Index

A

Accuracy of data, 1, 2, 7, 13

Census Bureau and Customs Service, 10–11, 17, 84, 85, 87, 103, 104, 106, 111, 112, 201–207

data collection and quality, 25, 29, 65, 70–72, 87, 106, 111, 112, 199, 201–207, 214–215, 219

international trade and services, 17, 19, 20, 28, 29, 98, 116, 150, 151, 153, 154, 157, 164, 165–166, 201–207, 214–215, 216, 221, 223, 224

merchandise trade, 10–11, 25, 64–65, 84, 85, 90, 106, 111, 194, 199, 200, 201–207, 221–224, 226

Advisory bodies, 17, 70, 73, 112–113

Affiliates' transactions, see Foreign affiliates of U.S. firms;

U.S. affiliates of foreign firms

Aggregation/disaggregation, 5, 49, 78, 161–162, 202, 215, 224

Agricultural trade, 11, 79, 99, 112, 191, 201, 202, 206, 224

Air transport, 21, 94, 139, 141–145, 153, 208

American Economic Association, 66

Annual Company Organization Survey, 256

Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM), 12, 55, 79, 106, 112, 253–254, 256, 257

Annual Survey of Selected Industries, 57

Antitrust, 36–37, 43, 193

dumping, 43, 64, 193

Architecture, 133–134, 152

Automated Broker Interface, 85–86, 89, 91, 105

Automated Commercial Systems, 108

Automatic Export Reporting Program (AERP), 84, 89, 108

Automation, see Computers and computer science

B

Balance-of-payments accounts, 3–4, 5, 6, 13, 20, 24, 25, 28, 33–45, 49, 71, 72, 98, 117, 121–123, 124, 132, 134–137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 148, 152, 153, 154–155, 157, 159, 160, 161, 164, 165, 169, 170, 181

Balance-of-Payments Manual, 45, 49-50, 149, 158

Bank for International Settlements, 10, 49, 170

Banking services, 117, 121, 123, 146–



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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy Index A Accuracy of data, 1, 2, 7, 13 Census Bureau and Customs Service, 10–11, 17, 84, 85, 87, 103, 104, 106, 111, 112, 201–207 data collection and quality, 25, 29, 65, 70–72, 87, 106, 111, 112, 199, 201–207, 214–215, 219 international trade and services, 17, 19, 20, 28, 29, 98, 116, 150, 151, 153, 154, 157, 164, 165–166, 201–207, 214–215, 216, 221, 223, 224 merchandise trade, 10–11, 25, 64–65, 84, 85, 90, 106, 111, 194, 199, 200, 201–207, 221–224, 226 Advisory bodies, 17, 70, 73, 112–113 Affiliates' transactions, see Foreign affiliates of U.S. firms; U.S. affiliates of foreign firms Aggregation/disaggregation, 5, 49, 78, 161–162, 202, 215, 224 Agricultural trade, 11, 79, 99, 112, 191, 201, 202, 206, 224 Air transport, 21, 94, 139, 141–145, 153, 208 American Economic Association, 66 Annual Company Organization Survey, 256 Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM), 12, 55, 79, 106, 112, 253–254, 256, 257 Annual Survey of Selected Industries, 57 Antitrust, 36–37, 43, 193 dumping, 43, 64, 193 Architecture, 133–134, 152 Automated Broker Interface, 85–86, 89, 91, 105 Automated Commercial Systems, 108 Automatic Export Reporting Program (AERP), 84, 89, 108 Automation, see Computers and computer science B Balance-of-payments accounts, 3–4, 5, 6, 13, 20, 24, 25, 28, 33–45, 49, 71, 72, 98, 117, 121–123, 124, 132, 134–137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 148, 152, 153, 154–155, 157, 159, 160, 161, 164, 165, 169, 170, 181 Balance-of-Payments Manual, 45, 49-50, 149, 158 Bank for International Settlements, 10, 49, 170 Banking services, 117, 121, 123, 146–

