Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
RES SPONDING TO OIL SPILLS IN TH U.S. AR P HE RCTIC MAR RINE ENVI IRONMENT T PREPUBL LICATION D RAFT Committee on Respond ding to Oil Sp in the U Arctic M pills U.S. Marine Envir ronment Ocean Studies Boa ard Division of Earth and Lif Studies D E fe Polar Research Bo ard R Division of Earth and Lif Studies D E fe Maarine Board Transportat tion Research Board h THE NATIONA ACADEM E AL MIES PRESS S Wash hington, D.C C. ww ww.nap.edu PREPUB BLICATION C OPY

OCR for page R1
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Funding for this study was provided by the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, the American Petroleum Institute under grant number 2011-105958, the U.S. Coast Guard under cooperative agreement number DTMA1H11001, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management under purchase order number M11PX00116 and Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement under purchase order number E12PX00061, the Marine Mammal Commission under purchase order number DC-260-79EC085782, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under contract number WC133R-11-CQ-0048, the Oil Spill Recovery Institute under grant number 12-10-02, and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data or International Standard Book Number 0-309-0XXXX-X Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 97-XXXXX Cover photograph provided by Richard Glenn, Arctic Slope Regional Corporation. Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; Internet, http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The Nati ional Acade emy of Scien nces is a priv vate, nonpro fit, self-perp petuating soc ciety of distinguished scholar engaged in scientific and engineer rs n a ring research dedicated to the h, furtheran of scienc and techno nce ce ology and to their use fo the genera welfare. U o or al Upon the authority of the chart granted to it by the Congress in 1 y ter o C 1863, the Ac cademy has a mandate th hat requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technic matters. D Ralph J. i t g o cal Dr. Cicerone is president of the Natio Academ of Scienc e t onal my ces. The Natiional Acadeemy of Engineering was established in 1964, un s d nder the char of the rter National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstand a n ding enginee It is ers. autonomous in its ad dministration and in the selection of i members, sharing wit the Nation n s its th nal Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal gove y a ernment. Th National he Academy of Enginee y ering also sponsors enginneering proggrams aimed at meeting n d national nee eds, encourag education and researc and recognizes the su ges n ch, uperior achie evements of engineers. Dr. f C. D. Mo Jr., is pre ote, esident of th National Academy of Engineering he A g. The Instiitute of Meddicine was established in 1970 by th National A e n he Academy of Sciences to f secure th services of eminent members of ap he f m ppropriate professions in the examin n nation of pollicy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institu acts unde the respon p o . ute er nsibility give to en the Natio Academ of Science by its con onal my es ngressional ccharter to be an adviser t the federal to governm and, upo its own in ment on nitiative, to id dentify issue of medica care, resea es al arch, and education Dr. Harve V. Finebe is preside of the In n. ey erg ent nstitute of Meedicine. The Nati ional Resear Council was organized by the N rch l National Aca ademy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science an technology with the A e o nd y Academy’s p purposes of furthering knowledge and advisin the federa governme e ng al ent. Function ning in acco ordance withh general policies deter p rmined by th Academy, the Counci has becom the princip operating he il me pal g agency of both the National Acad o N demy of Scieences and th National A he Academy of Engineering in f g providing services to the governm g o ment, the puublic, and the scientific a engineering e and communities. The Council is adm C ministered jo ointly by bot Academie and the In th es nstitute of Medicine Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr. are chair a vice chai respective e. h e ., and ir, ely, of the Naational Resea arch Council. ww ww.national l-academies s.org PREPUB BLICATION C OPY

