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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by West Virginia University Research Corporation. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations contained in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organization that provided support for the project. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute their endorsement by the sponsor.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-29881-0

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-29881-4

Cover: Geologic map of West Virginia (background). SOURCE: Map 25A, West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey. Superimposed are photographs of the following: rectangular joints in the Utica Shale near Fort Plain, New York, copyright by Michael C. Rygel (left); Marcellus Shale outcrop in Highland County, Virginia, photo by James Coleman (center); Marcellus Shale just south of Marcellus, New York (right). SOURCES: Wikipedia Commons (left and right) and the U.S. Geological Society (center).

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