posals submitted for funding, the overall work load associated with critical evaluation has increased. There are concerns that peer review no longer operates as well as in earlier times, although the effects of increased volume on the operation of the system are not known (Chubin and Hackett, 1990).

Complexity of Collaboration

The increased emphasis on collaborative research is another indicator of change in the research environment. Before World War II, for example, scientific papers signed by more than four authors were practically nonexistent. Also extremely rare were papers that reported the results of collaborative efforts involving more than one laboratory or research team. But modern advances in the speed of travel and communication and in research instrumentation have changed the nature of scientific collaboration. Today, many important research papers involve collaboration among three or more laboratories, with a dozen or more authors in all. It is not unusual for authors or contributing laboratories to reside in more than one country. Although the senior investigators in these efforts may know each other personally, it is unlikely that the junior collaborators have ever met.

Different research groups may have different kinds of specialized skills, and complementary expert skills are likely to be the basis of the scientific collaboration. This type of interaction is very different, however, from earlier scientific exchanges in which all members of a research team shared the same laboratory environment and saw each other constantly during their work together.

Many of the achievements of modern science—of molecular biology, for example—have resulted from complex collaborative exchanges. Scientific advances in this field and others show that specialized collaborations can work effectively and are often indispensable to advancing knowledge. Nevertheless, the complexity of such operations, and the fact that many of the participants have limited personal interactions as well as limited abilities to evaluate the qualifications of others with different kinds of expertise, can give rise on occasion to conflicts and serious misunderstandings and can limit the effective operation of internal checks and balances.

Organization, Goals, and Management of Research Groups

Universities are characterized by decentralized organizational structures. The faculty traditionally govern academic programs. The fac-



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