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
COMMITTEE ON RESPONDING TO OIL SPILLS IN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENTS Dr. Martha R. Grabowski (Chair), Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York Dr. Thomas Coolbaugh, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering, Fairfax, Virginia Mr. David F. Dickins, DF Dickins and Associates, LLC, La Jolla, California Mr. Richard Glenn, Arctic Slope Regional Corporation, Barrow, Alaska Dr. Kenneth Lee, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia Mr. William (Lee) Majors, Alaska Clean Seas, Prudhoe Bay Dr. Mark D. Myers, University of Alaska, Fairbanks Dr. Brenda L. Norcross, University of Alaska, Fairbanks Dr. Mark Reed, SINTEF, Norway VADM Brian Salerno,1 BIMCO, Washington, D.C. Dr. Robert Suydam, North Slope Borough, Barrow, Alaska Dr. James M. Tiedje (NAS), Michigan State University, East Lansing Dr. Mary-Louise Timmermans, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Dr. Peter Wadhams, Cambridge University, United Kingdom Polar Research Board Liaisons Molly McCammon - Alaska Ocean Observing System, Anchorage, Alaska Caryn Rea – ConocoPhillips, Anchorage, Alaska National Research Council Staff Deborah Glickson, Senior Program Officer Lauren Brown, Associate Program Officer, Polar Research Board Stacee Karras, Research Associate Heather Chiarello, Senior Program Assistant (until April 2013) Payton Kulina, Program Assistant (from June 2013) 1 Resigned from the committee. v PREPUBLICATION COPY

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
PREFACE Balance. This is an important word in the Arctic, an area that serves as an integrator of many of the Earth's large-scale systems and processes, and also an area where choices made have substantial impact on the Arctic and its neighbors. Many competing forces co-exist and collide in the Arctic: harsh environmental conditions, economic drivers, science and technology capabilities, logistical and infrastructure challenges, ecosystem protection needs, food security concerns, and the needs of traditional cultures and societies. Balancing the needs and requirements of these forces is part of the challenge and opportunity presented in the complex, large-scale system that is the Arctic. Within this context, the National Research Council was asked by eight sponsors who represent many of these drivers to consider the adequacy and sufficiency of resources, technology, research, manpower, funding and logistics to respond to an Arctic oil spill. The committee sought to balance in its work traditional and scientific knowledge of the Arctic and of oil spill response operations, engineering, technology, policies, procedures and equipment. It considered the needs and concerns of the committee's sponsors; government, public, private, for- and not-for-profit organizations; citizens and organizations with Arctic interests; and the needs and interests of Arctic inhabitants. The committee also considered lessons learned from events and case studies from oil spill response efforts around the world. The committee's work was enhanced by the participation and input provided by a number of individuals, organizations, and groups, many of whom are listed elsewhere in this report. The committee solicited input from workshop participants, speakers and experts across the spectrum of traditional knowledge, science, engineering, vessel and oil spill operations, and regulatory and government affairs. The committee's work was also enhanced by the insight, experience, and collegiality of its globally distributed members, as it followed the tenets of an earlier National Research Council (1996) report, to "get the science right and get the right science; to get the participation right and get the right participation; and to develop an inclusive and thoughtful analytic-deliberative process." The result is a report that considers the adequacy of and needs for oil spill response in the U.S. Arctic, drawing on the wisdom and expertise of many in and of the Arctic, and that considers significant challenges in an important ecosystem. It was my privilege to work with our committee; our project sponsors; our study director, Deb Glickson; Polar Research Board Associate Program Officer Lauren Brown; Ocean Studies Board Director Susan Roberts; Marine Board Directors Joedy Cambridge and Scott Brotemarkle; and the rest of the National Academies staff during the course of this study. Thank you all for sharing your wisdom and insight. May we meet again in future endeavors. ---M. Grabowski vii PREPUBLICATION COPY

