (“heaters”) and the larger ITM (ionosphere-thermosphere-magnetosphere) research community. For a variety of reasons—including the different orientations of the Department of Defense, which is primarily interested in applied research related to active ionospheric modification, 1 and the civil agencies, principally NSF, which have broader mandates for basic research—these communities have historically viewed themselves as being distinct with limited overlapping interests. As indicated in the terms of reference (“statement of task”) developed by the sponsors (see Appendix A), the workshop was organized to consider the utility of heaters in upper atmospheric research in general, with a specific focus on the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter facility, which is located in Gakona, Alaska. The motivations for the workshop were twofold. First, the sponsors of the workshop were aware of the potential—one that became increasingly apparent during the period between project approval by the NRC in late Spring 2012 and the actual workshop in late Spring 2013—for substantial cutbacks in support by the Air Force for the continuing operation of HAARP. 2 Second, NSF’s upper atmosphere research section is considering transfer to Gakona, Alaska, of the AMISR (Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar) re-locatable modular phased-array radar, located at Poker Flat, Alaska (thus, known as PFISR), for joint research campaigns with the HAARP transmitter and ancillary instruments. Although the original statement of task was never revised, the organizers were keenly aware of the increasing interest among the sponsors for focused discussions on the HAARP facility. The workshop agenda and the preponderance of discussions at the workshop reflect these interests. The workshop agenda and a list of participants are shown in Appendixes B and C, respectively, and biographical information about the workshop organizing committee is shown in Appendix D. While the committee is responsible for the overall quality and accuracy of the report as a record of what transpired at the workshop, the views contained in the report are not necessarily those of all workshop participants, the committee, or the NRC. It should also be recognized that the report summarizes, but does not evaluate critically, the assertions made by participants of the potential utility for high-power, high-frequency transmitters or the HAARP facility. Finally, although the authors of this summary have attempted to provide context for the often highly technical discussions that took place, the summary is not intended to be a primer on heaters in general, HAARP in particular, or current issues in upper atmosphere research. 1 The use of high-power transmitters, such as the one located at the HAARP facility, to study the upper atmosphere is called “active ionospheric research.” 2 In fact, the HAARP facility ceased operations shortly after the workshop—due to pending contractor changes and an as yet unfunded need to upgrade the diesel power generators per Environmental Protection Agency regulations—and remains closed at the time of this printing. vii

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Umran S. Inan, Koç University, Turkey, Larry J. Paxton, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Joshua Semeter, Boston University, and Jeffrey P. Thayer, University of Colorado, Boulder. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse any of the viewpoints or observations detailed in this report, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert J. Serafin, National Center for Atmospheric Research. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. viii

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Contents OVERVIEW 1 1 INTRODUCTION 12 Exploring Geospace Using High-Frequency Heating: Novel Techniques, 12 HAARP Is at a Crossroads, 15 HAARP’s Unique Capabilities, 16 HAARP Compared to Other Heaters, 18 References, 18 2 MESOSPHERE, THERMOSPHERE, AND IONOSPHERE 21 Recent Research Highlights, 21 Future Opportunities, 23 References, 27 3 MAGNETOSPHERIC PHYSICS 29 Recent Work and Notable Results, 29 Future Opportunities, 32 References, 37 4 SOME APPLICATIONS OF HIGH-POWER HIGH-FREQUENCY FACILITIES 38 Enhanced Precipitation from the Radiation Belts, 38 Improved Transmission through the Ionosphere, 38 Improved Reflection from the Ionosphere, 39 Exploring Nonlinear Transmission, 40 Detecting Solar Events, 40 Enhancing Spacecraft Drag, 40 References, 40 5 HAARP DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTATION 41 Instrumentation at HAARP, 41 Current User-Provided Instruments, 43 Relevant Satellite Missions, 43 Desired Instruments, 44 References, 44 6 OUTREACH AND CONNECTIONS 45 References, 46 7 COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH HAARP FUTURE OPERATIONS OR CLOSURE 47 HAARP Operating Costs, 47 Cost of Moving the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar, 47 Remediation, 47 ix

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Cost of Upgrading HAARP to a High-Frequency Radar, 48 Potential NSF Funding Opportunities, 48 Reference, 48 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 51 B Workshop Agenda 52 C Workshop Participants 55 D Committee Biographical Information 56 E Selected Publications 61 F Acronyms 67 x