E

Selected Publications

The following lists scientific papers related to ionospheric heating that were published in refereed journals during the period from October 2004 through September 2010.

Ashrafi, M., M.J. Kosch, K. Kaila, and B. Isham. 2007. Spatio-temporal evolution of radio wave pump-induced ionospheric phenomena near the fourth electron gyro-harmonic. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:A05314, doi:10.1029/2006JA011938.

Bell T.F., U.S. Inan, and T. Chevalier. 2006. Current distribution of a VLF electric dipole antenna in the plasmasphere. Radio Science 41:RS2009, doi:10.1029/2005RS003260.

Bernhardt, P.A., C.A. Selcher, C.L. Siefring, and E. Gerken. 2005. Imaging of ionospheric density structures and plasma drifts using artificial illumination by high power radio waves. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 33:504.

Bernhardt, P.A., C.A. Selcher, R.H. Lehmberg, S. Rodriguez, J. Thomason, M. McCarrick, and G. Frazer. 2009. Determination of the electron temperature in the modified ionosphere over HAARP using the HF pumped Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) emission lines. Annales Geophysicae 27:4409-4427.

Bezrodny, V.G., O.V. Charkina, Y.M. Yampolski, B. Watkins, and K. Groves. 2010. Application of an imaging riometer to investigating stimulated ionospheric scintillations and absorption of radiation from discrete cosmic sources. Radio Physics and Radio Astronomy 1(4):291-302.

Bezrodny, V.G., O.V. Charkina, Y.M. Yampolski, B. Watkins, and K. Groves. 2010. Stimulated ionospheric scintillations and absorption of discreet cosmic sources radiation investigated with an imaging HF riometer. (Russian) Radio Physics and Radio Astronomy 15(2):151-163.

Bezrodny, V.G., O.V. Charkina, V.G. Galushko, Κ. Groves, Κ.S. Kashcheyev, B.J. Watkins, and Y.Κ. Yampolski. 2007. Observation of ionospheric scintillations of discrete cosmic sources with the use of an imaging riometer. (Russian) Radio Physics and Radio Astronomy 12(N3):242-260.

Bezrodny, V.G., O.V. Charkina, V.G. Galushko, Κ. Groves, A.S. Kashcheyev, B.J. Watkins, Y.M. Yampolski, and Y. Murayama. 2008. Application of an imaging HF riometer for the observation of scintillations of discrete cosmic sources. Radio Science 43:RS6007.

Burton, L.M., J.A. Cohen, R. Pradipta, A.Labno, M.C. Lee, O. Batischev, D.L. Rokusek, S.P. Kuo, B.J. Watkins, and S. Oyama. 2008. Excitation and diagnoses of cascading Langmuir waves in ionospheric plasmas. Physica Scripta 014030, doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2008/T132/014030.

Cohen, J.A., R. Pradipta, L.M. Burton, A. Labno, M.C. Lee, B.J. Watkins, C. Fallen, S.P. Kuo, W.J. Burke, D. Mabius, and B.Z. See. 2010. Generation of ionospheric ducts by HAARP HF heater. Physica Scripta 014040, doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2010/T142/014040.

Cohen, M.B., M.A. Go1kowski, and U.S. Inan. 2008. Orientation of the HAARP ELF ionospheric dipole and the auroral electrojet. Geophysical Research Letters 35:L02806, doi:10.1029/2007GL032424.

Cohen, M.B., R.K. Said, and U.S. Inan. 2010. Mitigation of 50/60 Hz power-line interference in geophysical data. Radio Science 45, doi:10.1029/2010RS004420.

Cohen, M.B., U.S. Inan, and E.W. Paschal. 2010. Sensitive broadband ELF/VLF radio reception with the AWESOME instrument. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 48(1):3-17.