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report was greatly enhanced by the participants of meetings held as part of this study. The committee would like to acknowledge those who gave presentations at committee meetings: Bill Adams (RESTCo), Doug Baird (NOAA), Geoff Baker (Crowley), Mary Baker (NOAA), Lawson Brigham (UAF), Christy Bohl (BSEE), Gene Brooks (Maersk), Harry Brower, Jr. (North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management), Larry Dietrick (Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation), Hajo Eicken (UAF), Michael Faust (ConocoPhillips), Jeffrey Ferguson (NOAA), Adrian Gall (ABR Inc.), Larry Hinzman (UAF), Charles Hopson, John Hopson, Jr. (Wainwright Public Works), Christopher Ives (RESTCo), Christopher Krenz (Oceana), Nettie La Belle-Hamer (UAF), Joe LoSciuto (ASRC Energy Services), Joe Mello Leavitt, Amy Merten (NOAA), Vince Mitchell (Lamor), RADM Thomas Ostebo (U.S. Coast Guard), Ed Owens (Owens Coastal Consultants Ltd), Ed Page (Marine Exchange), Shirish Patil (UAF), Vladimir Romanovsky (UAF), Stan Senner (Ocean Conservancy), Gay Sheffield (UAF), Kirk Sherwood (BSEE), Brad Smith (NOAA), Mark Swanson (Prince William Sound RCAC), Fran Ulmer (U.S. Arctic Research Commission), Peter van Tuyn (World Wildlife Fund), Peter Velez (Peter Velez Engineering LLC), Glen Watabayashi (NOAA), Thomas Weingartner (UAF), and Peter Winsor (UAF). The committee would also like to thank Karissa Goessl and Patrick Curtin of LeMoyne College, who assisted at the committee’s third meeting in Fairbanks, Alaska. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in their review of this report: Per Johan Brandvik, SINTEF Marine Environmental Technology Lawson Brigham, University of Alaska, Fairbanks Bill Eichbaum, World Wildlife Fund John Farrington, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute Jacqueline Grebmeier, University of Maryland Molly McCammon, Alaska Ocean Observing System Humphrey Melling, Fisheries and Oceans Canada Joseph Mullin, Joseph Mullin Consulting Partha Patra, Columbia University Stephen Potter, SL Ross Environmental Research Limited Ponisseril Somasundaran (NAE), Columbia University Wilford Weeks (NAE), University of Alaska, Fairbanks (emeritus) Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by ix PREPUBLICATION COPY

OCR for page R1
RADM Malcolm MacKinnon (NAE), MacKinnon-Searle Consortium LLC, appointed by the Divison on Earth and Life Studies, and Bonnie McCay (NAS), Rutgers University, appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

OCR for page R1
CONTENTS Summary 1 1 Introduction 13 2 Environmental Conditions and Natural Resources in the U.S. Arctic 23 3 Arctic Oil Spill Response Research 61 4 Operations, Logistics, and Coordination in an Arctic Oil Spill 97 5 Strategies for Response and Mitigation 127 References 141 Appendixes A Committee and Staff Biographies 171 B National Research Council Board Rosters 177 C Acronyms Used in the Report 181 xi

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
SCENARIOS, BOXES, FIGURES, AND TABLES Scenarios 1 Passenger cruise ship accident 98 2 A large tanker spill 104 3 Bulk ore carrier driven in bad weather 105 4 A tug and barge incident 121 5 Break in pipeline from near-shore production 128 6 A well blowout 134 7 Structural failure of an oil storage tank 135 Boxes 1-1 Select oil spills and maritime accidents of interest 19 1-2 Statement of task 20 2-1 Examples of risks associated with oil spill response due to weather conditions 27 4-1 Lessons learned from the Kulluk 120 Figures S-1 Location map of Alaska and the continental United States 2 S-2 Location map of Alaska and U.S. Arctic waters 3 1-1 Location map of Alaska and the continental United States 14 1-2 Location map of Alaska and U.S. Arctic waters 15 1-3 Oil and gas planning areas in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas 17 2-1 Water masses and sea ice extent in Bering Strait and Chukchi and Beaufort Seas 24 2-2 Monthly average temperatures at the Barrow Automated Surface Observing System 26 2-3 Cross-section of typical Beaufort Sea ice zones 29 2-4 Segment of a MODIS image of the Chukchi coast 32 2-5 MODIS image showing ice clearing in the Chukchi Sea 33 2-6 Plans for additional nautical charts in the Arctic 38 2-7 Visualization of the eastern Chukchi Sea food web 42 2-8 Distribution of select fish species in U.S. Arctic waters 45 2-9 Distribution of select bird species in U.S. Arctic waters and along coast 47 2-10 Distribution of whales in U.S. Arctic waters 49 2-11 Distribution of walrus, sea lions, and polar bears in U.S. Arctic waters 50 3-1 Oil spill risk matrix 62 3-2 Environmental processes that affect oil in open water and ice 65 4-1 Arctic sea routes 97 xiii PREPUBLICATION COPY

OCR for page R1
4-2 Relationship between Incident Command System and Unified Command 102 4-3 Arctic infrastructure 113 5-1 Example of a tiered response system 127 Tables 3-1 Chemical and physical changes to oil 67 3-2 Illustration of the impacts of ice and snow 68 3-3 Beaufort and Chukchi Seas VLOS volumes 71 3-4 Overview of remote sensing systems for detection of oil in ice 88