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Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use References AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics). Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases (22nd ed.). Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics, 1991. Aaron, H. Serious and Unstable Condition: Financing America's Health Care. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1991. ACC (American College of Cardiology). Symposium on Quality and Cost-Conscious Cardiovascular Care: Role of Decision Modeling. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 14(3 Suppl. A): A-76A, September 1989. Ackerman, F., and Nash, D. Teaching the Tenets of Quality: A Survey of Medical Schools and Programs in Health Administration. Quality Review Bulletin 17:200-203, 1991. ACP (American College of Physicians). Clinical Efficacy Assessment Project: Procedural Manual. Philadelphia, Pa.: The College, 1986. ACP. Common Diagnostic Tests: Use and Interpretation. H. Sox, ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: The College, 1987. ACPM (American College of Preventive Medicine). The American College of Preventive Medicine: Long-Range Plans. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 5:56-58, 1989. ACS (American Cancer Society). Who We Are. What We Do. Where We're Going. Atlanta, Ga.: American Cancer Society, Inc., March 1990. Adams, J. Three Surveillance and Query Languages for Medical Care. M.D. Computing 3:11-19, 1986. AHCPR (Agency for Health Care Policy and Research). Program Note. Medical Treatment Effectiveness Research. Rockville, Md.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, March 1990.

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Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use AHCPR. Effective Dissemination of Health Services Research Findings and Medical Practice Guidelines. RFA AHCPR-91-01. NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, February 15, 1991. AMA (American Medical Association). Attributes to Guide the Development of Practice Parameters. Chicago, Ill.: The Association, April 1990a. AMA. Legal Implications of Practice Parameters. Chicago, Ill.: The Association, 1990b. AMA. Practice Parameters Update. 1(1):16, August 1990c. AMA. Directory of Practice Parameters. Chicago, Ill.: The Association, October 1991a. AMA, Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Guidelines for the Appropriate Use of Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders. Journal of the American Medical Association 265:1868-1871, 1991b. AMRA (American Medical Record Association). Continuous Quality Improvement References. Supplemental Material in QA Section Connection 11(6), 1991. ANA (American Nurses Association). Testimony before the Institute of Medicine Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines, Washington, D.C., December 3, 1990. Annas, G. Restricting Doctor-Patient Conversations in Federally Funded Clinics. New England Journal of Medicine 325:362-364, 1991. ASIM (American Society of Internal Medicine). 1989 House of Delegates: Guidelines for the Development of Practice Guidelines. Report of the Board of Trustees, Report K. Philadelphia, Pa., 1989, p. 8. ASIM. Testimony on Practice Guidelines and Volume of Services before the U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means. Washington, D.C., May 3, 1990. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). Draft Standard Specification for Transferring Modular Medical Knowledge Bases. Committee on Computerized Systems and Subcommittee on Health Knowledge Representation. Philadelphia, Pa.: May 29, 1991. Audet, A., Greenberg, S., and Field, M. Medical Practice Guidelines: Current Activities and Future Directions. Annals of Internal Medicine 113:709-714, 1990. Avorn, J., and Soumerai, S. Improving Drug-Therapy Decisions through Educational Outreach: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Academically Based "Detailing." New England Journal of Medicine 308:1447-1463, 1983. Ball, J. Professional Society Perspectives. In: Proceedings of a Medical Practice Guidelines Workshop-Issues for Internal Medicine, sponsored by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research and the Internal Medicine Center to Advance Research and Education, Washington, D.C., June 8-9, 1990, pp. 69-75. Barnett, G.O., Winickoff, R., Dorsey, J., et al. Quality Assurance through Automated Monitoring Systems and Concurrent Feedback Using a Computer Based Medical Information System. Medical Care 16:962-970, 1978. Barry, M.J., Mulley, A.G., Fowler, F.J., et al. Watchful Waiting vs. Immediate Transurethral Resection for Symptomatic Prostatism: The Importance of Patients' Preferences. Journal of the American Medical Association 259:3010-3017, 1988. Batalden, P., and Buchanan, E.D. Industrial Models of Quality Improvement. In: Providing Quality Care: The Challenge to Clinicians, N. Goldfield and D. Nash, eds. Philadelphia, Pa.: American College of Physicians, 1989.

