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3 After the Doctorate The typical employment of new PhD's has been found in the nation's colleges and universities, which offered an opportunity for a combination of teaching and research responsibilities. Post- doctoral education, when it was undertaken, was typically in preparation for such employment. During the past decade, a transition has been in evidence, as mounting numbers of new PhD's have come near to saturating the academic market, diminished by a reduced flow of new students. In view of these developments, what have been the plans of the new graduates, as expressed in the Survey of Earned Doctorates? This chapter seeks answers to the marketplace response of the graduating PhD's. HIGHLIGHTS • Postdoctoral study, historically restricted to a few outstanding scholars or scientists, has become "the thing to do" for substantial numbers of new PhD's—up to 40 percent in the life sci- ences, but under 5 percent in the nonscience fields. • Faculty jobs, traditional domain of most PhD's other than chemists and engineers, now offer fewer opportunities, while PhD output re- mains high. • Nonacademic employment, which might be expected to take up the slack as colleges and universities reach the saturation point, has so far failed to do so. • PhD's, at graduation, caught in the squeeze of increased numbers and decreased opportunities, are less sure of their eventual employment and increasingly take a variety of postdoctoral appointments as interim employment while seeking permanent jobs suited to their training and interests. • Follow-up via the Comprehensive Roster of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers shows that, by and large, the plans for the first postgradua- tion year, stated on the Survey of Earned Doctor- ates, are realized. • Geographic destinations following PhD graduation vary according to plans for further training or type of employment. Redistribution of this trained talent favors the Pacific Coast and Middle Atlantic States, in that order, for postdoctoral training, the East North Central and Middle Atlantic States for academic employ- ment, and the South Atlantic and Middle Atlantic States, in that order, for nonacademic employment. • Thirteen percent of those seeking further training plan to go abroad, as compared with 5 percent of those seeking academic jobs and 11 percent of those seeking nonacademic jobs. 76

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77 POSTDOCTORAL STUDY Historically, the doctorate has been the highest recognized level of education. But education beyond the doctorate has also had a long history, in the form of postdoctoral study, either for- mally via a postdoctoral fellowship, or less formally in the course of a sabbatical year. As a rule, the objective is to obtain research ex- perience under the guidance of a mentor recog- nized for his or her achievements and ability to communicate matters of knowledge, technique, or approach to other scholars or scientists. Train- ing at this level in the sciences received per- haps its first significant formal recognition in the establishment in 1919 of the National Research Fellowship program by the National Research Coun- cil, supported by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Over the ensuing quarter century or so, well over 1,000 young scientists, selected for their especial promise as researchers, re- ceived postdoctoral education in this program. Following World War II, new programs supported by government agencies as well as private founda- tions grew rapidly, particularly in the science fields. For students who chose this path, the objective was primarily better preparation for academic careers of research and teaching. A number of studies have been made of the process and results of postdoctoral training, particularly in the sciences, two of them by the National Research Council.1'2 These studies showed the rapid growth of postdoctoral train- ing over the post-World War II period, particu- larly during the 1960's. They also showed that people who undertook postdoctoral study were, on the average, better prepared intellectually for research work and, apart from excellent initial ability, apparently profited from the additional training by an increased research productivity. Meanwhile, another phenomenon appeared that to some extent changed the direc- tion and extent of the postdoctoral experience. This was the advent of what has been called "the new academic depression." Because new PhD's were experiencing greater difficulty in obtain- ing academic jobs, and because those with post- doctoral training were favored for such positions as were available, a year or more of postdoctoral experience became "the thing to do" for an in- creasing portion of the new PhD generation. To some extent, this postdoctoral year—sometimes more than a year—became a "holding pattern" for young men and women for whom jobs that fully employed their research skills were not avail- able. For others, the postdoctoral year afforded an opportunity to switch fields, from that of the dissertation research to something else that offered greater possibilities, either because it accorded better with their developing inter- ests, or because more opportunities were thought to be available in the new field. At a time when the traditional disciplinary lines in the sciences were changing, and new fields develop- ing, this postdoctoral period afforded an excel- lent means of transition. The names under which such transitional education took place were numerous. To the traditional fellowship there was added the postdoctoral traineeship, usually supported by a grant from a government agency, and various types of postdoctoral associateships, which might be either publicly or privately sup- ported and which also bore a variety of designa- tions on different campuses. For the present purpose, there is no distinction between these categories; the data herein include all types of postdoctoral education experience. Comprehensive data going back to the 1930"s are available but are not as reliable as the more recent data based on the DRF. The pre-1960 data come primarily from surveys conducted many years after PhD graduation and include postdoc- toral training at various stages, from appoint- ments immediately following graduation to senior postdoctoral study which may be undertaken even decades later. Comparability is therefore not possible, but the trends within the various data series can be pieced together to indicate a rela- tively consistent historical pattern. One impor- tant factor to note is that while immediate postdoctorals are characteristic of the natural sciences, in the behavioral sciences, the human- ities, and the professions they are atypical; characteristically persons in these latter fields have undertaken postdoctoral education many years after graduation, and typically after having taught several years in a university. Data from the Career Patterns studies3 of the NAS indicate that in all the science fields there was a grad- ual increase in the proportion of each successive cohort who undertook postdoctoral training of some sort. This general trend was interrupted by World War II but was later resumed. More recent data, from the DRF, is given in Table 29, and refers to plans for training in the first post- doctoral year. (As will be shown later, these plans are a very good indicator of the actual experience, as verified by follow-up.) Figure 52 shows these data graphically for four general summary fields but with greater chronological detail. It is noteworthy that in most fields for most periods the proportion of women taking postdoctoral training is greater than the pro- portion of men taking such training. The excep- tions, in Table 29, are mathematics, medical sciences, and economics, and, in the 1970's, chemistry and engineering. National Research Council* The Invisible University, Post- doctoral Education in the United States (Washington, O.C.: NAS, 1969). ^National Research Council, Postdoctoral Training in the Bionedical Sciences, An Evaluation of the NIGMS Postdoctoral Traineeship and Fellowship Programs (Washington, D.C.: NAS, 1974). 3See Commission on Human Resources, Profiles of PhD's in the Sciences, Summary Report on Follou-up of 0octorate Cohorts, 1935-1960, Publication 1293 (Washington, D.C.: NAS, 1965).