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E Selected Publications The following lists scientific papers related to ionospheric heating that were published in refereed journals during the period from October 2004 through September 2010. Ashrafi, M., M.J. Kosch, K. Kaila, and B. Isham. 2007. Spatio-temporal evolution of radio wave pump- induced ionospheric phenomena near the fourth electron gyro-harmonic. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:A05314, doi:10.1029/2006JA011938. Bell T.F., U.S. Inan, and T. Chevalier. 2006. Current distribution of a VLF electric dipole antenna in the plasmasphere. Radio Science 41:RS2009, doi:10.1029/2005RS003260. Bernhardt, P.A., C.A. Selcher, C.L. Siefring, and E. Gerken. 2005. Imaging of ionospheric density structures and plasma drifts using artificial illumination by high power radio waves. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 33:504. Bernhardt, P.A., C.A. Selcher, R.H. Lehmberg, S. Rodriguez, J. Thomason, M. McCarrick, and G. Frazer. 2009. Determination of the electron temperature in the modified ionosphere over HAARP using the HF pumped Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) emission lines. Annales Geophysicae 27:4409-4427. Bezrodny, V.G., О.V. Charkina, Y.М. Yampolski, B. Watkins, and K. Groves. 2010. Application of an imaging riometer to investigating stimulated ionospheric scintillations and absorption of radiation from discrete cosmic sources. Radio Physics and Radio Astronomy 1(4):291-302. Bezrodny, V.G., O.V. Charkina, Y.M. Yampolski, B. Watkins, and K. Groves. 2010. Stimulated ionospheric scintillations and absorption of discreet cosmic sources radiation investigated with an imaging HF riometer. (Russian) Radio Physics and Radio Astronomy 15(2):151-163. Bezrodny, V.G., О.V. Charkina, V.G. Galushko, К. Groves, А.S. Kashcheyev, B.J. Watkins, and Y.М. Yampolski. 2007. Observation of ionospheric scintillations of discrete cosmic sources with the use of an imaging riometer. (Russian) Radio Physics and Radio Astronomy 12(N3):242-260. Bezrodny, V.G., О.V. Charkina, V.G. Galushko, К. Groves, А.S. Kashcheyev, B.J. Watkins, Y.М. Yampolski, and Y. Мurayama. 2008. Application of an imaging HF riometer for the observation of scintillations of discrete cosmic sources. Radio Science 43:RS6007. Burton, L.M., J.A. Cohen, R. Pradipta, A.Labno, M.C. Lee, O. Batischev, D.L. Rokusek, S.P. Kuo, B.J. Watkins, and S. Oyama. 2008. Excitation and diagnoses of cascading Langmuir waves in ionospheric plasmas. Physica Scripta 014030, doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2008/T132/014030. Cohen, J.A., R. Pradipta, L.M. Burton, A. Labno, M.C. Lee, B.J. Watkins, C. Fallen, S.P. Kuo, W.J. Burke, D. Mabius, and B.Z. See. 2010. Generation of ionospheric ducts by HAARP HF heater. Physica Scripta 014040, doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2010/T142/014040. Cohen, M.B., M.A. Go1kowski, and U.S. Inan. 2008. Orientation of the HAARP ELF ionospheric dipole and the auroral electrojet. Geophysical Research Letters 35:L02806, doi:10.1029/2007GL032424. Cohen, M.B., R.K. Said, and U.S. Inan. 2010. Mitigation of 50/60 Hz power-line interference in geophysical data. Radio Science 45, doi:10.1029/2010RS004420. Cohen, M.B., U.S. Inan, and E.W. Paschal. 2010. Sensitive broadband ELF/VLF radio reception with the AWESOME instrument. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 48(1):3-17. 61