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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy 149, 157, 162-164, 167, 169, 170, 171, 172, 215 see also Capital flows; Federal Reserve System; Financial services Bank of Mexico, 146 Basle Committee on Banking Supervision, 169 Bilateral trade and trade agreements, 3, 4, 41, 68, 79, 247, 248 with Canada, 8, 21, 85, 93–94, 104, 211, 213–214, 215, 247, 248 export/import data, 8, 21, 85, 93–94, 95, 100, 104, 111 intermediate inputs, 49 with Japan, 64, 94–95, 100 price indexes, 209 Bills of lading, 84 Budgets of statistical agencies, 2, 24, 25, 26–27 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 12, 35, 72–73 budget of, 26–27, 165 capital flows, 9, 16, 33–34, 65, 157, 159–168, 171, 215–216 computer use, 142 confidentiality restrictions, 117, 215–216 coordination with Census Bureau, 9, 12, 16, 112, 116, 155, 161, 208–209 coordination with other agencies, 146, 164, 173 foreign affiliates, 12–13, 115, 118, 120–125, 134, 154–155, 164–166, 179, 181 foreign direct investments, other, 34, 36, 43, 58, 66, 115, 118, 120–125, 134, 154–155, 157, 159–162, 164–166 input-output tables, 6, 7, 42, 48–49, 56 merchandise trade, 16, 53, 61, 98, 112, 193, 208 NIPA, 35, 59 service sector trade, 12, 33, 57, 65, 66, 114, 115–116, 120–155, 213–214 Bureau of Export Administration, 82 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) employment data, 55, 59 merchandise sector, 53, 55 price data, 53, 59, 68, 79, 209 service sector, 57 Business, professional, and technical services, 57, 116, 117, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 133–134, 135, 152, 159, 170 Business Council on the Reduction of Paperwork, 125, 132 C Canada, 209, 211, 251 bilateral agreements with, see under Bilateral trade and trade agreements Census Bureau data, 85, 93–94, 104, 145, 209, 247 export statistics, compared with U.S., 221–224 freight and pipeline transport, 139–140, 203, 213–214 service trade, 213–214 statistics exchange, 85, 93–94, 145, 199, 213–214, 224, 246, 247, 248 travel and tourism, 145–146 Canvass of data users international services transactions and capital flows, 211–216 interview protocol, 217–220 invitation for written comments, 216–217 merchandise trade data, 190–211 methods used in, 187–190 Capital accounts, 20, 25, 159 Capital flows, 16, 65, 156–173, 193 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 9, 16, 33–34, 65, 157, 159–168, 171, 215–216 data collection, general, 2, 5, 13–14, 33–34, 65, 156, 158–164, 171, 215–216 data user evaluations, 211, 214–216 Department of the Treasury, 9–10, 16–17, 65, 157, 158, 159, 164, 167, 168–170, 214, 215 errors and error analysis, 20, 156, 170–171, 214–215 Federal Reserve System, 16–17, 34, 157–158, 162–164, 215 flow-of-funds accounts, 16–17, 73, 157 foreign affiliates, state-level data, 215–216

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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy surveys, general, 160–161, 171 technological innovations and, 10, 13, 26, 166, 172 see also Currency flow and exchange; Portfolio transactions; Securities transactions CD-ROMs, 55, 78, 91, 92, 195–196, 199, 200, 251 Census Bureau, 10–11, 58, 72–73, 188, 190 budget of, 26–27, 55 Canada, trade statistics, 85, 93–94, 104, 209, 247 classification systems, 52, 54–55 computer use, 12, 78, 84–93, 100, 105–109, 113, 195–196, 199, 200, 256 continuous independent review system, 11, 100–102, 111–112 coordination, general, 12, 112 coordination with Bureau of Economic Analysis, 9, 12, 16, 112, 116, 155, 161, 208–209 coordination with Customs Service, 7–8, 10–11, 33, 55, 82–84, 86, 99, 104–105 coordination with DOE via EIA, 11, 79, 112 coordination with USDA, 11, 112, 201, 202 databases, 12, 78, 84–93 data timeliness, 10, 16, 84, 95, 111, 198–199 errors and error analysis, 11, 87–99, 100–102, 106–107, 111–113, 201–207, 228, 237–238, 239 freight, 137, 138, 139, 140 merchandise trade, 11–12, 15–16, 33, 52, 54–55, 57, 61, 67, 78, 79, 82–113, 191, 192, 193, 195–209, 228, 237–238, 239, 242–243, 245–257 quinquennial survey, international trade data, 6, 57, 61 service sector, 9, 12, 16, 57–58, 61, 112, 116, 155 SSEL, 9, 116, 162, 209, 256 Chase Manhattan Bank, 20 Classification and classification systems, 3–4, 45, 49–51 Census Bureau, 52, 54–55 concordances, 48, 52 data user evaluations, 98 domestic versus international trade, general, 5, 46–52 exchange relationships, general, 177–179 exports, 53–55 financial transactions, 14 foreign direct investment, 5, 48, 160 foreign firm/affiliate, 39, 44–45, 58–59, 161 Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, 48, 49, 52, 58, 67, 78, 89–90, 191–192, 196, 197, 207 IMF, international transactions, 45 intermediate inputs, 48–49, 56 merchandise, general, 5, 6, 48, 52, 53–55, 77–78, 89–90, 117, 196, 204–205, 207–208 residence status, 34, 181, 184 securities transactions, 168 service sector, 5, 9, 48, 56–58, 115, 117, 152, 212 SIC, 5, 6, 48, 53–56, 57, 61, 189, 192, 195, 200 standardization, general, 6, 50, 61 Tariff Schedule of the United States Annotated, 196, 202 time series data, 196 UN systems, 44–45, 50, 52, 53, 58, 149, 152 Coalition of Service Industries, 213, 214 Comparability of data Census Bureau and Customs Service, 7, 113, 201–202 international trade and services, 4–5, 24–25, 28, 46–62, 213, 221–224, 257 merchandise trade, 47–48, 52–56, 67, 94–95, 199, 201–202 need for, 46–50 COMPRO, 54, 61, 79, 91–92, 197 Computers and computer science, 21, 100, 105–109 Automated Broker Interface, 85–86, 89, 91, 105 Automated Commercial Systems, 108 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 142 CD-ROMs, 55, 78, 91, 92, 195–196, 199, 200, 251 Census Bureau, 12, 78, 84–93, 100,

