Association for the Advancement of Science. Approximately 75 percent (294) of the graduate deans responded to the survey.

TABLE 4.4 Primary Sources of Detection of Alleged Misconduct (1980 to 1987)

Factor

Number of Cases

Admission

2

Co-worker or former co-worker reported:

Laboratory suspicions, irregular procedures

13

Misuse of funds

1

Inability to replicate or continue work

8

Institutional review board raised questions

1

Scientists at other institutions reported suspicions (including inability to replicate work)

6

Editorial peer review

3

Promotion review of publications

1

Formal audit

1

Protest by original author (plagiarism)

3

Unknown

2

NOTE: Some instances were or seem to have been suspected or detected at about the same time by more than one factor. From the available record it is difficult to make a clear distinction between factors that enabled detection of misconduct in science and those used to demonstrate or prove it.

SOURCE: Data from Woolf (1988a).

The Acadia Institute survey data indicate that 40 percent (118) of the responding graduate deans had received reports of possible faculty misconduct in science during the previous 5 years. Two percent (6) had received more than five reports. These figures suggest that graduate deans have a significant chance of becoming involved in handling an allegation of misconduct in science.

The survey shows that about 190 allegations of misconduct in science were addressed by CGS institutions over the 5-year period (1983 to 1988) reported in the survey. It is not known whether any or all of these allegations were separately submitted to government offices concerned with misconduct in science during this time period, although overlap is likely.

The Acadia Institute survey also suggests, not surprisingly, that allegations of misconduct in science are associated with institutions that receive significant amounts of external research funding. As noted in the NSF's OIG summary report of the Acadia Institute survey: “Of the institutions receiving more than $50 million in external research funding annually, 69 percent [36] had been notified of possi-



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