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78 TABLE 29 PERCENTAGE OF PhD's, BY FIELD AND SEX, WHO PLANNED POSTDOCTORAL STUDY IN EACH OF FIVE COHORTS FROM 1960 TO 1974 Nan Total, 1960- 1974 Women Total 1960- 1974 Both Sexes Combined Total. 1960- 1965- 1968 1969- 1971- 1972 1973- 1974 1960- 1964 1965- 1969- 1970 1971- 1972 1973- 1974 1960- 1964 1965- 1969 1970 1971- 1972 1973- 1960- 1974 Field of Doctorate 1964 1970 1968 1968 1974 Physics It. * 23. 7 37.1 42.8 44.4 31, ,3 8.6 16.8 41.7 42.9 44.8 33.1 16.5 23.6 37, .2 42. a 44.4 31.4 Chemi stry 25.0 29. 7 36.7 49.6 46.4 35, ,4 29.1 33.5 37.9 45.4 4S.O 38.1 25.2 30.0 36, ,8 49.3 46.1 35.6 Earth sciences 8.2 11. 7 20.6 21.5 21.8 15. ,9 11.1 8.8 26.9 34.2 23.2 22.8 6.2 11.6 20, ,9 21.9 21.8 16.0 12.9 EMP TOTAL u. a IS. 1 20.9 26.5 25.6 19. .7 20.2 22.3 28.9 33.6 30.1 27.3 14.0 15.3 21. .2 26.8 25.9 20.0 Agricultural sciences 7.2 9. 2 12.0 14.4 14.9 11. .3 12.5 17.9 27.9 26.6 24.7 23.4 7.3 9.4 12. .3 14.8 15.3 11.6 Medical sciences 16. a 22. 4 29.5 31.7 30.1 25. .9 19.4 25.2 27.6 34.5 24.4 26. a 17.0 22.7 29, .2 32.1 28.9 26.1 Biosciences 21.0 34. 3 45.1 46.6 46.0 39, ,4 30.4 38.2 49.5 49.0 54.9 45.2 28.3 34.9 45. .8 47.1 48.0 40.4 LIFE SCIENCE TOTAL 21.7 27. 6 35.8 37.3 36.6 31. .3 29.0 36.6 46.3 46.4 49.1 42.4 22.4 28.7 37. .2 38.7 38.8 32.8 Psychology Economic* 10.4 1.* 13. 2. 2 13.4 12.4 12.2 12, ,3 10.0 10.9 13.1 13.4 14.2 12.6 10.3 12.7 13, ,3 12.7 12.8 12.4 Other social sciences BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE TOTAL 1.a 3. 4.4 7.5 6.0 6. 9 7.6 7.3 7.4 7. ,0 7.7 8.1 10.6 9.6 10.9 9.6 6.2 7.1 8. .1 7.7 8.2 Professions 1.0 1. Education o.a 1. 0 1.7 SCIENCE TOTAL 14.0 16. 3 21.4 24.3 23.1 19. ,5 17.5 21.9 26.9 26.6 26.2 24.3 14.2 16.7 21. .9 24.5 23.5 19.9 GRAND TOTAL 9.9 11. 3 14.7 16.3 15.4 13. ,4 6.5 10.6 13.1 13.1 13.4 12.1 9.8 11.2 14. ,5 15.8 15.0 13.2 SOURCE: NRC, Comnission on Hunan Resources. Mom life science PhD's than those in any other field seek postdoctoral study; the trend is generally upward 1960 1962 1972 1974 1964 1966 1968 1970 CALENDAR YEAR OF GRADUATION SOURCE: NRC, Commission on Human Resources FIGURE 52 Field differences in proportions of PhD's planning postdoctoral study.

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79 THE ACADEMIC MARKET Traditionally, the employment for the new PhD has been in the academic world. There have been exceptions of long standing, however; chemists, for example, have for a long time sought and found employment in industry. The academic mar- ket, however, has been quite unable to absorb the enormous numbers of PhD's graduating in the late 1960's and early 1970's, particularly as the population wave of postwar babies has moved beyond the college age. It is apparent that non- traditional employment must absorb an increasing percentage of the new PhD's, unless there is a decrease in their numbers. The present indica- tions are for some stabilization above 30,000 per year, and projections of future production vary extensively. It is informative, as a starting point for consideration of this question, to consider the factual data regarding the experi- ence of the PhD's of the period since 1960. In the pages that follow regarding employment, the new PhD's who plan to enter postdoctoral training are excluded, as are those who did not have definite plans. This discussion refers solely to those who, on the Survey of Earned Doctorates, said they planned to enter immediate employment. Table 30 shows, in percentage terms, the proportion of this group in each field who entered academic employment in each of five co- horts with greater detail regarding recent years. The first cohort is 1960-1964; the second 1965- 1968; the remaining three cohorts are biennial, covering the last 6 years, with a summary for the entire 15-year period. Data are given sep- arately for men, for women, and for the combined total. In examining Table 30, it is apparent that in all but two fields—physics and engineering— the percent entering academic employment went up from 1960 to the early 1970's, when it declined, first gradually, then