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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy 105-109, 113, 195-196, 199, 200, 256 cost factors, 107, 108–109 Customs Service, 85–86, 87, 89, 91, 105, 107–109 data conversion to electronic format, 68 data standards, 12 machine-readable data, 55, 68, 71, 78, 84–85, 91, 99, 104–105, 113, 253 microcomputers, 91, 92, 93 merchandise trade, data automation, 53, 78, 84–93, 100, 105–109, 113 semiconductors, 64 services, 142 see also Databases Concordances, classification systems, 48, 52 Confidentiality, 256–257 Bureau of Economic Analysis, data, 117, 215–216 export documents, 95 foreign direct investment, 161 Construction and engineering, 133–134, 152 Continuous independent review system, 11, 100–102, 111–112 Costs and cost-effectiveness versus accuracy, 70–71 automation, 107, 108–109 COMPRO database use, 91–92 data user, cost-sharing by, 17, 27, 69–70 data user perspective, 195, 198, 207 foreign direct investment by U.S., financial services, 23 freight, 137, 139, 203, 221, 223, 224 globalization of markets, 22 medical services, 149 portfolio transactions, monitoring, 10 sharing, data users, 17, 27, 69–70 statistical data and programs, 1, 15, 25–27, 68, 69–70, 73, 99, 102, 107, 247–248, 249, 251–253, 254 student's cost of living, 150 technological innovations, 21 Council of Economic Advisers, 2, 27 Cross-border trade, 3, 5, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42–43, 48, 56, 114, 115, 116, 134, 153, 169, 170, 178, 180, 182, 184, 212, 213–214 Currency flow and exchange, 22, 26, 35, 59, 148, 157, 158, 166, 169, 170–171 Eurodollars, 10 U.S. dollars, 22, 35, 64 Current accounts, 20, 25, 65, 72, 124–125, 157, 159 Current Industrial Reports, 54 Customs Service computer use, 85–86, 87, 89, 91, 105, 107–109 coordination with Bureau of Economic Analysis, 146 coordination with Census Bureau, 7–8, 10–11, 33, 55, 82–84, 86, 88, 99, 100, 104–105 documentation, trade, 8, 67, 82, 87 enforcement activities, 95, 99, 102–103 merchandise trade, 77–78, 82–84, 86, 88, 93, 99, 100, 102–103, 104–105, 107–108 port audits, 102–103, 104 tariffs, 47, 68, 95, 104–105 D Data analysis, 1, 2, 14–17, 63–73 by users, 68, 192–195 see also Errors and error analysis; Seasonal adjustments; Time-series analysis; “data analysis” under specific subject terms Databases Census Bureau, 12, 78, 84–93 COMPRO, 54, 61, 79, 91–92, 197 continuous independent review system, 11, 100–102, 111–112 management, 6, 99, 103 NTDB, 59–62, 78, 82, 117, 197, 200 Data collection, general, 19, 217–218 Canada, statistics exchange, 85, 93–94, 145, 199, 213–214, 224, 246, 247, 248 capital flows, 2, 5, 13–14, 33–34, 65, 156, 158–164, 171, 215–216 data analysis interface with, 1, 2, 14–17, 63, 65 data entry, 86–89, 100–102 domestic versus international trade, 5, 46