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Cohen, M.B., U.S. Inan, and M. Go1kowski. 2008. Geometric modulation: A more effective method of steerable ELF/VLF wave generation with continuous HF heating of the lower ionosphere. Geophysical Research Letters 35:L12101, doi:10.1029/2008GL034061. Cohen, M.B., U.S. Inan, and M. Golkowski. 2009. Reply to comment by R.C. Moore and M.T. Rietveld on ‘Geometric modulation: A more effective method of steerable ELF/VLF wave generation with continuous HF heating of the lower ionosphere.’ Geophysical Research Letters 36(4):L04102. Cohen, M.B., U.S. Inan, M. Golkowski, and M.J. McCarrick. 2010. ELF/VLF wave generation via ionospheric HF heating: Experimental comparison of amplitude modulation, beam painting, and geometric modulation. Journal of Geophysical Research 115: A02302. Cohen, M.B., U.S. Inan, M. Golkowski, and N.G. Lehtinen. 2010. On the generation of ELF/VLF waves for long-distance propagation via steerable HF heating of the lower ionosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 115:A07322, doi:10.1029/2009JA015170. Djuth, F.J., T.R. Pedersen, E.A. Gerken, P. Bernhardt, C.A. Selcher, W.A. Bristow, and M.J. Kosch. 2005. Ionospheric modification at twice the electron cyclotron frequency. Physical Review Letters 94:125001-1. Djuth, F.J., B.W. Reinisch, D.F. Kitrosser, J.H. Elder, A.L. Snyder, and G.S. Sales. 2006. Imaging HF- induced large-scale irregularities above HAARP. Geophysical Research Letters 33:L04107, doi:10.1029/2005GL024536. Frolov, V., V. Rapoport, G. Komrakov, A. Belov, G. Markov, M. Parrot, J. Rauch, and E. Mishin. 2009. Density ducts formed by heating the Earth’s ionosphere with high-power HF radio waves. JETP Letters 88(12):790-794. Galushko, V.G., A.V. Koloskov, V.V. Paznukhov, B.W. Reinisch, G. Sales, Y.M. Yampolski, and A V. Zalizovsky. 2008. Self-scattering of the HAARP-heater emission as observed at geographically dispersed receiving sites. IEEE Antennas and Propagation 50(6). Gerken, E., and U.S. Inan. 2005. Streamers and diffuse glow observed in upper atmospheric electrical discharges. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 33:282. Gibby, A., U.S. Inan, and T.F. Bell. 2008. Saturation effects in the VLF-triggered emission process. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:A11215, doi:10.1029/2008JA013233. Golkowski, M.A., and U.S. Inan. 2008. Multistation observations of ELF/VLF whistler mode chorus. Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2007JA012977. Golkowski, M., U.S. Inan, A.R. Gibby, and M.B. Cohen. 2008. Magnetospheric amplification and emission triggering by ELF/VLF waves injected by the 3.6 MW HAARP ionospheric heater. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:A10201, doi:10.1029/2008JA013157. Golkowski, M., U.S. Inan, and M.B. Cohen. 2009. Cross modulation of whistler mode and HF waves above the HAARP ionospheric heater. Geophysical Research Letters Gondarenko, N.A., S.L. Ossakow, and G.M. Milikh. 2007. Comment on “Simulation study of the interaction between large-amplitude HF radio waves and the ionosphere” by B. Eliasson and B. Thide. Geophysical Research Letters 34:L23104, doi:10.1029/2007GL030997. Gondarenko, N.A., S.L. Ossakos, and G.M. Milikh. 2006. Nonlinear evolution of thermal self-focusing instability in ionospheric modifications at high latitudes: Aspect angle dependence. Geophysical Research Letters 33:L16104, doi:10, 1029/2006GL025916. Gondarenko, N.A., S.L. Ossakow, and G.M. Milikh. 2005. Generation and evolution of density irregularities due to self-focusing in ionospheric modifications. Journal of Geophysical Research. 110:A093404, doi:10.1029/2005JA011142. Gustavsson, B., M. Kosch, A. Wong, T. Pedersen, C. Heinselman, C. Mutiso, B. Bristow, J. Hughes, and W. Wang. 2008. First estimates of volume distribution of HF-pump enhanced emissions at 6300 and 5577 Å: A comparison between observations and theory. Annales Geophysicae 26:3999- 4012. Gustavsson, B., R. Newsome, T.B. Leyser, M.J. Kosch, L. Norin, M. McCarrick and T.R. Pedersen. 2009. First observations of X-mode suppression of O-mode HF enhancements at 6300 A. Geophysical Research Letters L20102, doi:10.1029/2009GL039421. 62