more steeply. In physics and engineering, the academic market has declined more or less regularly for 15 years. The general trend is similar for all fields, although the percent entering academic jobs varies markedly. The trend is similar, also, for men and women—it expresses a quite pervasive phenomenon. It should be noted, in interpreting this table, that these figures represent the percent of all those seeking immediate employment and exclude those who plan to take postdoctoral training, or who are uncertain regarding their future plans. The data for the entire 15-year period, com- paring fields and sexes, is summarized in Table 31, which shows the percent, of those who seek immediate employment after the doctorate, who plan on entering academic jobs. The bottom line provides the proportions for all fields combined and shows that, of the men seeking employment, 59.7 percent were headed for academe, while for the women the proportion was higher, 70.2 per- cent. The field with the highest academic percentage—humanities—has 88.2 percent for the men and 85.3 percent for the women. In the phys- ical sciences and engineering, the proportions are below 50 percent, except for women in physics (59.7 percent) and in earth sciences (57.7 per- cent) . Women are relatively few in the physical science fields, where industrial employment is relatively high and the proportion of women phys- ical scientists in industry is very low, so they seek teaching jobs in the academic world much TABLE 30 PERCENTAGE OF PhD's ENTERING EMPLOYMENT, BY FIELD AND SEX, WHO TAKE ACADEMIC JOBS IN EACH OF FIVE COHORTS FROM 1960 TO 1974* Men Total, Women Both Sexes Combined Total, Total. 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1973- 1960- 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1973- 1960- 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1973- 1960- Fluid of Doctorata 1964 1968 1*70 1*72 1974 1*74 1*64 1968 1970 1*72 1*74 1*74 1964 1968 1*70 1972 1974 1*74 Mathematics 68.6 74.5 81.8 61.7 72.7 75.9 76.1 78.7 95.7 84.6 74.9 81.8 69.2 74.7 82.7 81.9 72.9 76.3 physics 46.3 47.6 43.9 45.5 31.7 45.4 51.2 58.0 70.0 68.6 51.0 59. 7 48.4 47.9 44.6 46.2 34.4 45.7 Chesiistry 22.9 It,. a 29.7 35.7 23.9 26.6 39. 7 45.4 62.6 61.0 37.0 48.4 23.7 27.2 32.2 17.6 25.2 26.1 Earth sciences 1B.5 45.8 52.3 51.6 41.8 45.4 50.0 50.0 56.0 73.7 59.0 57.7 36.7 45.9 52.4 52.1 42.7 45.7 Enqlneerinq 19.7 34.3 32.6 32.0 25.6 33.2 31.0 24.1 54.2 54.5 53.6 45.7 3*.7 34.2 32.7 32.1 26.0 33.3 EMP TOTAL 4O.1 41.2 42.3 44.3 35.9 40.9 51.1 55.9 73.4 70.9 56.7 61.0 40.4 41.6 43.3 5* 7 45.3 37.0 41.6 49 7 43.5 47.2 44 • 3 47.5 58 i 43 S Medical sciences Bioscicncett 58.4 70.7 60.8 65.6 53.6 52.7 50.0 66.1 ',9.0 61.8 69.8 77.5 64.9 73.9 65.6 66.2 63.2 68.1 47.4. 57.2 46.7 60.0 71.7 61.4 67.1 51.. 5 58. 8 54.0 56.0 58.5 57.3 60.8 59.0 b 1.9 Lira SCIENCE TOTAL 51.2 53.2 65.7 61.2 54.2 56.3 63.8 60.9 75.5 72.7 65.6 66.9 52.3 54.1 66.7 62.6 55.6 57.5 Psychology 46.4 SB.O 63.4 56.9 48.7 54.4 47.0 48.0 55.7 54.7 49. 4 50.* 46.5 55.8 61.5 56.3 48.9 53.5 Kconomics 62.1 64.5 77.0 72.0 69.2 68.0 59.3 62.5 72.7 71.0 77.6 69.2 62.0 64.4 76.7 71.* 69.8 66.1 other social sciences 71.6 78.0 85.9 85.6 7H.B 80.2 66.3 77.6 67.1 81.9 80.5 7*.7 71.1 77.* 86.0 85.0 79.1 80.2 BKIIAVIORAL SCIENCE TOTAL 59.0 67.2 75.8 73.1 66.3 68.1 53.4 56.7 67.0 66.6 63.5 62.4 5H. ) t*6 . 0 74.4 71.* 65.7 67.1 Humanities 87.2 88.6 94.1 M.I «0.6 88.2 84.0 64.2 *1.4 89.5 79.6 85.3 86.7 87.7 93.4 90.7 80.3 87.6 Professions 68.1 73.8 64.1 7*. 6 ».*. 66.2 66.9 72.1 «0.4 72.4 7*. 3 74.2 67.9 73.6 83.6 78.8 76.3 76.0 Education 56.8 61.0 67.5 60.1 47.6 58.6 64.2 66.1 74.1 68.4 5*. 2 65.8 58.2 62.0 68.8 62.0 50.7 60.1 NOHSCIENCE TOTAL 70. ! 73.3 76.7 72.9 62.4 71.5 71.8 74.1 81.7 76.9 68.5 74.2 70.5 73.5 79.3 73.6 64.0 72.0 GRAND TOTAL 55.5 56.7 65.3 63.9 55.8 5*. 7 65.7 68.3 77.6 74.1 66.5 70.2 56.6 59.8 67.0 65.6 58.0 61.2 47.4 50.0 56.1 57.0 50.4 51.8 56.0 58.8 70.3 68.7 62.9 63.3 50.6 57.4 58.2 52.2 52.9 *Thif, table excludes post doctors Is and those without definite plans. SOURCE: NRC, Commission on Hunan Resources.