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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy errors, 6, 87–90 foreign direct investment, Bureau of Economic Analysis, 34, 36, 43, 58, 115, 118, 120–125, 134, 154–155 historical perspectives, 1, 49, 167 merchandise trade, 2, 10–12, 33, 67, 77–99, 107, 221–224 portfolio transactions, 13, 33–34, 156, 162–164, 167, 172, 173 service sector, 8–9, 12–13, 65, 115–118, 120–155 see also Census Bureau; Customs Service; Documentation; Surveys; Timeliness of data Data entry, 86–89, 100–102 Data quality profiles, 14–15, 17, 70–72, 73, 95–97 Data users, 11, 16, 73 advisory bodies, 17, 70, 73, 112–113 canvass of, 187–220 Commerce Department, 213 conferences of, 70, 188–190 cost of data, perspective of, 195, 198, 207 cost-sharing by, 17, 27, 69–70 evaluations by, 25, 66, 67–70, 98, 103, 111, 112–113, 187–220 Federal Reserve, 191, 194, 200, 210, ITA, 191, 203, 205 ITC, 200, 202, 205, 206 USDA, 191, 201, 206 Department of Agriculture (USDA), 11, 79, 112 coordination with Census Bureau, 11, 112, 201, 202 data users in, 191, 201, 206 Department of Commerce, 54, 56 data users in, 213 merchandise trade, 78 NTDB, 59–62, 78, 82, 117, 197, 200 see also Bureau of Economic Analysis; Census Bureau; Customs Service; International Trade Administration Department of Education, 150 Department of Energy, EIA, 11, 79, 112 Department of the Treasury, 72–73 capital flows, 9–10, 16–17, 65, 157, 158, 159, 164, 167, 168–170, 214, 215 coordination with Bureau of Economic Analysis, 164 coordination with Federal Reserve, 16, 73, 154, 162–164 portfolio investments, 34, 162–164, 167 securities transactions, 147–148, 154, 167, 168 service sector trade, 12 TIC forms, 34, 157, 162–164, 166, 167–170, 171, 172, 214, 215 see also Customs Service; Internal Revenue Service Department of Transportation, 145 Deregulation, see Regulation/deregulation Disaggregation, see Aggregation/disaggregation Documentation, customs, 8, 67, 82, 84–87, 95, 98–99 bills of lading, 84 electronic, 107–109, 113 exports, 8, 67, 82–84, 87, 95, 98–99, 100, 203, 250–253 filers, standards, 2, 6, 10, 103–104 freight carriers, 137 imports, 8, 67, 82–84, 87, 98–99, 208 port audits, 102–103, 104 shipper's export declarations, 84, 85, 86, 87–88, 95, 99, 103, 108, 109, 203, 204, 208, 246, 247, 253, 254 see also Confidentiality Domestic trade data international data, comparability with, 4–5, 24–25, 46–62 SIC, 5, 6, 48, 53–56, 57, 61, 189, 192, 195, 200 Double-entry accounting, 25–26 Dumping, 43, 64, 193 Dun and Bradstreet, 88 E Educational services, 120, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 135, 150, 153–154 Employment and unemployment, 3, 22, 64 BLS, 55, 59 domestic versus international data, 5, 25, 47 foreign firms and affiliates, 23, 24, 36, 41, 42, 58 merchandise sector, 55–56, 193–194 service sector, 57

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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy Energy Information Administration (EIA), 11, 79, 112 Errors and error analysis, 7, 106 capital flows, 20, 156, 170–171, 214–215 Census Bureau, 11, 87–99, 100–102, 106–107, 111–113, 201–207, 228, 237–238, 239 cost versus accuracy, 70–71 currency holdings, 170–171 data collection, 6, 87–90 data entry, 86–89, 100–102 data quality profiles, 14–15, 17, 70–72, 73, 95–97 double-entry accounting, 25–26 exports, underreporting, 6, 7–8, 10, 64–65, 93–95, 102–103, 106, 111 export statistics, other countries, 221–224 imputation procedures, 88, 89, 90, 97, 104 merchandise trade, 15, 64–65, 87–90, 93–99, 100–102, 106–107, 111–113, 196, 201–207 sampling, errors in, 71, 118, 144–145, 150–151, 252 sampling for error analysis, 88–89, 101, 113 seasonal adjustments, 226–236 service sector, 118, 143–145, 150–155 time series data, 196 Eurobonds, 163, 167 Eurodollars, 10 European Communities, 21, 95, 100, 211, 248 Statistical Office, 28, 50 Exports, 39, 79, 193, 194, 203, 221–224, 250 aggregation/disaggregation, 5, 49, 78, 161–162, 202, 215, 224 agricultural, 99 AERP, 84, 89, 108 bilateral agreements on data, 8, 21, 85, 93–94, 95, 100, 104, 111 classification, 53–55 documentation, 8, 67, 82–84, 87, 95, 98–99, 100, 203, 250–253 documentation, electronic filing, 107–109, 113 employment, capital, and other establishment data, 55–56 foreign investment and, 36, 39, 42, 178, 180–181 port audits, 102–103 price data, 52–53, 209 shipper's export declarations, 84, 85, 86, 87–88, 95, 99, 103, 108, 109, 203, 204, 208, 246, 247, 253, 254 state-level data, 191 statistics, U.S. versus foreign sources, 221–224 underreporting, 6, 7–8, 10, 64–65, 93–95, 102–103 see also Merchandise trade Exports from Manufacturing Establishments, 204 F Federal government budgets, 2, 24, 25, 26–27 data users in, 191, 194, 197, 199–200, 212–213, 214 statistical agencies, 1, 2, 14, 25–27 U.S. Trade Representative, 79, 212–213, 214 see also Bureau of Economic Analysis; Census Bureau; Customs Service; Department of the Treasury; Interagency coordination; Laws, specific federal; other specific departments and agencies Federal Reserve System capital flows, 16–17, 34, 157–158, 162–164, 215 coordination with Treasury Department, 16, 73, 154, 162–164 currency exchange and foreign interest rates, 59 data users in, 191, 194, 200, 210, merchandise trade, 78, 191, 194, 200, 210, portfolio investments, 34, 162–163, 171 service sector trade, 12, 154 Federal Reserve Bank of New York, 9–10, 164, 166, 167, 215 Financial Assets and Liabilities, 158 Financial intermediaries, 10, 156, 164, 169 Financial markets, see Capital flows;