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Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use Beauchamp, T., and Childress, J. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1983. Becker, M. In Hot Pursuit of Health Promotion: Some Admonitions. In: Health at Work. S. Weiss, J. Fielding, and A. Baum, eds. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991. Bergner, M. Measurement of Health Status. Medical Care 23:696-704, 1985. Berkow, R., ed. The Merck Manual, 14th ed. Rahway, N.J.: Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories (Division of Merck and Co., Inc.), 1982. Berlin, J.A., Laird, N.M., Sacks, H.S., and Chalmers, T.C. A Comparison of Statistical Methods for Combining Event Rates from Clinical Trials. Statistics in Medicine 8:141-151, 1989. Berwick, D. Continuous Improvement as an Ideal in Health Care. Sounding Board. New England Journal of Medicine 320:53-56, 1989. Berwick, D.M., Godfrey, A.B., and Roessner, J. Curing Health Care: New Strategies for Quality Improvement. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1990. Billings, J. The Emergence of Quality as a Major Health Policy Issue. In: Medical Quality and the Law. Report of the 1989 Chief Justice Earl Warren Conference on Advocacy in the United States. J. Billings, N. Goldfield, C. Havighurst, et al., eds. Washington, D.C.: Roscoe Pound Foundation, 1990, pp. 21-35. Blumstein, J. Presentation at RAND Conference on Changing the Health Care Delivery System and Its Implications for Liability Law, Dallas, Texas, June 10-11, 1991. Borbas, C., Stump, M., Dedeker, K., et al. The Minnesota Clinical Comparison and Assessment Project. Quality Review Bulletin 16:87-92, 1990. Bouxsein, P. Commentary. Standards of Care in Medicine. Inquiry 25: 450-451, 1988. Bovbjerg, R. Legislation on Medical Malpractice: Further Developments and a Report Card. University of California at Davis Law Review 22:499-560, 1989. Brassard, M. The Memory Jogger. A Pocket Guide of Tools for Continuous Improvement. Methuen, Mass.: GOAL/QPC, 1985; 2nd ed., 1988. Brennan, T. Review of the American Medical Association's General Counsel's Office Report on the Impact of Parameters of Care or Practice Guidelines on the Potential Liability of Physicians, Medical Societies and Payers. Unpublished paper prepared at the request of the Physician Payment Review Commission (PPRC), 1990. Brennan, T. Just Doctoring: Medical Ethics in the Liberal State. Berkeley, a Calif.: University of California Press, 1991a. (See especially Chapter 5, "Informed Consent," pp. 97-120.) Brennan, T. Practice Guidelines and Malpractice Litigation: Collision or Cohesion. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 16:67-85, 1991b. Brennan, T., Leape, L., Laird, N., et al. Incidence of Adverse Events and Negligence in Hospitalized Patients: Results of the Harvard Medical Practice Study I. New England Journal of Medicine 324:370-376, 1991. Brett, A., and McCullough, L. When Patients Request Specific Interventions. New England Journal of Medicine 315:1347-1351, 1986.

