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SOME BASICS ON WHO'S WHO AND WHAT'S WHAT IN SEISMIC SAFETY Diana Todd National Institute of Standards and Technology Introduction The tendency of both governments and engineers to form acronyms seems to reach an apex in the U.S. earthquake engineering community. Almost every group, program, and document in the public and private sectors is referred to by an acronym or idiom. This paper defines organization acronyms in Table 1* and presents short idiomatic and official titles of earthquake-related documents in Table 2. The text uses a description of the Federal earthquake program, the world of building codes, and the history of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions to illustrate the way in which many of these organizations and documents are related. Federal Earthquake Organizations The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) was created by the President in 1978 in response to the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act passed by Congress in 1977. The NEHRP is a broad-based multi-departmental program of basic and applied research; emergency services and recovery planning; education; and development of improved design and construction procedures. The most recent reauthorization of the NEHRP, Public Law 101-614, was signed in November 1990. The Federal Emergency Management Agency, as the lead agency, is responsible for coordinating the program and reporting on NEHRP efforts and results to Congress. The four program agencies of the NEHRP are: • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) • United States Geological Survey (USGS) • National Science Foundation (NSF) • National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) "Tables and figures are at the end of the paper. 1

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Other contributing agencies include the Bureau of Reclamation, the Departments of Defense, Energy, Transportation, and Veterans Affairs, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. See Figure 1. Figure 2 illustrates the NEHRP coordination mechanisms. Policy level representatives from the four program agencies (FEMA, USGS, NSF, and NIST) participate in the Policy Coordinating Group (PCG) where overall planning decisions are made and budgeting efforts are coordinated. Program level personnel represent the four program agencies on the Intcragency Coordination Committee (ICC). These two committees provide coordination mechanisms which help avoid duplication of effort and identify overlooked or underemphasized elements. The Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC) is a subcommittee of the ICC. See Figure 3. This committee, which currently is made up of 25 member agencies, provides a forum for the transfer and exchange of information between Federal agencies. The ICSSC publishes technical reports produced by its five standing committees, and consensus documents which have been approved by the full committee. The ICSSC also sponsors symposia and workshops. P.L. 101-614 calls upon the ICSSC to support the development of standards for assessing and retrofitting existing Federally owned and leased buildings. In the 1980s, the ICSSC wrote and endorsed the document which eventually became Executive Order 12699, "Seismic Safety of Federal and Federally Assisted or Regulated New Building Construction." Two informational studies and a consensus guidance document, "Guidelines and Procedures for Implementation of the Executive Order on Seismic Safety of New Construction" (RP 2.1), have been produced by the ICSSC to support Federal agency efforts to implement the Executive Order. The World of Building Codes One major product of the NEHRP is the reference document titled "NEHRP Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for New Buildings" (NEHRP Recommended Provisions). This document is not itself a building code, but is intended to serve as a resource document for organizations that do produce building codes. Its role in the development of improved building codes is described below and illustrated in Figure 4. In the United States, the authority to adopt and enforce building codes is delegated to state, county, and local jurisdictions. There are approximately 40,000 jurisdictions that adopt and enforce building codes. However, most jurisdictions adopt one of three major model building codes rather than develop an independent code. The term "building code" refers to a legally adopted and enforced statute. Developed specifically for adoption by legal jurisdictions, model codes are not themselves standards or codes, but are models that can be used to create a legal building code.

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Model codes are developed to cover all aspects of building design and construction. In addition to model building codes, which cover primarily structural and architectural concerns, mechanical, fire, plumbing, and other model codes exists. The three major model building codes incorporate, for the most part, the same national standards. Significant differences exist in requirements for environmental forces such as wind, snow, and seismic loads. Each code also has its own format for organizing requirements, and each includes some specific provisions that are unique. The three major model codes are: • the Uniform Building Code, published by the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) • the National Building Code, published by Building Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA), and • the Standard Building Code, published by Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). These codes are known colloquially by several terms. ICBO's model code is known as the UBC or the Uniform code. The BOCA model code is referred to as BOCA, the National code, or the BOCA National code. The model code of the SBCCI was formerly referred to primarily as the Southern code; the term Standard code is coming into more common use. The terms Uniform code, National code and Standard code will be used in this paper. Each of the model codes can be adopted and applied anywhere in the country, but in actuality, each is used on a largely regional basis. The Uniform code is used in the western half of the country, the National code is used in the Midwest and Northeast, and the Standard code is used in the South. A fourth model code that is used throughout the country is published by the Council of American Building Officials (CABO). CABO is an organization that represents the three major model code organizations, and publishes the One and Two Family Dwelling Code, made up largely of tables and drawings, that is meant to be applied by home builders for simple residential buildings that do not require the design expertise of an architect or engineer. National standards include design requirements for materials, such as the American Concrete Institute's "Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Con- crete" (ACT 318), the American Institute of Steel Construction's "Specifications for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings," the American Society of Civil Engineers standards ASCE 5 and 6, "Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures" and "Specifications for Masonry for Masonry Structures," and the National Forest Products Association's "Design Values for Wood Construction." Testing, inspection, and construction standards developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and organizations such as the American Welding Society (AWS) are also in this category. The American Society of Civil Engineers has recently taken over promulgation of "Minimum