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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy Portfolio transactions; Securities transactions Financial services, 21–22, 23, 48, 57, 65, 117, 120, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 135, 146–149, 153–154, 157, 159, 212 see also Banking services; Capital flows Flow-of-funds accounts, 16–17, 73, 157–158 Flow of Funds Accounts, 158 Foreign affiliates, general, 3–4, 5, 6, 39–45, 58, 160–161, 177–181, 184–186 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 12–13, 115, 118, 120–125, 134, 154–155, 164–166, 179, 181 classification, 39, 44–45, 58–59, 161 employment issues, 23, 24, 36, 41, 42, 58 financing arrangements, 24 intermediate inputs, 36, 40, 42, 48–49, 56 service sector, 3–4, 12–13, 49, 114, 115, 118, 120–125, 134, 154–155 Foreign affiliates in U.S., 5, 58, 177–181, 185–186 employment, 42 service sector, 123–125, 152 Foreign affiliates of U.S. firms, 3–4, 6, 21–22, 23–24, 33–45, 114, 115, 116, 120–125, 160, 161, 177–186, 214–215 see also U.S. affiliates of foreign firms Foreign direct investment, general, 9–10, 22, 23, 33–45, 58–59, 158–159, 164–165, 173 Bureau of Economic Analysis data analysis, 66, 159–162, 164–166 Bureau of Economic Analysis data collection, 34, 36, 43, 58, 115, 118, 120–125, 134, 154–155 classification of, 5, 48, 160 confidentiality, 161 exports and, 36, 39, 42, 178, 180–181 financial services, cost of, 23 partnerships, limited, 165 productivity and, 41 research on, 173 service sector, 123-125, 134 see also Portfolio transactions Foreign Direct Investment and International Financial Data Improvements Act, 9, 161 Foreign direct investment by U.S., 58–59, 160, 161, 164–165, 173 Bureau of Economic Analysis data analysis, 66, 157 classification of, 5, 48 currency exchange and, 148 financial services for, 23 Foreign direct investment in U.S., 160, 161, 165–166, 173, 215–216 classification of, 5, 48 historical perspective, 64 real estate, 165 Free trade areas, 7, 21, 43 Freight, 69, 95, 121, 134–140, 153, 192, 221, 223 air, 139, 208 bills of lading, 84 Canada/U.S., 139–140, 203, 213–214 Census Bureau data, 137, 138, 139, 140 insurance, 137, 221, 224 maritime transport, 134, 137–139 shipper's export declarations, 84, 85, 86, 87–88, 95, 99, 103, 108, 109, 203, 204, 208, 246, 247, 253, 254 see also Traditional Services Futures trading, 167–168 G General Accounting Office, 101 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 41, 114, 214 Gold, 66, 158, 162 Great Lakes, 139 H Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, 48, 49, 52, 54, 67, 78, 89–90, 191–192, 196, 197, 207 Heteroskedasticity of data, 230, 242, 243 Historical perspectives, 64 data collection, 1, 49, 167 data users/government relations, 69 international economic environment, 21–22

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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy merchandise trade, 64, 77, 239, 243 seasonal adjustments, 239 Homoskedasticity of data, 242 I Immigration and Naturalization Service, 141 Imports, 39, 79, 193, 250 aggregation/disaggregation, 5, 49, 78, 161–162, 202, 224 bilateral agreements on data, 8, 21, 85, 93–94, 95, 100, 104, 111 documentation, 8, 67, 82–84, 87, 98–99, 208, 250 versus domestic products, 46–47, 53–55 employment, capital, and other establishment data, 55–56 foreign investment and, 36, 36, 39, 180–181 freight costs, 137, 139, 203, 221, 223, 224 price data, 17, 52–53, 59, 62, 209 see also Merchandise trade; Protectionism Imputation procedures, 88, 89, 90, 97, 104 Inflation, 22, 66 Input-output tables, 6, 7, 42, 48–49, 56 Insurance services, 48, 56, 57, 116, 121, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 133, 135, 137, 152, 221, 224 Intellectual property, 7, 22, 115 Interagency Committee on Measurement of Real Output, 53 Interagency coordination, 7–8, 9, 12, 66, 100, 208–209 automated export system, 108–109 financial services data, 154 NTDB, 59–62, 78, 82, 117, 197, 200 see also listings beginning “coordination” under specific federal agencies Interest and interest rates, 59, 64, 157 Intermediate inputs, 6, 16, 23, 36, 40, 42, 48–49, 56 local-content rules, 4, 40, 186 Internal Revenue Service, 102, 103 coordination with Bureau of Economic Analysis, 173 currency holdings, 170 service sector, 57 International agreements data standards, 6, 14, 61, 62 financial transaction data, 14 see also Bilateral trade and trade agreements; Multilateral agreements; Trade agreements International Financial Data Improvements Act, 9, 161 International Financial Statistics, 223 International Investment and Trade in Services Survey Act, 125, 158, 160 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 10, 20, 45, 49–40, 82, 149, 158, 170, 171, 202, 214, 223 International organizations, 82 OECD, 49, 50, 82, 195 World Bank, 49, 82 see also United Nations International Trade Administration (ITA), 193, 216 COMPRO, 54, 61, 79, 91–92, 197 data users in, 191, 203, 205 International Trade Commission (ITC), 52, 79, 82, 193, 194 data users in, 200, 202, 205, 206 merchandise trade, 78 Intracompany trade, 7, 23, 35, 36, 43, 110, 120, 122, 169 Investment, see Capital flows; Foreign direct investment J Japan, 64, 94–95, 100, 216 bilateral agreements with, 64, 94–95, 100 export statistics compared with U.S., 121–124 securities transactions, 168 service industry, foreign affiliates, 125 Journal of Commerce, 79 L Laws, specific federal Foreign Direct Investment and International Financial Data Improvements Act, 9, 161 International Investment and Trade

