1. Subjects to be addressed:

    • Responsibility to participate in the peer review process

    • Considerations of confidentiality and proprietary interests in peer review

    • Conflicts of interest and need for disclosure in peer review of competitive proposals

    • Objectivity of peer reviews; inclusion of nonpublic information

  2. Examples of good practice:

    1. It is important that reviewers and readers be informed of the sponsorship of research projects in order that they may be alert to possible bias in the research arising from a sponsor's financial interest in the results. (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1990)

    2. The reviewer has the responsibility for preserving the integrity of the review process. In receiving a manuscript or a grant proposal, he is entrusted with privileged information that is unavailable to anyone outside of the laboratory of the submitting scientist(s). It is of obvious importance for the reviewer not to make use of information gained in the review for his own purposes until it is published or, prior to that, only by consent of the author. The contents of a work under review should not be distributed to other colleagues. There are certain exceptions to this general rule, however. For example, it should be permissible to discuss parts or even all of a submitted work with trusted colleagues to obtain a second opinion in instances when the reviewer is unfamiliar with the methodology or considers the author to be mistaken. (University of Michigan Medical School, 1989)

  1. Training and supervision. Scientists in universities accept the obligation to pass along knowledge and skills to the next generation of scientists.

    1. Subjects to be addressed:

      • Assignment of mentors to students

      • Availability of mentors and appropriate forms of supervision

      • Degree of independence and responsibility for students and postdoctoral trainees

      • Types of duties assignable to students by mentors and supervisors

      • Appraisals and communication of student and trainee performance

    2. Examples of good practice:

      1. Each trainee should have a designated primary scientific

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