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Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures." This document, formerly known as American National Standards Institute ANSI A58.1, is now published as ASCE 7. For seismic design, there currently exist two resource documents: the NEHRP Recommended Provisions mentioned previously and the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) "Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary," or the Blue Book. The SEAOC Blue Book has been published since 1959. The NEHRP Recommended Provisions were first published in 1985. These documents serve as resources for the model codes. Information exchange between the resource documents and the national standards flows both ways. Improvements to seismic provisions in the resource documents and the national standards, and thus to the model and locally enforced codes, come from research results, post-earthquake investigations, and feedback from designers and building officials. Federal efforts under the NEHRP and efforts from the private sector (many of them Federally funded) lead to research and investigation results that improve seismic design and construction standards. Until the NEHRP Recommended Provisions were published, the SEAOC Blue Book was the only document that attempted to methodically incorporate research and investigation results into a comprehensive seismic design document. A new edition of the Blue Book would typically be adopted almost verbatim into the Uniform code during its regular update cycle. ANSI A58.1 also rapidly incorporated advances in seismic design presented in the Blue Book. The National and Standard codes adopted the updated design recommendations from ANSI A58.1 See Figure 5. Today the NEHRP Recommended Provisions present a second resource document that model codes can turn to for up-to-date seismic design and construction recommendations. While the NEHRP Recommended Provisions and the SEAOC Blue Book both incorporate the same research and investigation results, the documents differ because the NEHRP Recommended Provisions use ultimate strength design and the Blue Book uses allowable stress. The two also differ in how they address building occupancy or importance. National and Standard have adopted the format and requirements of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions in their 1992 supplements and additions. ASCE 7 is currently considering adoption of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions. See Figure 6. History of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions The 1971 San Fernando earthquake (Richter magnitude 6.4) killed 64 people and caused the collapse of several hospital buildings and highway overpasses. Other buildings and lifelines, including a dam, suffered severe damage. A workshop on building practices held in 1972 by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS, previous name of NIST) concluded that the Federal government should support the development of improved seismic design and construction standards. The project, funded by NSF and managed by NBS, used a private sector contractor, the Applied 4

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Technology Council (ATC), to pull together research and investigative results into early drafts of the document which would become the NEHRP Recommended Provisions. ATC was formed by SEAOC in the early 1970s as a private non-profit research arm of SEAOC. It has since become independent of SEAOC, and now has a nationwide focus. The results of ATC studies are commonly known by their ATC report number. This first report produced by ATC for the improved seismic design project was issued in 1974 as ATC 2, "An Evaluation of a Response Spectrum Approach to Seismic Design of Buildings." The sixth version of the first draft of the new design provisions was published at ATC 3-06 in 1978. This document is still commonly referred to as ATC 3-06 or ATC 3, rather than its official title of "Tentative Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for Buildings." FEMA was created and became the lead agency of the newly formed NEHRP in 1978. As FEMA took over the project, it recognized that ATC 3-06 needed a thorough review for technical validity, usability, and economic and social impact. The Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC) was formed in 1979 to take on these tasks. The BSSC was created as an affiliated council of the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS). Its mission is to provide consensus review of Federally developed seismic design provisions. The review is provided by the independent and voluntary membership representing both the public and private sectors. Government bodies, voluntary and professional organizations, the design professions, the construction industry, the research community, and the general public are represented on the BSSC. A combined BSSC-NBS review panel drafted a revised version of ATC 3- 06 which was used in a trial design program conducted in the early 1980s. The results of the trial designs were used to further refine and improve the design document. The document was revised still further during the BSSC consensus approval process, which was completed in 1985 with the publication of the first edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions. BSSC, committed to a three-year update cycle, continued to revise, improve, and update the provisions, resulting in 1988 and 1991 editions. BSSC is currently reviewing guidance documents on seismic assessment and retrofit of existing buildings.