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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy in Services Survey Act, 125, 158, 160 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act, 42, 59, 114, 116–117 Tariff and Trade Act, 114, 116, 125 Limitations of data, 113, 150–154, 164–172 Loans, 148 interest on, 59, 64, 157 reporting on, 163, 167 see also Interest and interest rates Local-content rules, 4, 40, 186 M Machine-readable data, 55, 68, 71, 78, 84–85, 91, 99, 104–105, 113, 253 CD-ROMs, 55, 78, 91, 92, 195–196, 199, 200, 251 Managerial techniques and services, 22, 35, 41, 104–105 databases, 6, 99, 103 intracorporate service charges, 122 trade deficit and, 42 Maritime transport, 134, 137–139 Marketing strategies, 192, 193 Massachusetts Institute for Social and Economic Research, 204 Medical services, 116, 120, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 149, 153–154 Merchandise trade, 3, 10–12, 52–56, 58, 77–113 BLS, 53, 55 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 16, 53, 61, 98, 112, 193, 208 Census Bureau, 11–12, 15–16, 33, 52, 54–55, 57, 61, 67, 78, 79, 82–113, 191, 192, 193, 195–209, 228, 237–238, 239, 242–243, 245–257 classification, 5, 6, 48, 52, 53–55, 77–78, 89–90, 117, 196, 204–205, 207–208 Customs Service, 77–78, 82–84, 86, 88, 93, 99, 100, 102–103, 104–105, 107–108 data automation, 53, 78, 84–93, 100, 105–109, 113 data collection, 2, 10–12, 33, 67, 77–99, 107, 221–224 data collection/analysis interface, 15–16 data users evaluation, 190–211 employment, 55–56, 193–194 error analysis, 15, 64–65, 87–90, 93–99, 100–102, 106–107, 111–113, 196, 201–207 Federal Reserve, 78, 191, 194, 200, 210, historical perspectives, 64, 77, 239, 243 monthly trade balance, 78, 80–81, 91, 95–97, 99, 106, 110, 112 sampling, 88–89, 100, 101, 109–110, 113, 245–257 seasonal adjustments, 17, 68, 97, 112, 197, 225–244 state-level data, 55, 67–68, 191, 194, 200, 202, 203, 204–205 surveys, general, 12, 55, 109–110, 113, 253–257 timeliness of data, 191, 198–200, 250 time series analysis, 46–47, 52, 79, 82, 97, 196–197 trade deficit, 93–95; see also Trade deficit see also Exports; Freight; Imports; Variability of data Methodology advisory bodies, 17, 70, 73, 112–113 aggregation/disaggregation, data, 5, 49, 78, 161–162, 202, 215, 224 current study, 19–21, 28–29, 187–190 imputation procedures, 88, 89, 90, 97, 104 standardization of, 61 of statistical agencies, 66–67 see also Data analysis; Data collection; Errors and error analysis; Sampling; Surveys Mexico, 21, 95, 100 freight, 140 travel and tourism, 146 Microcomputers, 91, 92, 93 Multidisciplinary approach advisory bodies, 17, 70, 73, 112–113 study methodology, 19–21, 28–29, 187–190 see also Interagency coordination Multilateral trade agreements, 3, 4, 21, 79 GATT, 41, 114, 214 intermediate inputs, 49 regional agreements, 4, 22, 43