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Hysell, D.L. 2008. 30 MHz radar observations of artificial E region field-aligned plasma irregularities. Annales Geophysicae 26(1):117. Hysell, D.L., and E. Nossa. 2010. Excitation threshold and gyroharmonic suppression of artificial E region field-aligned plasma density irregularities. Radio Sci., doi:10.1029/2010RS004360. Inan, U. S., D. Piddyachiy, W. B. Peter, J. A. Sauvaud, and M. Parrot (2007), DEMETER satellite observations of lightning-induced electron precipitation. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L07103, doi:10.1029/2006GL029238. Inan, U. S., M. Golkowski, M. K. Casey, R. C. Moore, W. Peter, P. Kulkarni, P. Kossey, E. Kennedy, (2007) Subionospheric VLF Observations of Transmitter-Induced Precipitation of Inner Radiation Belt Electrons, Geophysical Research Letters 34, L02106, doi:10.1029/2006GL028494. Inan, U.S., M. Golkowski, M. Casey, R.C. Moore, W.B. Peter, P. Kulkarni, P. Kossey, E.J. Kennedy, S. Meth, and P. Smit. 2007. Subionospheric VLF observations of transmitter-induced precipitation of inner radiation belt electrons. Geophysical Research Letters 34:L02106. Jin, G., M. Spasojevic, and U.S. Inan. 2009. Relationship between electrojet current strength and ELF signal intensity in modulated heating experiments. Journal of Geophysical Research 114:A08301, doi:10.1029/2009JA014122. Kagan, L.M. 2008. Auroral lights created by high-power radiowaves in the ionospheric E region. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 50:074001. Kalogerakis, K.S., T.G. Slanger, E.A. Kendall, T.R. Pedersen, M.J. Kosch, B. Gustavsson, and M.T. Rietveld. 2009. Remote oxygen sensing by ionospheric excitation (ROSIE). Annales Geophysicae 27:2183-2189. Kan, J.R. 2007. On the formation of near-Earth X-line at substorm expansion onset. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:A01207, doi:10.1029/2006JA012011. Kan, J.R., X. Xing, and R.A. Wolf. 2007. Intensity of geomagnetic storms depends on the X-line location in the plasma sheet. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:A04216, doi:10.1029/2006JA011945. Kendall, E., R. Marshall, R.T. Parris, A. Bhatt, A. Coster, T. Pedersen, P. Bernhardt, and C. Selcher. 2010. Decameter structure in heater‐induced airglow at the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program facility. Journal of Geophysical Research 115:A08306, doi:10.1029/2009JA015043. Keskinen, M.J., and H.L. Rowland. 2006. Magnetospheric effects from man-made ELF/VLF modulation of the auroral electrojet. Radio Science 41:RS1006, doi:10.1029/2005RS003274. Kosch, M.J., B. Gustavsson, C. Heinselman, T. Pedersen, M.T. Rietveld, J. Spaleta, A. Wong, W. Wang, C. Mutiso, B. Bristow, and J. Hughes. 2009. First incoherent scatter radar observations of ionospheric heating on the second electron gyro-harmonic. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar- Terrestrial Physics 71(17-18):1959-1966, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2009.08.007. Kosch, M.J., T.R. Pedersen, E.V. Mishin, M. Starks, E. Gerken-Kendall, D. Sentman, S. Oyama, and B. Watkins. 2007. Temporal evolution of pump beam self-focusing at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:A08304, doi:10.1029/2007JA012264. Kosch, M.J., T.R. Pedersen, E.V. Mishin, S.-I. Oyama, J. Hughes, A. Senior, B. Watkins, and B. Bristow. 2007. Coordinated optical and radar observations of ionospheric pumping for a frequency pass through the second electron gyro-harmonic. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:A06325, doi:10.1029/2006JA012146. Kosch, M., T. Pedersen, J. Bortnik, R. Esposito, D. Gallagher, R. Marshall, M. McCarrick, R. Friedel, and U. Inan. 2006. An Artificial Particle Precipitation Technique Using HAARP Generated VLF Waves. AFRL-VS-HA-TR-2007-1021. Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass. Kosch, M., T. Pedersen, M.T. Rietveld, B. Gustavsson, S.M. Grach, and T. Hagfors. 2007. Artificial optical emissions in the high-latitude thermosphere induced by powerful radio waves: An observational review. Advances in Space Research 40(3):365-376. 63