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Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use Brightbill, T. Medical Databases: Amazing Potential Hidden in a Maze of Complex Commands. Healthweek, August 27, 1990, pp. 27-35. Brinkley, J. U.S. Releasing Lists of Hospitals with Abnormal Mortality Rates. New York Times, March 12, 1986, p. 1. Brock, D., and Wartman, S. When Competent Patients Make Irrational Choices. New England Journal of Medicine 322:1595-1599, 1990. Brodnik, M., and Johns, M., eds. Standards for Clinical Information Processing. Topics in Health Record Management 11(4):1991. Brook, R. Practice Guidelines and Practicing Medicine: Are They Compatible? Journal of the American Medical Association 262:3027-3030, 1989. Brook, R. Practice Guidelines (In Reply). Journal of the American Medical Association 263:3022, 1990. Brook, R. Health, Health Insurance, and the Uninsured. Journal of the American Medical Association 265:2998-3002, 1991. Brook, R., and Williams, K. Evaluation of the New Mexico Peer Review System, 1971-1973. Medical Care 14(12, Suppl.):1-122, 1976. Brook, R., Williams, K., and Rolph, J., with the assistance of Mori, B.M. Controlling the Use and Cost of Medical Services: The New Mexico Experimental Medical Care Review Organization—A Four-Year Case Study. Medical Care 16(9, Suppl.): 1-76, 1978. Brook, R., Chassin, M., Park, R., et al. A Method for Detailed Assessment of the Appropriateness of Medical Technologies. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 2:53-63, 1986. Brown, L. The National Politics of Oregon's Rationing Plan. Health Affairs 10:28-51, 1991. Brown, R.E., Sheingold, S.H., and Luce, B.R. Options of Using Practice Guidelines in Reducing the Volume of Medically Unnecessary Services. BHARC-013/89/ 027. Washington, D.C.: Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, 1989. Burda, D. Total Quality Management Becomes Big Business. Modern Health care 21:25-29, 1991a. Burda, D. The Two (Quality) Faces of HCHP. Modern Health care 21:28-32, 1991b. Callahan, D. Setting Limits: Medical Goals in an Aging Society. New York, N.Y.: Simon and Schuster, 1987. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. The Periodic Health Examination. Canadian Medical Association Journal 121:1194-1254, 1979. Causey, W. Improve Quality and the Bottom Line Will Follow. QI/TQM [Quality Improvement/Total Quality Management] 1:1-3, 1991. Chassin, M. Standards of Care in Medicine. Inquiry 25:437-450, 1988. Chassin, M.R., Kosecoff, J., Park, R.E., et al. Indications for Selected Medical and Surgical Procedures—A Literature Review and Ratings of Appropriateness: Coronary Angiography. R-3201/1-CWF/HF/HCFA/PMT/RWJ. Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, 1986a. Chassin, M.R., Brook, R.H., Park, R.E., et al. Variations in the Use of Medical and Surgical Services by the Medicare Population. New England Journal of Medicine 14:285-290, 1986b.

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Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use Chassin, M.R., Kosecoff, J., Park, R.E., et al. Does Inappropriate Use Explain Geographic Variations in the Use of Health Care Services? A Study of Three Procedures. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:2533-2537, 1987. Chassin, M.R., Park, R.E., Lohr, K.N., Keesey, J., and Brook, R.H. Differences among Hospitals in Medicare Patient Mortality. Health Services Research 24:1-31, 1989. CMSS (Council of Medical Specialty Societies). Standards of Quality in Patient Care: The Importance and Risks of Standard Setting. In: Proceedings of an Invitational Conference. Washington, D.C., September 25-26, 1987. Coombs, J. Implementing Practice Guidelines. Presentation at the American Hospital Association Hospital-Medical Staff Leadership Forum. Hilton Head, S.C., November 7, 1991. Costich, J.F. Denial of Coverage for "Experimental" Medical Procedures: The Problem of De Novo Review under ERISA. Kentucky Law Journal 79(4):801-827, 1990-1991. Darby, M. HCFA Pilot Test Lays Ground for Physician Office Review. Report on Medical Guidelines & Outcomes Research 2:6-7, October 1, 1991a. Darby, M. US Medical Schools Have Not Embraced Guidelines. Report on Medical Guidelines & Outcomes Research 2:5-6, July 1, 1991b. Deming, W.E. Out of the Crisis. Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1986. Dersimonian, R., Charette, L., and McPeek, B. Reporting on Methods in Clinical Trials. New England Journal of Medicine 306:1332, 1982. Detsky, A., and Naglie, I. A Clinician's Guide to Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine 113:147-154, 1990. Donabedian, A. Evaluating the Quality of Medical Care. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 44:166-203, July (part 2) 1966. Donabedian, A. Explorations in Quality Assessment and Monitoring; Vol. 1. The Definition of Quality and Approaches to Its Assessment; Vol. 2. The Criteria and Standards of Monitoring; Vol. 3. The Methods and Findings of Quality Assessment and Monitoring: An Illustrated Analysis. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Health Administration Press, 1980, 1982, 1985. Donabedian, A. Reflections on the Effectiveness of Quality Assurance. In: R.H. Palmer, A. Donabedian, and G.J. Povar. Striving for Quality in Health Care: An Inquiry into Policy and Practice. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Health Administration Press, 1991. Donaldson, M.S., and Lohr, K. N. A Quality Assurance Sampler: Methods, Data, and Resources. In Institute of Medicine. Medicare: A Strategy for Quality Assurance. Vol. 2: Sources and Methods. K.N. Lohr, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990. Dreifus, L.S. A Case History: Developing Guidelines for Cardiac Pacemakers. The Internist 31(5):12-16, 1990. Eckman, M., Wong, J., and Pauker, S. The Role of Clinical Decision Analysis in Medical Quality Management. In: Health Care Quality Management for the 21st Century. J. Couch, ed. Tampa, Fla.: American College of Physicians, 1991. Eddy, D. Variations in Physician Practice: The Role of Uncertainty. Health Affairs 3:74-89, 1984.