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TABLE 1 Acronym In the U.S. Earthquake Comunicv Federal Organizations NEHRP National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program NIST National Institute of standards and Technology FEMA Federal Emergency Mana/ement Agency NSF National Science Foundation USGS United States Geological Survey ICSSC Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction ICC Interagency Coordination Council PCG Policy Coordinating Group Private Sector Organizations EERI Earthquake Engineering Research Institute ATC Applied Technology Council ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers TCLEE Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering of ASCE NIBS National Institute of Building Sciences BSSC Building Seismic Safety Council SEAOC Structural Engineers Association of California SEAONC Structural Engineers Association of Northern California SEAOSC Structural Engineers Association of Southern California Consortia and Quasi-governmental Organizations NCEER National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research CUREe California Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering SCEC Southern California Earthquake Center CUSEC Central United States Earthquake Consortium CSSC California Seismic Safety Commission BAREPP Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project SCEPP Southern California Earthquake Preparedness Project WSSPC Western States Seismic Policy Council Building Code Organizations ICBO International Conference of Building Officials BOCA Building Officials and Code Administrators SBCCI Southern Building Code Congress International CABO Council of American Building Officials Other Acronyms of Interest IDNDR International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction

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TABLE 2 Documents: Short Idiomatic Names and Official Titles Design Documents ASCE 7 ANSI A58.1 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (formerly ANSI A58.1) see ASCE 7 Uniform Building Code, published by ICBO National Building Code, published by BOCA Standard Building Code, published by SBCCI UBC Uniform BOCA National Southern Standard " " " " * " 1 & 2 Family One and Two Family Dwelling Code, published by CABO CABO see 1 & 2 Family Blue Book Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary, published by SEAOC ATC 3-06 Tentative Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for Buildings (superseded by NEHRF Recommended Provisions) NEHRP Prov. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Provisions for New Buildings, published by BSSC and FEMA Existing Building Guidance ATC 14 Evaluating the Seismic Resistance of Existing Buildings (precursor to ATC 22) ATC 22 A Handbook for Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings no idiom yet NEHRP Handbook for the Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings (BSSC consensus version of ATC 22) ATC 28 Development of Recommended Guidelines for Seismic Strengthening of Existing Buildings: Issues Identification and Resolution URS/Blume Techniques for Seismically Rehabilitating Existing Buildings (Preliminary) no idiom yet NEHRP Handbook of Techniques for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings (BSSC consensus version of URS/Blume) Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction Recommended Practices ICSSC RP 1 Seismic Design Guidelines for Federal Buildings ICSSC RP 2 Guidelines and Procedures for Implementation of Executive Order on Seismic Safety (superseded by RP 2.1) ICSSC RP 2.1 Guidelines and Procedures for Implementation of the Executive Order on Seismic Safety of New Construction ICSSC RP 3 Guidelines for Identification and Mitigation of Seismically Hazardous Existing Federal Buildings Federal Requirements EO 12699 Executive Order 12699, "Seismic Safety of Federal and Federally Assisted or Regulated New Building Construction" P.L. 101-614 Public Law 101-614, "National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program Reauthorization Act"

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REMA) Lead Agency Program Agencies Contributing Agencies BRC ; tDOD ; t DOE M DOT M VA ) INOAAJ ( NRC ) ( TVA Figure 1 - NEHRP Federal Agencies FEMA ) C USGS Figure 2 - NEHRP Coordination

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ooo oo Oo oo0o f-N 27 agencies ° o Recommended Practices Education Technical Reports Figure 3 - Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction

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Federal Efforts NEHRP $$$$$$$ Private Sector > Universities • Research Consortla • Professional Org. • Private Firms 1111 1 1 1 11 1 1 HI NEHRP Recommended Provisions oooooooooooooooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooo up to 40,000 °J?S£££S£S£ °^%%%°3o3% OCR for page 1
SEAOC \ Blue Book" Figure 5 - Pattern of Seismic Code Improvement - pre-1980's NEHRP Recommended Provisions SEAOC \ "Blue Book" ) Figure 6 - Current Sources of Seismic Code Improvement 11