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Kosch, M.J., T. Pedersen, J. Hughes, R. Marshall, E. Gerken, A. Senior, D. Sentman, M. McCarrick, and F.T. Djuth. 2005. Artificial optical emissions at HAARP for pump frequencies near the third and second gyro-harmonic. Annales Geophysicae 23:1585. Kulkarni, P., U.S. Inan, and T.F. Bell. 2006. Whistler-mode illumination of the plasmaspheric resonant cavity via in-situ injection of ELF/VLF waves. Journal of Geophysical Research 111:A10215. Kuo, S.P. 2007. Basis of ionospheric modification by high-frequency waves. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 73:277-296. Kuo, S.P. 2008. Mitigation of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere by amplified whistlerwave under double cyclotron resonances. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 15:773-782. Kuo, S.P., and M.C. Lee. 2005. Cascade spectrum of HFPLs generated in HF heating experiments. Journal of Geophysical Research 110:AO1309, doi:10,1029/2004JA010674. Kuo, S.P., and M. Rubinraut. 2005. Generation of energetic electrons at second harmonic cyclotron resonances in ionospheric HF heating experiments. Geophysical Research Letters 32:L19102, doi:10.1029/2005GL023186. Kuo, S.P., and D. Greco. 2007. Determination of the height of the modulated electrojet region generating ELF radiation. Geophysical Research Letters 34:L05103, doi:10.1029/2006GL029124. Kuo, S.P., and A. Snyder. 2010. Observation of artificial Spread-F and large region ionization enhancement in an HF heating experiment at HAARP. Geophysical Research Letters 37:L07101, doi:10.1029/2010GL042656. Kuo, S.P., S.S. Kuo, J.T. Huynh, and P.A. Kossey. 2007. Precipitation of trapped relativistic electrons by amplified whistler waves in the magnetosphere. Physics of Plasmas 14(6):009706. Kuo, S.P., Y.L. Wu, R. Pradipta, J.A. Cohen, and M.C. Lee. 2008. VLF wave generation by amplitude- modulated HF heater waves at Gakona, Alaska. Geophysical Research Letters 35:L13101(1-5), doi:10.1029/2008GL034414. Kuo, S.P., W.-T. Cheng, J.A. Cohen, R. Pradipta, M.C. Lee, S.S. Kuo, and A.L. Snyder. 2009. Simultaneous generation of large-scale density irregularities and geomagnetic pulsations via filamentation instability. Geophysical Research Letters 36:L09107, doi:10.1029/2009GL037942. Kuo, S.P., A. Snyder, and C.-L. Chang. 2010. Electrojet-independent ionospheric ELF/VLF wave generation by powerful HF waves. Physics of Plasmas 17(8):082904. Kuo, S.P., W.-T. Cheng, A. Snyder, P.A. Kossey, and J. Battis. 2010. Contrasting O/X-mode heater effects on O-mode sounding echo and the generation of magnetic pulsations. Geophysical Research Letters 37:L01101, doi:10.1029/2009GL041471. Lehtinen, N.G., and U.S. Inan. 2009. Full-wave modeling of transionospheric propagation of VLF waves. Geophysical Research Letters 36:L03104, doi:10.1029/2008GL036535. Lehtinen, N.G., and U.S. Inan. 2008. Radiation of ELF/VLF waves by harmonically varying currents into a stratified ionosphere with application to radiation by a modulated electrojet. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:A06301, doi:10.1029/2007JA012911. Leyser, T.B., L. Norin, M. McCarrick, T.R. Pedersen, and B. Gustavsson. 2009. Radio pumping of ionospheric plasma with orbital angular momentum. Physical Review Letters 102:065004. Merkin, V.G., G. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos, J. Lyon, Y.S. Dimant, A.S. Sharma, C. Goodrich, and M. Wiltberger. 2005. Effect of anomalous electron heating on the transpolar potential in the LFM global MHD model. Geophysical Research Letters 32:L22101, doi:10.1029/2005GL023315. Milikh, G.M., A.G. Demekhov, K. Papadopoulos, A. Vartanyan, J.D. Huba, and G. Joyce. 2010. Model for artificial ionospheric duct formation due to HF heating. Geophysical Research Letters 37:L07803, doi:10.1029/2010GL042684. Milikh, G.M., and A. Vartanyan. 2011. HAARP induced ionospheric ducts. P. 85 in Modern Challenges in Nonlinear Plasma Physics: A Festschrift to Honor the Career of Dennis Papadopoulos (D. Vassiliadis , S.F. Fung , X. Shao , I.A. Daglis, and J.D. Huba, eds.). AIP Conference Proceedings 1320. American Institute of Physics. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3544323. 64

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