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Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use Eddy, D. Selecting Technologies for Assessment. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 5:485-501, 1989. Eddy, D. Anatomy of a Decision. Journal of the American Medical Association 263:441-443, 1990a. Eddy, D. The Challenge. Journal of the American Medical Association 263:287-290, 1990b. Eddy, D. Comparing Benefits and Harms: The Balance Sheet. Journal of the American Medical Association 263:2493-2505, 1990c. Eddy, D. Connecting Value and Costs: Whom Do We Ask, and What Do We Ask Them? Journal of the American Medical Association 264:1737-1739, 1990d. Eddy, D. Designing a Practice Policy—Standards, Guidelines, and Options. Journal of the American Medical Association 263:3077-3084, 1990e. Eddy, D. Guidelines for Policy Statements: The Explicit Approach. Journal of the American Medical Association 263:2239-2243, 1990f. Eddy, D. Practice Policies—Guidelines for Methods. Journal of the American Medical Association 263:1839-1841, 1990g. Eddy, D. Practice Policies-What Are They? Journal of the American Medical Association 263:877-880, 1990h. Eddy, D. Practice Policies: Where Do They Come From? Journal of the American Medical Association 263:1265-1275, 1990i. Eddy, D. Resolving Conflicts in Practice Policies. Journal of the American Medical Association 264:389-391, 1990j. Eddy, D. Should We Change the Rules for Evaluating Medical Technologies? In: Institute of Medicine, Modern Methods of Clinical Investigation. Annetine C. Gelijns, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990k. Eddy, D. What Do We Do About Costs? Journal of the American Medical Association 264:1161-1170, 19901. Eddy, D., ed. Common Screening Tests. Philadelphia, Pa.: American College of Physicians, 1991 a. Eddy, D. How to Think About Screening. In: Common Screening Tests. D. Eddy, ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: American College of Physicians, 1991b. Eddy, D. (in collaboration with the Council of Medical Specialty Societies). A Manual for Assessing Health Practices and Designing Practice Policies: The Explicit Approach. Philadelphia, Pa.: American College of Physicians, 1991c. Eddy, D. Oregon's Methods: Did Cost-effectiveness Analysis Fail? Journal of the American Medical Association 266:2135-2141, 1991d. Eddy, D. Rationing by Patient Choice. Journal of the American Medical Association 265:105-108, 1991e. Eddy, D., and Billings, J. The Quality of Medical Evidence: Implications for Quality of Care. Health Affairs 7:19-32, 1988. Edwards, D. The Maine 5-Year Medical Demonstration Project. Presentation at the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Conference on Medical Liability Issues , Washington, D.C., February 28, 1991. Egan, T. Oregon Shakes Up Pioneering Health Plan for the Poor. New York Times, February 22, 1991, p. All. Eichorn, J., Cooper, R., and Cullen, M. Standards for Patient Monitoring during

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Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use Anesthesia at Harvard Medical School. Journal of the American Medical Association 246:1017-1020, 1986. Eisenberg, J. Physician Utilization: The State of Research About Physicians' Practice Patterns. Medical Care 23:461-483, 1985. Eisenberg, J. Doctors' Decisions and the Cost of Medical Care: The Reasons for Doctors' Practice Patterns and the Ways to Change Them. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Health Administration Press Perspectives, 1986. Elliott, C. Computer-Assisted Quality Assurance: Development and Performance of a Respiratory Care Program. Quality Review Bulletin 17:85-90, 1991. Ellwood, P. Shattuck Lecture. Outcomes Management: A Technology of Patient Experience. New England Journal of Medicine 318:1549-1556, 1988. Ellwood, P. Uniform Effective Health Benefits. Policy Document No. 3 (of four). Unpublished paper prepared for the Jackson Hole Group, August 30, 1991. Faden, R., and Beauchamp, T. A History and Theory of Informed Consent. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1986. Fink, A., Kosecoff, J., Chassin, M., and Brook, R. Consensus Methods: Characteristics and Guidelines for Use. American Journal of Public Health 74:979-983, 1984. Fitzpatrick, T. Utilization Review and Control Mechanisms: From the Blue Cross Perspective. Inquiry 2:16-29, 1965. Fliegel, T. Knowledge-Based Systems: Trying to Define a Role That's Wise. Healthweek, June 11, 1990, pp. 61-63. Fowler, F.J. Prostatism Form 4.1: TyPE Specification. Minneapolis, Minn.: InterStudy, 1991. Fowler, F.J., Wennberg, J.E., Timothy, R.P., et al. Symptom Status and Quality of Life Following Prostatectomy. Journal of the American Medical Association 259:3018-3022, 1988. Fox, D., and Leichter, H. Rationing Care in Oregon: The New Accountability. Health Affairs 10:7-27, 1991. Foxman, B., Valdez, R.B., Lohr, K.N., et al. The Effect of Cost Sharing on the Use of Antibiotics in Ambulatory Care: Results from a Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Chronic Diseases 40:429-437, 1987. Frame, P.S., and Carlson, S.J. A Critical Review of Periodic Health Screening Using Specific Screening Criteria. Journal of Family Practice 2:283-289, 1975. Frisch, S. The Case of the Numb Chin: Benefits of Searching Electronic Literature. ACP [American College of Physicians] Observer 11(4):6-7, 1991. Gabrieli, E. Need for Standards in Medical Communication. Topics in Health Record Management: Standards for Clinical Information Processing 11(4):27-36, 1991. GAO (General Accounting Office). Medical Malpractice: A Framework for Action. GAO/HRD-87-73. Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office, 1987. GAO. Medical ADP Systems: Automated Medical Records Hold Promise to Improve Patient Care. GAO/IMTEC-91-C. Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office, 1991a. GAO. Practice Guidelines: The Experience of Medical Specialty Societies. GAO/ PEMD-91-11. Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office, 1991b.

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Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use Gardner, E. The Coming Evolution in Computer Systems. Modern Health care 20(6):29-44, 1990a. Gardner, E. Hospitals Not in a Hurry to Plug in Computers by the Bedside. Modern Health care 20(28):31-55, 1990b. Gardner, E. Going on Line with Outsiders. Modern Health care 21(28):35-48, 1991. Gardner, E., and Perry, L. Assessing Computer Links' Risks and Rewards. Modern Health care 19(47):20-31, 1989. Garnick, D.W., Hendricks, A.M., and Brennan, T.A. Can Practice Guidelines Reduce the Number and Costs of Malpractice Claims? Journal of the American Medical Association 266:2856-2860, 1991. Garvin, D.A. Managing Quality: The Strategic and Competitive Edge. New York, N.Y.: The Free Press, A Division of Macmillan, 1988. Gertman, P.M., and Restuccia, J.D. The Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol. Medical Care 19:855-871, 1981. Glass, G.V. Primary, Secondary, and Meta-Analysis of Research. Educational Researcher 5:3-8, 1976. Goldman, L., Cook, E.F., Brand, D.A., et al. A Computer Protocol to Predict Myocardial Infarction in Emergency Department Patients with Chest Pain. New England Journal of Medicine 318:797-803, 1988. Goldstein, A. Poor Required to Have Own Doctor Under Md.'s New Medicaid Program. Washington Post, December 10, 1991, p. A1, A10. Gosfield, A. PSROs: The Law and the Health Consumer. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1975. Gosfield, A. PROs: A Case Study in Utilization Management and Quality Assurance. In: 1989 Health Law Handbook. New York, N.Y.: Clark Boardman Company, Ltd., 1989, pp. 361-398. Gosfield, A. Presentation at the RAND Conference on the Changing Health Care Delivery System and Its Implications for Liability Law, Dallas, Texas, June 10-11, 1991a. Gosfield, A. Value Purchasing and Effectiveness: Legal Implications. In: 1991 Health Law Handbook. New York, N.Y.: Clark Boardman Company, Ltd., 1991b. Gottlieb, L., Margolis, C., and Schoenbaum, S. Clinical Practice Guidelines at an HMO: Development and Implementation in a Quality Improvement Model. Quality Review Bulletin 16:80-86, 1990. Granneman, T. Priority Setting: A Sensible Approach to Medicaid Policy? Inquiry 28:300-305, 1991. Green, L. Dissemination Strategies for Consumers. Paper prepared for the Conference to Develop a Research Agenda for Outcomes and Effectiveness Research, conducted by the Foundation for Health Services Research and the Alpha Center, Arlington, Va., April 14-16, 1991. Greenfield, S. The State of Outcomes Research: Are We on Target? New England Journal of Medicine 320:1142-1143, 1989. Greenfield, S. The Effect of Local Physician Participation in Guideline Development on Patient Outcome and Adherence to the Guidelines: A Controlled Prospective Trial. Unpublished paper, New England Medical Center, Boston, Mass., December 1991.

