22. The authors concluded that the deviant behavior in these cases, usually faking scientific experiments and data, was displayed by single individuals who acted alone. They observed that many of these individuals held positions of high social status and respectability within their professions and that the scientists involved also made elaborate efforts to conceal their illegitimate behavior.

23. It has been suggested that research physicians whose sole degree is an M.D. have not been adequately exposed to the scientific methods and skills that are the foundation of a Ph.D. program.

24. See Broad and Wade (1982).

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