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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy Multinational companies, see Foreign affiliates of U.S. firms; Foreign direct investment N National Bureau of Economic Research, 188–190 National Governors' Association, 67 National income and products accounts (NIPA), 35, 59 Nationality, see Residence status National Trade Data Bank (NTDB), 59–62, 78, 82, 117, 197, 200 National Trade Facilitation Council, 109 Nonresidence status, 26, 34, 148, 169 see also Residence status Nonvessel operating commercial carriers, 95 North American Free Trade Area, 43 O Office of Management and Budget, 26, 125–126 Oil, 11, 112 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act, 42, 59, 114, 116–117 Organizational factors, 23, 105 advisory bodies, 17, 70, 73, 112–113 data set integration, 1 data users, cost-sharing by, 17, 27, 69–70 data users/government relations, 69 financial institutions, 148 partnerships, limited, 165 service sector, 9, 117–118 see also Interagency coordination; Managerial techniques and services Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 49, 50, 82, 195 Origin of Movement, 203 Ownership of enterprise, 68 foreign affiliates, 44, 161 residence status, 14, 184 P Partnerships, limited, 165 Piers Import/Export Reporting Service, 79, 191, 192, 195, 199, 209 errors, 201 Policy issues, general, 14 data users/government relations, 69, 187–220 international coordination, 2–3 Portfolio transactions, 6, 9–10, 14, 24 cost of monitoring, 10 data collection, 13, 33–34, 156, 162–164, 167, 172, 173 data collection/analysis interface, 16–17, 73, 173 defined, 159 Federal Reserve, 34, 162–163, 171 foreign affiliate, ownership defined, 44 incomes on, 171–172 Treasury Department, 34, 162–164, 167 trends, 22 Ports audits, 102–103 freight, 137–138, 139, 203 Prices and price supports, 3, 26 BLS, 53, 59, 68, 79, 209 dumping, 43, 64, 193 exports/imports, 17, 52–53, 59, 62, 209 financial transactions, 17 inflation, 22, 66 medical services, 149 securities transactions, fees, 147–148, 153–154 trade valuation, 43, 53, 94, 213–214 Private services, unaffiliated, 119–120, 125–134, 152 Production and productivity, 3, 5, 6, 67, 210 foreign direct investment and, 41 globalization of markets and, 22 Protectionism, 37, 41, 68, 193, 210 intermediate inputs, 56 local-content rules, 4, 40, 106 tariffs, 47, 68, 95, 104–105, 196, 202, 210 Q Quality control, 10–11, 14–15, 17, 27, 29, 66–67, 70–72, 73, 87–90, 95–97, 98, 99–113, 214–215 see also Errors and error analysis

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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy R Rail transport, 139–140 Real estate, 165 Regional agreements, 4, 22, 43 Regulation/deregulation, 2 financial transactions, 21–22 securities, 166 see also Standards Relevance of data, 1, 2, 17 data collection and quality, 66, 67, 148, 188 international trade and services, 28–29, 63 Research on foreign direct investment, 173 on sampling, 251–253 by statistical agencies, general, 66–67, 72–73 see also Data users Residence status, 14, 26, 34, 37, 41, 68, 134, 147, 148, 153, 158, 160, 166, 169, 181, 184 S Sampling cutoff, 245–248 of enterprises and establishments, 253–257 error analysis via, 88–89, 101, 113 errors in, 71, 118, 144–145, 150–151, 252 freight carriage, ports, 137–138 merchandise trade, 88–89, 100, 101, 109–110, 113, 245–257 probability, 248–253 travel, 144–145, 153 Seasonal adjustments, 17, 68, 97, 112, 197, 225–245 Securities transactions, 153–154, 166–168, 171, 172, 173 electronic, 13, 166, 172 fees, 147–148, 153–154 foreign affiliates, ownership defined, 44 international agreements on data, 14 TIC forms, 34, 157, 162–164, 166, 167, 172, 214, 215 see also Portfolio transactions Semiconductors, 64 Service sector trade, 2, 5, 6, 8–9, 12, 33, 43, 16, 65, 114–155 BLS, 57 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 12, 33, 57, 65, 66, 114, 115–116, 120–155, 213–214 Canada, 213–214 Census Bureau, 9, 12, 16, 57–58, 61, 112, 116, 155 classification, 5, 9, 48, 56–58, 115, 117, 152, 212 cross-border transactions, 115, 134, 169 data automation, 142 data collection, general, 8–9, 12–13, 65, 115–118, 120–155 data user evaluations, 211–214 domestic versus international data, 56–58 employment issues, 57 error analysis, 118, 143–145, 150–155 Federal Reserve, 12, 154 foreign affiliates, 3–4, 12–13, 49, 114, 115, 118, 120–125, 134, 154–155 foreign direct investment, general, 123–125, 134 foreign unaffiliated, 125–150, 155 organizational factors, 9, 117–118 surveys, 12–13, 65, 115–118, 120–125, 132–134, 141–142, 149, 151, 152, 212–213 technological innovation, general, 9, 35, 117–118 timeliness of data, 212–213 see also specific service industries Shipper's export declarations, 84, 85, 86, 87–88, 95, 99, 103, 108, 109, 203, 204, 208, 246, 247, 253, 254 Shipping, see Freight Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), 5, 6, 48, 53–56, 57, 61, 189, 192, 195, 200 concordances involving, 52 Standard International Trade Classification (SITC), 52, 53, 58 Standards data filers, 2, 6, 10, 103–104 electronic data, 12 financial transactions, 14, 173