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80 TABLE 31 THE ACADEMIC MARKET AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL EMPLOYMENT DESTINATIONS, PhD's OF 1960-1974, BY SEX Field of Doctorate Nan Women Both Sexes Mathematics 75.9 81.8 76.3 Physics Chemistry Earth sciences 45.4 26.6 45.4 59.7 48.4 57.7 45.7 28.1 45.7 Engineering EMP TOTAL 33.2 40.9 45.7 61.0 33.3 41.6 Agricultural sciences Medical sciences 49.5 52.7 58.3 63.2 49.7 54.0 Biosciences 60.8 68.1 61.9 LIFE SCIENCES TOTAL 56.3 66.9 57.5 Psychology Economics 54.4 68.0 50.9 69.2 53.5 68.1 Social sciences 80.2 79.7 80.2 BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES TOTAL 68.1 62.4 67.1 SCIENCE TOTAL Humanities Professions Education NONSCIENCE TOTAL GRAND TOTAL 51.8 88.2 76.2 58.6 71.5 59.7 63.3 85.3 74.2 65.8 74.2 70.2 52.9 87.6 76.0 60.1 72.0 61.2 SOURCE: NRC, Commission on Human Resources. more frequently than men do. Within the EMP group, mathematics stands out in its academic orientation (75.9 percent for the men and 81.8 percent for the women). In this respect, it belongs more with the humanities than with the physical sciences. In the life sciences, except for men in the agricultural sciences, the academic percentages are above the 50 percent line and systematically higher for women than for men. The behavioral sciences are primarily academic also, and the sex differences are small. In psychology, the academic percentage is only slightly over 50, since many of these people are employed in clinics and hospitals, either public or nonprofit, or are self-employed as clinicians. The nonsci- ence fields are strongly academic, although in education a significant portion of doctorate holders are in the public school systems, espe- cially men in administrative roles. NONACADEMIC EMPLOYMENT The data for all categories of employer, for those whose plans at PhD were immediate employ- ment, are given in Table 32. This table includes the cases shown in Table 30 but adds the other employer categories: business and industry, U.S. government, state and local government, non- profit organizations, and other (including unknown). Turning first to the final figures at the bottom of the table, where the totals for all fields are given, it is instructive to note that the largest nonacademic category is the most vague: "other and unknown." The curve of this category is a mirror image of that for academic employment and apparently reflects the increas- ing uncertainty in recent years, even for those who plan to seek immediate employment, as to what sort of jobs they will find. This is par- ticularly true for the women, who have the great- est difficulty finding suitable employment and who, in other studies, show a higher unemploy- ment rate than do men.4 Turning to the more explicit employer catego- ries, one notes that for men "business and indus- try" is by far the largest nonacademic category and that this percentage, which held rather steady through the 1960's, dropped dramatically in the 1971-1972 period and then regained some lost ground in the most recent biennium. The combined-sex data are shown, by fiscal year, in Figure 53. For both men and women, none of the other categories accounts for more than 5 per- cent of employment. For both men and women, the U.S. government as an employer lost, in percentage terms, during the 1960's; it has gained somewhat since but is not back to the level of the early 1960's. State and local gov- ernment employment has been on the increase for both sexes since the late 1960's, as has the nonprofit category for men; for women there has been little change in the nonprofit category. All of these figures are for the entire PhD group combined; examination of the separate fields will indicate the extent to which these trends are maintained throughout. ''Commission on Human Resources, Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States, 1973 Profile (Washington, D.C. MAS, 1974).

