Development of Unconventional Hydrocarbon
Resources in the Appalachian Basin:
Workshop Summary

Anne Linn, Rapporteur

Committee on the Development of Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources in the Appalachian Basin

Committee on Earth Resources

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Water Science and Technology Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
             OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Development of Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources in the Appalachian Basin: Workshop Summary Anne Linn, Rapporteur Committee on the Development of Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources in the Appalachian Basin Committee on Earth Resources Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Water Science and Technology Board Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by West Virginia University Research Corporation. The opinions, findings, and con- clusions or recommendations contained in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organization that provided support for the project. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute their endorsement by the sponsor. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-29881-0 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-29881-4 Cover: Geologic map of West Virginia (background). SOURCE: Map 25A, West Virginia Geological and E ­ conomic Survey. Superimposed are photographs of the following: rectangular joints in the Utica Shale near Fort Plain, New York, copyright by Michael C. Rygel (left); Marcellus Shale outcrop in Highland County, Virginia, photo by James Coleman (center); Marcellus Shale just south of Marcellus, New York (right). SOURCES: Wikipedia Commons (left and right) and the U.S. Geological Society (center). Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advis- ing the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF UNCONVENTIONAL HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN THE APPALACHIAN BASIN GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee KATE HADLEY BAKER, BP (retired), Houston, Texas SUSAN L. BRANTLEY, Pennsylvania State University, University Park MICHAEL E. HOHN, State of West Virginia, Morgantown CARL KIRBY, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania National Research Council Staff ANNE M. LINN, Study Director, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources LAURA HELSABECK, Senior Program Officer, Water Science and Technology Board (until June 7, 2013) ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources v

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COMMITTEE ON EARTH RESOURCES CLAYTON R. NICHOLS, Chair, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (retired), Sandpoint JAMES A. BRIERLEY, Brierley Consultancy, LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colorado MICHAEL J. CARROLL, Hunt Oil, Dallas, Texas THURE CERLING, University of Utah, Salt Lake City ELAINE T. CULLEN, NIOSH Spokane Research Laboratory (retired), Chattaroy, Washington DONALD JUCKETT, American Association for Petroleum Geologists (retired), Springfield, Virginia DOROTHY J. MERRITTS, Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania MARY M. POULTON, University of Arizona, Tucson ARTHUR W. RAY, City of Rockville, Maryland RICHARD J. SWEIGARD, University of Kentucky, Lexington ELIZABETH J. WILSON, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis National Research Council Staff ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources vi

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BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES CORALE BRIERLEY, Chair, Brierley Consultancy, LLC, Denver, Colorado KEITH C. CLARKE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID J. COWEN, University of South Carolina, Columbia WILLIAM E. DIETRICH, University of California, Berkeley ROGER M. DOWNS, Pennsylvania State University, University Park JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara KATHERINE H. FREEMAN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park WILLIAM L. GRAF, University of South Carolina, Calcott RUSSELL J. HEMLEY, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden EDWARD KAVAZANJIAN, JR., Arizona State University, Tempe LOUISE H. KELLOGG, University of California, Davis ROBERT McMASTER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis CLAUDIA INÉS MORA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico BRIJ M. MOUDGIL, University of Florida, Gainesville CLAYTON R. NICHOLS, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (retired), Sandpoint JOAQUIN RUIZ, University of Arizona, Tucson PETER M. SHEARER, University of California, San Diego REGINAL SPILLER, Allied Energy, Houston, Texas RUSSELL STANDS-OVER-BULL, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Billings, Montana TERRY C. WALLACE, JR., Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico HERMAN B. ZIMMERMAN, National Science Foundation (retired), Portland, Oregon National Research Council Staff ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Program Officer MARK D. LANGE, Associate Program Officer NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant vii

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WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee EDWARD J. BOUWER, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland YU-PING CHIN, Ohio State University, Columbus M. SIOBHAN FENNESSY, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio BEN GRUMBLES, U.S. Water Alliance, Washington, District of Columbia GEORGE R. HALLBERG, The Cadmus Group, Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts CATHERINE L. KLING, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa DEBRA S. KNOPMAN, RAND Corporation, Arlington, Virginia LARRY LARSON, Association of State Floodplain Managers, Madison, Wisconsin RITA P. MAGUIRE, Maguire & Pearce PLLC, Phoenix, Arizona DAVID L. MAURSTAD, OST, Inc., McLean, Virginia ROBERT SIMONDS, The Robert Simonds Company, Culver City, California FRANK H. STILLINGER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey MARYLYNN V. YATES, University of California, Riverside JAMES W. ZIGLAR, SR., Van Ness Feldman, Potomac, Maryland National Research Council Staff JEFFREY W. JACOBS, Director LAURA J. EHLERS, Senior Staff Officer STEPHANIE E. JOHNSON, Senior Staff Officer M. JEANNE AQUILINO, Financial/Administrative Associate ANITA A. HALL, Senior Program Associate MICHAEL J. STOEVER, Research Associate viii

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Acknowledgments T his workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purposes of this review are to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards of objectivity, evi- dence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their participation in the review of this summary: James Coleman, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia Sally Entrekin, University of Central Arkansas, Conway George Hornberger, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and sugges- tions, they were not asked to endorse, nor did they see the final draft, of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by David Dzombak, Carnegie Mellon University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the author and the National Research Council. The planning committee would like to thank West Virginia University—particularly James P. Clements, Jay Cole, and Lisa Martin—for sponsoring this activity, hosting the workshop, and pro- viding superb logistical support. Thanks also go to Ray Boswell, Rosemary Capo, Joseph Frantz, Jr., Cliff Frohlich, Jose Fuentes, Paulina Jaramillo, Kelly Maloney, Michael Powelson, John Veil, and Hannah Wiseman, whose excellent plenary presentations provided a strong foundation for discussion. The committee also extends its thanks to the participants who took on multiple roles in the working groups, giving flash talks to start discussion or serving as rapporteurs: Brian Anderson, Richard Bajura, Daniel Billman, Margaret Brittingham, Robert Burruss, Tim Carr, Martin Chapman, ix

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Nigel Clark, Jeffrey Daniels, Patrick Drohan, Mark Engle, Barbara Evans Fleischauer, Gregory Frost, Paulina Jaramillo, Donald Juckett, William Kappel, Zuleima Karpyn, Abby Kinchy, Peter MacKenzie, Kris Nygaard, Gary Slagel, James Van Nostrand, Radisav Vidic, Richard Wilkin, Hannah Wiseman, Gregory Wrightstone, and Paul Ziemkiewicz. Finally, the committee extends its thanks to the honorable John D. Rockefeller IV, U.S. Senator for West Virginia, who made remarks in the form of a letter read at the workshop (Appendix A).

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Overview of the Workshop, 3 Shale Gas Production Process, 5 Organization of the Report, 6 2 GEOLOGY, RESOURCES, AND PRODUCTION 9 Plenary Presentations, 9 Working Group Reports, 14 3 WATER AND REGULATIONS 17 Plenary Presentations, 17 Working Group Reports, 22 4 ECOSYSTEMS, AIR, AND CLIMATE 25 Plenary Presentations, 25 Working Group Reports, 31 5 FINAL THOUGHTS 33 BIBLIOGRAPHY 35 APPENDIXES A Letter from Senator John D. Rockefeller IV 41 B Workshop Agenda 43 C Workshop Participants 47 D Working Group Reports 51 E Biographical Sketches of Planning Committee Members 61 F Acronyms and Abbreviations 65 xi

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