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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy international, 6, 14 local-content rules, 4 see also Classification and classification systems Standard Statistical Establishment List (SSEL), 9, 116, 162, 209, 256 State-level data capital flows, 215–216 merchandise sector, 55, 67–68, 191, 194, 200, 202, 203, 204–205 Statistical discrepancies export statistics, 223–224 study on, 171 see also Errors and error analysis Statistics Canada, 85, 93–94, 145 Stocks and shares, see Securities transactions Students, see Educational services Survey of Air Travelers Departing the United States, 141–144 Survey of Current Business, 117, 123, 150, 162 Surveys annual, 12, 57, 58, 79, 80, 106–107, 115–116, 120, 121–122, 123, 124, 125, 133, 160, 161, 253–254, 256 Annual Survey of Selected Industries, 57 ASM, 12, 55, 79, 106, 112, 253–254, 256, 257 benchmark, 57, 58, 115, 120–125, 160, 167, 171, 181 capital flows, 160–161, 171 data user needs, 67, 98, 187–220 merchandise trade, 12, 55, 109–110, 113, 253–257 monthly, 11, 15–16, 78, 79, 80–81, 84, 91, 92, 95–97, 99, 105, 106, 110, 112, 113, 162, 163, 253, 254–255, 257 quarterly, 58, 79, 99, 115, 120, 122, 123, 124–125, 160, 161, 162, 163, 253 quinquennial, 6, 57, 61, 79 response bias, 71 service sector trade, 12–13, 65, 115–118, 120–125, 132–134, 141–142, 149, 151, 152, 212–213 see also Sampling System of national accounts (U.N.), 44–45, 50, 149, 152 T Tariff and Trade Act, 114, 116, 165 Tariffs, 47, 68, 95, 104–105, 210 Tariff Schedule of the United States Annotated, 196, 202 Taxes, 17, 36–37, 73, 166, 167 trade valuation and, 43 see also Internal Revenue Service Taxpayer Compliance Measurement Program, 102 Technological innovation capital flows, 10, 13, 26, 166, 172 intellectual property, 22 international trade and, general, 2, 21, 22, 24, 42 merchandise classification, 207–208 service sector, 9, 35, 117–118 see also Computers and computer science Telecommunications services, 9, 13, 21, 22, 48, 56, 57, 87, 116, 118, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 135, 166, 172 Timeliness of data, 1, 7, 8, 13, 17 Census Bureau and Customs Service, 10–11, 16, 84, 85, 87, 95, 97, 103, 111, 112, 198–199 data collection and quality, 25, 29, 87, 107, 111, 198–200, 219, 249 international trade and services, 151, 164, 212–213, 216 merchandise trade, 10–11, 84, 85, 95, 107, 111, 191, 198–200, 201, 205, 250 Time-series analysis, 16, 68 domestic versus foreign markets, 46–47 merchandise trade, 46–47, 52, 79, 82, 97, 196–197 seasonal adjustments, 17, 68, 97, 112, 197, 225–245 Tourism, see Travel and tourism Trade agreements, 3, 4, 22, 24 see also Bilateral trade and trade agreements; Multilateral agreements Trade associations, 66, 82, 109, 213, 214 Trade deficit, 4, 19, 40–41, 65, 93–95, 184, 224, 230

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BEHIND THE NUMBERS: U.S. Trade in the World Economy Trade valuation, 43, 53, 94, 213–214 Traditional services (shipping and tourism), 116, 120, 121, 134–146, 153 see also Freight; Travel and tourism Transportation, see Freight Travel and tourism, 140–146, 153, 213 air, 139, 141–145, 153 Canada/U.S., 121, 145–146 see also Traditional services Travel and Tourism Administration, 141–144 Treasury Bulletin, 163 Treasury International Capital (TIC) forms, 34, 157, 162–164, 166, 167–170, 171, 172, 214, 215 U Uncertainty, see Errors and error analysis United Kingdom, 168 export statistics compared with U.S., 221–224 United Nations, 49, 50, 195 central product classification system, 50 SITC, 52, 53, 58 see also System of national accounts United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement, 21 U.S. affiliates of foreign firms, 3–4, 13, 23–24, 33–45, 116, 120–125, 135, 151, 152, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 167, 169, 172, 177–186 see also Foreign affiliates of U.S. firms U.S. Commodity Exports and Imports as Related to Output, 54 U.S. Industrial Outlook, 54 U.S. Trade Representative, 79, 212–213, 214 Usefulness of data, 2, 7 data collection and quality, 65, 173, 198, 218 international trade and services, 19, 20, 25, 28–29, 46, 63, 151 merchandise trade, 15–16, 64–65 V Variability of data, in seasonally adjusted merchandise trade balances , 28, 29, 95–97, 225–244 Voorburg Group, 50 W West Germany, export statistics compared with U.S., 221–224 Working Group on the Quality of Economic Statistics, 19 World Bank, 49, 82

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