ies, and investigations, along with annual assurances that the institutions have an appropriate administrative process for handling allegations of misconduct in science (DHHS, 1989a). The institutional reports filed in early 1991 were not available for this study. These institutional summaries could eventually provide an additional source of evidence regarding how frequently misconduct in science addressed at the local level involves biomedical or behavioral research. If the reports incorporate standard terms of reference, are prepared in a manner that facilitates analysis and interpretation, and are accessible to research scientists, they could provide a basis for making independent judgments about the effectiveness of research institutions in handling allegations of misconduct in science. The NSF's regulations do not require an annual report from grantee institutions.

International Studies

Cases of misconduct in science have been reported and confirmed in other countries. The editor of the British Medical Journal reported in 1988 that in the 1980s at least five cases of misconduct by scientists had been documented in Britain and five cases had been publicly disclosed in Australia (Lock, 1988b, 1990.). As a result of a “nonsystematic” survey of British medical institutions, scientists, physicians, and editors of medical journals, Lock cited at least another 40 unreported cases.

There has been at least one prominent case of misconduct in science in India recently (Jayaraman, 1991). Several cases of misconduct in science and academic plagiarism have been recorded in Germany (Foelsing, 1984; Eisenhut, 1990).

Analyses, Surveys, and Other Reports

Hundreds of articles on misconduct in science have been published in the popular and scholarly literature over the past decade. The study panel's own working bibliography included over 1,100 such items.

Although highly publicized reports about individual misconduct cases have appeared with some frequency, systematic efforts to analyze data on cases of misconduct in science have not attracted significant interest or support within the research community until very recently. Research studies have been hampered by the absence of information and statistical data, lack of rigorous definitions of misconduct in science, the heterogeneous and decentralized nature of the research environment, the complexity of misconduct cases, and



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