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81 50 40 e gao u- O I- Su o K 20 10 Until recently, the trend has been downward for employment of new science PhD's in business and industry; is a change coming? ^\ Engineering Ql I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 FISCAL YEAR OF DOCTORATE SOURCE: NRC, Commission on Human Resources FIGURE 53 Post-PhD plans for employment in business and industry (2-year moving average).

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82 TABLE 32 EMPLOYER CATEGORIES FOR 1960-1974 PhD's PLANNING IMMEDIATE EMPLOYMENT: MEN, WOMEN, AND COMBINED SEXES, BY FIELD OF DOCTORATE Men Women Total Total, Total, Total. 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1973-1960- 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1973- 1960- 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1973-1960- MATHEMATICS 1964 1968 1970 1972 1974 1974 1964 1968 1970 1972 1974 1974 1964 1968 1970 1972 1974 1974 COLL/UNIV 68.6 74.5 81.8 81.7 72.7 75.9 78.1 78.7 95.7 84.6 74.9 81.8 69.2 74.7 82.7 81.9 72.9 76.3 BUS/IND 14 1 11.1 11.7 8.8 13.4 11.7 5.3 3.0 2.2 5.1 8.4 5.0 13.6 8.5 12.8 11. Z U.S. GOVT 3.4 2.8 2.0 3.8 4.3 3.2 .6 1.9 3.0 1.3 3.2 2.6 1.9 3.7 • 3 1? US ST/LOC GCV .3 .1 .3 lie 1.8 .5 1^ i'.B .1 .3 .2 NON-PROFIT 2.9 1.9 2.1 1*2 1.3 1.8 .6 1.5 1.9 1.9 1.1 1.3 l.« OTHER OR UNK 10.8 9.7 2.1 4.4 8.1 7.2 14.9 16.0 2.2 7.7 11.8 10.6 11. j 10.1 2.1 4.6 8.5 7.4 TOTAL EMPL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 IOO.O 100.0 PHYSICS COLL/UNIV 48.3 47.6 43.9 45.5 33.7 45.4 51.2 58.0 70.0 68.6 51.0 59.7 48.4 47.9 44.6 46.2 34.4 45.7 BUS/IND U.S. GOVT 21.6 31.2 17.0 16.8 7.8 17.6 5.9 5.9 9.2 25.0 22.9 31.0 21.1 30.7 25.3 US ST/LOC GOV .2 1.4 .3 .3 .5 .7 4l9 .2 1.4 3.1 5.0 .3 .4 2.8 3.1 NON-PROFIT 5*0 3.2 5.0 2.9 2.9 li'.l 30.2 100.0 100.0 4.0 12l9 100.0 OTHER OR UNK TOTAL EMPL 13.2 100.0 14.9 8.3 100.0 100.0 12.8 15.0 100.0 100.0 33.0 100.0 16.0 100.0 17.6 25.5 100.0 100.0 25.4 13.5 100.0 100.0 100:0 ioolo 15.5 13.4 100.0 100.0 CHEMISTRY COLL/UNIV 22.9 26.0 29.7 35.7 23.9 f6.6 39.7 45.4 62.6 61.0 37.0 48.4 23.7 27.2 32.2 37.8 25.2 28.1 BUS/IND U.S. GOVT 58.9 4 0 "l:°2 5f:72 6.6 27.4 20.9 20.0 4.2 19.5 38.2 4.5 3.6 24.8 57.3 4.1 4.1 53l9 5!l6 42.8 56.6 54.4 5.1 4.3 US ST/LOC GOV .1 .4 .8 1.7 2.2 210 2.3 ni .6 ll? 2l! 1.0 .7 NON- PROF IT 2.3 11.4 4.0 100.0 100.0 9l2 9l3 100.0 100.0 9.7 24.2 100.0 100.0 28.7 100.0 20.2 12.2 100.0 100.0 12.5 4.5 OTHER OR UNK TOTAL EMPL 11.5 10.0 100.0 13.0 18.8 100.0 100.0 loolo .3 10.4 IOO.O 100.0 EARTH SCIS 100.0 100.0 100.0 COLL/UNIV BUS/INO 38.5 23.1 14.1 45.8 52.3 21.7 25.2 13.1 9.4 51.6 41.8 21.6 24.2 45.4 50.0 50.0 3.6 21.4 56.0 4.0 16.0 73.7 59.0 10.5 20.5 10.5 57.7 38.7 9.8 22.8 9.8 14.0 45.9 52.4 21.4 24.5 13.2 9.7 52.1 42.7 45.7 US S T / L OC GO V NON-PROFIT OTHER OR UNK 2 • ^ 3.0 18.8 91 "I i "'S 14*7 !l:i 6*0 8.0 8.0 £ • L J . t A * O 4 • f ll- 2.2 13.2 13.1 2.0 2.5 15.3 7.3 1.6 1.7 9.7 12.9 13!l 50.0 25.0 2.6 5.3 17.9 2.4 3.0 18.7 19.1 1.9 2.6 15.5 7.3 9^6 TOTAL EMPL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 103.0 ENGINEERING COLL/UNIV 39.7 34.3 32.6 32.0 25.6 33.2 31.0 24.1 54.2 54.5 53.6 45.7 39.7 34.2 32.7 32.1 26. O 33.3 BUS/INO 42.1 43.6 51.0 46.0 54.0 46.8 24.1 37.9 29.2 21.2 24.6 26.6 42.0 43.6 50.9 45.9 53.6 46.7 U * S> GOVT 8.2 3.1 6.1 6.0 .3 1.1 l?lo o v & * US ST/LOC GOV 1.0 .9 .7 * 1.4 2.2 3.5 16.8 11.4 100.0 100.0 9.3 6.8 1.0 .7 NON^PROF IT OTHER OR UNK TOTAL EMPL 3*0 1*4 12.1 7.2 IOO.O 100.0 3T t. J 3.2 3.4 6.9 9.2 IOO.O IOO.O l.'Ifl 5l6 100.0 100.0 - ' 5.1 8l3 100.0 EMP TOTAL ioolo 8.3 6.9 100.0 100.0 9.2 34.5 100.0 100.0 loolo io2ol5o 12.1 5.6 100.0 100.0 COLL/UNIV 40.1 41.2 42.3 44.3 35.9 40.9 51.1 55.9 73.4 70.9 56.7 61.0 40.4 41.6 43.3 45.3 37.0 41.6 BUS/IND 38.8 36.9 42.5 34.4 42.5 38.7 18.9 13.4 12.1 12.3 21.6 15.8 38.3 36.2 41.5 33.7 41.4 37. « U.S. GOVT 5.1 6.5 5.6 9.5 9.1 6.9 4.3 3.0 3.5 4.4 4.4 3.9 5.1 6.4 5.6 9.3 8. 