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Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use Grossman, J. Emerging Medical Quality Management Support Systems for Hospitals. In: Health Care Quality Management for the 21st Century. J. Couch, ed. Tampa, Fla.: American College of Physician Executives, 1991. Gschwend, R. Commentary: Medical Specialty Societies and the Development of Practice Policies. Quality Review Bulletin 16:58-59, 1990. Gunnar, R., Passamani, E., Bourdillon, P., et al. Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. ACC/AHA Task Force Report. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 16:249-292, 1990. Hadorn, D. Defining Basic Health Benefits Using Clinical Guidelines: A Model Proposal for Discussion. Paper prepared for the conference on ''Creating a Fair and Reasonable Basic Benefit Plan Using Clinical Guidelines," sponsored by the California Public Employees' Retirement System's Health Benefits Advisory Council, Sacramento, Calif., April 24-26, 1991a. Hadorn, D. Necessary-Care Guidelines: Using an Explicit Standard of Proof to Define Health Care Needs . Paper prepared for the conference on "Creating a Fair and Reasonable Basic Benefit Plan Using Clinical Guidelines," sponsored by the California Public Employees' Retirement System's Health Benefits Advisory Council, Sacramento, Calif., April 24-26, 1991b. Hadorn, D.C. Setting Health Care Priorities in Oregon: Cost-Effectiveness Meets the Rule of Rescue. Journal of the American Medical Association 265:2218-2225, 1991c. Hadorn, D., and Brook, R. The Health Care Resource Allocation Debate. Journal of the American Medical Association 266:3328-3331, 1991. Hall, M. The Malpractice Standard under Health Care Cost Containment. Law, Medicine and Health Care 17(4):347-355, 1989. Hall, M. The Legal Implications of Medical Practice Guidelines: An Evaluation of the AMA Report [American Medical Association's General Counsel's Office Report on the Impact of Parameters of Care or Practice Guidelines on the Potential Liability of Physicians, Medical Societies and Payers]. Unpublished paper prepared at the request of the Physician Payment Review Commission (PPRC), January 1990. Hall, M. The Defensive Effect of Medical Practice Policies in Malpractice Litigation. Law and Contemporary Problems 54:199-245, 1991. Hammond, W. Health Level 7: An Application Standard for Electronic Medical Data Exchange. Topics in Health Record Management: Standards for Clinical Information Processing 11(4):59-66, 1991. Hammons, T. The Use and Contribution of Practice Guidelines. Background paper prepared for the Conference to Develop a Research Agenda for Outcomes and Effectiveness Research, conducted by the Foundation for Health Services Research and the Alpha Center, Arlington, Va., April 14-16, 1991. Harvard Medical Practice Study. Patients, Lawyers and Doctors. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Medical School, 1990. Hattwick, M.A., Hart, R.J., and Weiss, S. Using the Information Tool to Improve Preventive Medical Care. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, November 1981, pp. 182-186. Havighurst, C. Practice Guidelines and the Law. Unpublished memorandum to G.T. Hammons, Physician Payment Review Commission, January 16, 1990a.

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