misconduct in science other practices of an egregious character similar to fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. These issues deserve further consideration by the scientific research community to determine whether the panel's definition of misconduct in science is flexible enough to include all or most actions that directly damage the integrity of the research process and that were undertaken with the intent to deceive.

Questionable Research Practices

Questionable research practices are actions that violate traditional values of the research enterprise and that may be detrimen tal to the research process. However, there is at present neither broad agreement as to the seriousness of these actions nor any con sensus on standards for behavior in such matters. Questionable research practices do not directly damage the integrity of the research process and thus do not meet the panel's criteria for inclusion in the definition of misconduct in science. However, they deserve attention because they can erode confidence in the integrity of the research process, violate traditions associated with science, affect scientific conclusions, waste time and resources, and weaken the education of new scientists.

Questionable research practices include activities such as the following:

  • Failing to retain significant research data for a reasonable period;

  • Maintaining inadequate research records, especially for results that are published or are relied on by others;

  • Conferring or requesting authorship on the basis of a specialized service or contribution that is not significantly related to the research reported in the paper;18

  • Refusing to give peers reasonable access to unique research materials or data that support published papers;

  • Using inappropriate statistical or other methods of measurement to enhance the significance of research findings;19

  • Inadequately supervising research subordinates or exploiting them; and

  • Misrepresenting speculations as fact or releasing preliminary research results, especially in the public media, without providing sufficient data to allow peers to judge the validity of the results or to reproduce the experiments.

The panel wishes to make a clear demarcation between misconduct in science and questionable research practices—the two catego-

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