9 6.8 US ST/LOC GOV .4 .4 1.1 l.l 1.0 .7 .9 .6 .3 .4 .4 1.1 1.0 .7 NON-PROFIT 3.4 2.8 3.3 2.2 2.5 2.9 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.2 1.5 1.7 3.3 2.8 3.2 2.2 2.5 2.1 OTHER OR UNK TOTAL EMPL 12.2 12.3 5.2 100.0 100.0 8.4 8.9 100.0 100.0 9.9 23.7 100.0 100.0 25.7 100.0 Kioto 11.1 15.2 ioolo ioolo ioolo ioolo loolo 9.2 10.1 100.0 100.0 AGRIC SCIS 100.0 lao.o 100.0 COLL/UNIV BUS/IND *1:1 44.3 59.7 9.8 14.8 54.5 49.7 12.6 17.7 49.5 42.3 12.5 41.9 12.9 61.5 15.4 73.9 60.3 2.2 19.0 58.3 43.5 44.2 59.7 9.9 14.8 55.0 12.3 50.1 49.7 17.8 12.4 U.S. GOVT 12.9 l*.6 *'.r• 1.1 1.8 30.6 11.8 100.0 100.0 10.8 8.9 10.9 3.8 3.2 6.5 8.6 sll 12l8 12.5 7.6 10.7 a. 9 10. s US ST/LOC GOV ,l:i 2.1 2.5 2.3 2.5 17.7 18.5 100.0 100.0 2.3 1.7 2.1 1.0 23.5 31.7 1.6 4.2 2.0 2.4 17.6 100.0 NON-PROFIT OTHER OR UNK TOTAL EMPL 23."l 53.8 100.0 100.0 3.2 23.1 100.0 6.5 10.9 12.1 100.0 100.0 1.1 1.8 30.7 12.0 ial3 23ll IOO.O 100.0 MEDICAL SCIS 100.0 lOiilo 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 COLL/UNIV BUS/INO 47.2 47.5 58.4 19.4 16.7 60.8 53.8 15.6 19.4 52.7 50.0 18.3 7.7 ":! 6J-8 64.9 65.6 4.1 7.0 63.2 47.4 5.8 18.8 48.7 60.0 17.9 15.0 61.4 56.5 54.0 16.6 16.6 19.6 $•2 14.0 6.7 6.4 U.S. GOVT 6.3 5.8 7.3 7.0 6.8 6.5 9.6 • I 4.1 6.4 5.4 6.6 5.7 6.8 6.6 US ST/LOC GOV NON-PROF IT 2.8 3.8 4.9 3.1 6.0 4.0 5.2 5.1 5.2 2.6 7.8 4.5 4.3 4.8 3.9 4.2 3.4 OTHER OR UNK 19.7 19.7 9.2 8.8 6.8 13.9 26.9 18.1 9.3 7.2 8.9 12.5 20.2 19.5 9.2 8.6 7.3 13.7 TOTAL EMPL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 IOO.O BIOSCIENCES COLL/UNIV BUS/IND U.S. GOVT 56.0 9.8 9.2 58.5 70.7 8.2 10.8 9.3 5.5 65.6 57.3 60.8 66.1 9.9 2.7 8.3 4.5 61.8 77.5 73.9 66.2 3.7 4.8 4.0 3.2 68.1 57.2 3.3 8.9 3.9 8.7 59.0 71.7 7.3 9.7 8.6 5.1 67.1 58.8 61.9 11.8 S.9 7.2 7.6 8:8 ll:l 1:1 8.0 7.3 US ST/LOC GOV NON— PROF IT J.I 1.7 3.0 111 I:S 2.5 1.8 ~d 1:? 1.1 2.2 1.6 2.0 5.3 3.8 1.5 3.0 2.9 3.3 2.4 OTHER OR UNK TOTAL EMPL 19.4 100.0 18.5 6.7 100.0 100.0 10.1 13.3 100.0 100.0 14.7 19.2 100.0 100.0 24.1 9.6 100.0 12.3 18.7 100.0 100.0 17.7 19.4 100.0 100.0 19.3 7.2 100.0 100.0 10.5 100.0 14.2 15.2 100.0 IOO.O LIFE SCI TOT 100.0 COLL/UNIV BUS/IND 51.2 53.2 65.7 9.9 12.8 61.2 54.2 11.0 15.6 56.3 63.8 11.6 3.0 60.9 3.2 75.5 3.9 72.7 65.6 3.6 6.5 66.9 52.3 4.0 10.1 54.1 66.7 9.2 11.8 62.6 10.1 55.8 57.5 10.7 14.3 10.8 U.S. GOVT US ST/LOC GOV NON-PROFIT 10.0 2.0 2.8 9.9 6.4 1.9 3.6 3.0 2.9 8.8 8.2 2.8 3.5 3.6 4.1 8.9 4.9 2.6 1.6 3.2 5.4 n 3.0 1.0 4.2 4.4 1.6 2.7 6.4 4.9 4.2 9.6 2.1 2.0 5.5 3.1 9.2 6.0 1.9 3.5 3.4 3.0 8.3 2.7 3.9 7.7 a. 4 3.4 2.6 4.2 3.5 6.1 4.3 17.3 23.0 100.0 100.0 12.4 100.0 14.6 17.3 100.0 IOO.O ¥THER OR UNK OTAL EMPL 23.1 100.0 22.0 8.7 100.0 100.0 12.6 14.4 100.0 100.0 47.3 21.3 0.0 100.0 23.9 10.2 100.0 11.5 16.0 100.0 100.0 22.2 8.8 100.0 100.0 PSYCHOLOGY 100.0 COLL/UNIV 46.4 58.0 63.4 56.9 48.7 54.4 47.0 48.0 55.7 54.7 49.4 50.9 46.5 55.8 61.5 56.3 48.9 53.5 BUS/INO U.S. GOVT 7.0 10.0 5.0 5.5 5.5 3.3 3.6 5.1 4.7 4.6 5.3 1.4 2.0 3.8 1.3 i!:i J:! 23l°7 9l°2 4.4 4.4 5.1 3.2 3.3 4.3 4.5 4.2 5.3 5.8 5.7 2.8 4.4 US ST/LOC GOV 13.8 12.2 12.0 15.9 14.1 13.6 10.5 11.8 15.3 12.8 13.2 12.2 12.8 14.7 14.1 13.4 NON-PROFIT OTHER OR UNK TOTAL EMPL 9.4 13.4 100.0 8.2 8.9 11.1 6.9 100.0 100.0 9.3 14.0 9.7 13.4 9.9 11.1 12.2 11.9 12.2 9.7 18.5 15.5 100.0 100.0 9.0 9.6 13.5 8.4 100.0 100.0 9.9 11.4 13.9 10.5 14.6 12.9 100.0 IOO.O 100.0 100.0 loolo loolo iSto loolo looto 100.0

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83 TABLE 32 Continued Men Women Total Total, Total, Total, 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1973-1960- 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1973- 1960- 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1973-1960- ECON C-METRC 1964 1968 1970 1972 1974 1974 1964 1968 1970 1972 1974 1974 1964 1968 1970 1972 1974 1974 COLL/UNIV 62.1 64.5 77.0 72.0 69.2 68.0 59.3 62.5 72.7 71.0 77.6 69.2 62.0 64.4 76.7 71.9 69.8 68.1 BUS/IND U.S. GCVT 5.9 5.0 5.2 7.3 5.3 6.0 8.0 6.5 5.7 8.0 7.5 2.3 5.4 5.7 8.1 6.8 5.6 3.2 5.0 5.8 7.7 8.6 5.0 5.2 7.3 5.4 6.2 7.8 6.2 5.6 8.0 7.5 a. 6 I.I 9.3 8.0 8.8 US ST/LOC GOV NON-PROFIT OTHER OR UNK .9 .7 1.9 3.6 4.7 18.9 5.9 i:i 1:1 2.3 .8 .8 .9 1.0 4.7 4.3 12.5 18.4 .7 1.9 3.4 4.8 19.1 5.9 1-1 2.1 1.3 3.8 4.1 10.0 13.4 i«:3 S:l 10.3 13.5 7.0 .9 20.9 23.2 5':? ?:! f:j &:5 TOTAL EMPL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 OTHER SOC SCIS COLL/UNIV 71.6 78.0 85.9 85.6 78.8 80.2 66.3 77.6 87.1 81.9 80.5 79.7 71.1 77.9 86.0 85.0 79.1 80.2 BUS/ I NO U.S. GOVT II* 3.0 1.8 3.1 3.1 i:9 2:2 .7 UT 2:8 1.3 1.7 2.0 US ST/LOC GOV NON— PROF IT 2.0 1.7 1.9 1.6 2.9 2.0 3.5 3.2 3.8 1.0 5.4 3.2 1:1 1:1 2.3 2.5 2.2 1.6 2.0 1.9 2.8 2.1 OTHER OR UNK if:? 12.6 4.2 5 1 8.7 9.1 20.5 14.9 4.3 7.8 9.8 10.6 16.2 12.9 4.2 5.5 8.9 9.3 TOTAL EMPL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 BEHAV SC TOT COLL/UNIV 59.0 5.0 67.2 75.8 3.8 4.5 73.1 3.4 66.3 68.1 4.3 4.2 53.4 58.7 1.4 1.9 67.0 66.6 1.8 2.3 63.5 2.0 62.4 58.3 1.9 4.5 66.0 74.4 3.5 4.0 71.9 3.2 65.7 67.1 3.8 3.8 BUS/IND U.S. GOVT US ST/LOC GOV a. i 5.0 3.1 5.3 5.6 4.4 4.4 4.6 5.1 6.8 6.1 5.2 3.6 7.9 7.4 i8:J 73:i 3.0 f.5 3.3 7.7 4.8 3.0 5.6 6.3 4.1 6.6 4.2 4.8 7.2 6.5 NON-PROFIT 4.4 5.0 5.5 5.4 7.3 5.8 8.3 6.6 OTHER OR UNK TOTAL EMPL 6.0 9.2 8.4 8.9 8.3 9.1 8.8 6.4 5.5 6.1 5.9 7.7 6.3 15.5 100.0 13.7 5.5 100.0 100.0 7.4 100.0 10.7 10.8 100.0 100.0 23.0 19.9 100.0 100.0 9.7 12.3 13.8 15.2 16.4 100.0 100.0 14.6 6.2 100.0 100.0 8.3 100.0 11.4 11.5 SCIENCE TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 COLL/UNIV 47.4 50.0 56.1 23.3 26.1 57.0 19.7 50.4 51.8 23.5 23.3 56.0 58.8 5.3 4.5 70.3 68.7 4.3 4.1 62.9 5.9 63.3 48.0 4.8 22.5 50.6 57.4 21.9 24.2 58.2 52.2 52.9 21.1 21.6 8US/INO 23.8 18.1 U.S. GOVT 7.0 6.8 5.1 7.7 7.3 6.8 4.9 3.7 2.8 3.5 3.5 3.6 6.9 6.6 4.9 7.3 6.8 6.5 :l 1.9 2.8 3.4 3.8 W 3.6 2.6 4.5 4.2 6.7 6.5 6.7 5.0 6.4 6.8 6.2 5.3 2.5 6.7 4.1 2.1 3.2 $.! 3.9 2.9 4.9 4.1 4.6 3.8 7.1 3.6 4.1 3.9 OTHER OR UNK TOTAL EMPL 14.6 6.0 100.0 100.0 8.9 100.0 22.6 22.3 100.0 100.0 9.5 11.9 100.0 100.0 14.4 108:0 io-S:8 100:0 loo.'o 9.2 100.0 HUMANITIES 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 COLL/UNIV BUS/IND 87.2 .8 88.6 94.1 .8 .8 91. 1 80.6 88.2 2.1 1.1 84.0 84.2 .4 .3 91.4 89.5 79.6 1.9 85.3 86.7 .9 .7 87.7 93.4 .7 .7 90.7 .9 80.3 87.6 .9 U.S. GOVT US ST/LOC GOV .3 2 1.4 1.0 .5 .5 .5 .6 1.2 .9 .3 .3 .8 .4 .1 .4 .4 .1 .3 .3 .4 .3 .* .7 .4 NON-PROFIT OTHER OR UNK 1.5 1.3 i"J 2.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.3 1.7 1.5 1.2 1.1 2.3 1.6 TOTAL EMPL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100. 0 100.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 PROFESSIONS COLL/UNIV BUS/IND U.S. GOVT 68.1 73.8 84.1 79.8 75.9 76.2 66.9 72.1 .7 1.5 80.4 72.4 1.2 2.7 79.3 74.2 67.9 73.6 83.6 78.8 76.3 76.0 US ST/LOC GOV NON-PROFIT .7 .7 2.8 1.9 2.5 1.5 2.6 1.5 1.1 2.1 ?THER OR UNK 11.3 7.4 4.6 7.6 9.6 ill 6.5 5.0 5.4 8.6 7.1 7.2 4.7 9.3 7.9 12.8 4.3 5.1 8.5 OTAL EMPL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 EDUCATION COLL/UNIV BUS/ 1 NO U.S. GOVT 56.8 61.0 67.5 60.1 47.6 58.6 64.2 66.1 74.1 68.4 *?•* 65.8 58.2 62.0 68.8 62.0 50.7 60.1 |:j 2'7 2'4 1.1 J-l 1.7 1.3 NON-PROFIT UTHER OR UNK TOTAL EMPL 30.6 22.3 100.0 100.0 28.0 100.0 36.8 30.5 100.0 100.0 28.9 26.3 100.0 100.0 16.5 22.2 100:0 100:0 inn.'o 29.8 21.1 100.0 100.0 22:7 34.7 29.2 100.0 100.0 NON-SC1 TOT 100.0 100.0 100.0 COLL/UNIV BUS/ I NO 70.3 73.3 78.7 72.9 62.4 71.5 2.1 1.5 71.8 74.1 81.7 76.9 68.5 74.2 70.5 .8 1.1 73.5 79.3 73.8 6t:8 'hi U.S. GOVT US ST/LOC GOV NGN- PROF IT UO .9 1*4% 4.9 3.0 1.5 2.6 2.5 J:* 2.4 1.9 1.8 3.0 3.3 OTHER OR UNK 21.9 19.6 13.4 17.4 24.6 19.4 22.5 20.1 11.8 15.9 22.4 18.7 22.0 19.7 13.1 17.1 24.0 19.3 TOTAL EMPL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 GRAND TOTAL COLL/UNIV BUS/IND U.S. GOVT 55.5 58.7 65.3 15.1 16.1 4.6 3.4 63.9 55.8 59.7 13.9 14.6 65.7 68.3 77.6 74.1 66.5 3.1 2.0 70.2 56.6 2.3 14.3 59.8 6T.O 13.5 14.1 4.3 3.1 65.6 10.1 4.4 58.0 61.2 11.7 12.8 4.3 4.2 1:! hi 1:1 1:1 4.8 4.6 2.8 2.5 4.0 3.3 4.4 4.4 19.6 }:} j:| 2.0 3.1 3.4 3.4 17.0 9.3 3.3 4.2 2.9 4.4 3.7 17.4 15.2 US ST/LOC GOV NON-PROFIT . f-8 1:1 1:1 1:1 4.2 2.8 4.4 3.6 16.9 14.8 3.9 4.3 11.0 14.5 OTHER OR UNK 16.5 9.0 12.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 TOTAL EMPL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 SOURCE: NRC, Commission

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TRENDS IN POST-PhD PLANS Up to this point, we have looked separately at postdoctoral education, at academic employment, and at nonacademic employment as they figure in the plans for the immediate future of the new PhD's. It is helpful to put these data together into a consistent picture. The table below summarizes very briefly, for the entire 1960-1974 period, the plans for employment, further education, or other activity, by sex and summary field, to illustrate field differences. Table 33 gives data by individual years. Men Women Postdoc- Postdoc- toral Employ- toral Employ- Study ment Other Unknown Study ment Other Unknown EMP Fields 19.7 72.4 3.2 4.7 27.3 63.3 2.3 7.1 Life Sciences 31.3 62.2 2.2 4.3 42.4 49.1 2.0 6.5 Behavioral Sciences 7.0 85.2 2.3 5.5 9.6 82.0 2.0 6.4 Nonscience 2.0 92.0 0.9 5.1 2.9 88.3 2.0 6.8 Grand Total 13.4 79.6 2.1 4.9 12.2 79.2 2.0 6.7 TABLE 33 FIFTEEN-YEAR TREND IN POSTDOCTORAL STUDY, EMPLOYMENT, AND OTHER ACTIVITY, BY FIELD AND SEX, PhD's OF 1960-1974 Total, Men 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1971 1974 1960-1974 EMP fields Postdoctoral study 11.1 11.4 11.7 15.4 14.4 14.2 15.8 14.9 15.4 20.5 21.2 25.9 27.1 26.0 25.3 19.7 Employment 85.1 81.6 80.7 76.3 78.6 77.8 76.8 78.6 77.5 72.9 71.5 64.9 63.5 64.5 62.7 72. Other 2.0 2.8 2.8 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.1 1.6 1.6 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.6 1.1 2.7 1. Life sciences Postdoctoral study 16.5 22.7 21.1 22.0 24.8 24.6 26.4 27.9 30.4 15.6 35.9 36.6 M.O 15.7 17.4 11. Employment Other 79.8 2.1 71.9 1.7 74.6 72.9 69.8 71.1 68.2 66.7 61.1 58.6 57.2 55.4 54.5 55.6 51.0 62. Unknown 1.6 6.0 Postdoctoral study Employment Other •0.9 90.5 86.0 66.6 87.0 85.9 85.4 67.4 86.1 65.1 85.8 83.9 84.4 34.2 80.8 85.2 2.) Unknown Science total Postdoctoral study 11.0 89.1 u.t 14.1 80.4 14.9 15.2 78.1 15.2 77.9 16.1 16.1 17.1 21.1 21.5 71.5 24.0 67.2 24.5 21.0 21.1 65.6 19.5 Employment 81.8 76.6 68.0 73.0 Cither Unknown 2.0 1.* 2.2 1.2 4.4 1.6 4.1 4.2 2.6 1.8 1.6 4.1 5.9 6.0 6.6 9.1 4.8 Nonscience total Postdoctoral study 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.6 1.4 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.6 1.1 2.7 2.0 Employment 95.4 9S.1 91.5 91.7 91.4 94.2 93.4 94.7 92.4 92.5 92.1 91. 90.9 89.8 87.7 92. Ii Other 0.8 0. 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.9 1.0 1 . 1.0 1.2 1. 1.1 0.9 0.9 0.9 Unknown 2.6 1. 4.5 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.7 1.2 5. 4.7 4.5 5. 5.4 6.2 6.7 5.1 GRAND TOT»L Postdoctoral study 7.9 9. 10.1 10.7 10.8 10.7 11.1 11.2 11. 14.8 14.6 16. 16.4 15.1 15.5 13.4 Employment 88.4 86. 84.5 82.9 61.2 61.1 82.1 81.4 61. 79.0 78.8 75. 75.6 76.4 71.9 79.6 Other 1.6 1. 1.6 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.4 2. 2.1 2.2 2. 2.1 1.9 1.7 2.1 Unknown 2.1 2.5 1.6 4.1 1.8 4.1 4.4 2.9 4.2 4.0 4.1 5. 5.8 6.4 6.9 4.9 Women EMP fields Postdoctoral study 15.8 25. 2 21.8 24.2 14.0 22.6 21.6 21.4 21.8 11. 26.9 12.6 34.7 29.5 M.7 27.1 Employment 71. 68.0 67.6 67.2 79.1 65.5 70.0 72.6 70.5 61. 61.0 56.6 51.4 61.6 57.5 61.1 Other }. 4.9 2.9 2.1 2.9 1.4 1.5 1.2 2.1 1. 1.1 1.6 2.6 1.4 1.6 2.1 Unknown 9. 1.9 5.7 6.1 4.1 6.5 4.9 2.8 5.5 6. 6.6 8.7 9.1 7.6 10.0 7.1 Life sciences Postdoctoral study 21. 11.2 28.6 29.4 J0.7 11.4 M.I 17.2 19.6 46. 46.4 45.4 47.4 46.7 51.5 42.4 Employment 71. 64.0 64. 60.0 62.8 62.2 58.1 56.6 54.4 45. 46. 8 42.7 44.7 41.9 15.9 49.1 Other 2. 1.6 4. 1.6 1.0 1.4 2.5 2.4 2.7 2.6 1.4 2.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 2.0 Unknown 2.0 1.2 2. 6.6 1.5 1.0 5.1 1.8 1.1 6.0 5.4 9.9 6.6 8.2 11.6 6.5 postdoctoral study 6.7 10.7 4. 7.2 9.1 8.7 7.1 6.8 7.6 10.9 10.7 10.5 6.6 10.8 11.0 9.6 Employment 84.4 •0.6 B7. 84.1 82.9 61.6 85.2 84.0 81.1 82.9 83.0 •1.1 82.0 81.6 77.9 82.0 Other 4.0 5.5 5. 5.2 2.4 1.1 2.1 2.6 2.2 1.7 1.4 2.4 1.4 1.2 0.9 2.0 Unknown 4.9 1.2 2. 1.1 5.6 4.6 5.1 4.6 7.1 4.5 4.9 5.8 7.9 6.4 10.2 6.4 Science total postdoctoral study 11.8 20.5 16. 18.1 17.5 21.0 21.1 22.1 22.6 27.7 26.2 26.8 26.4 25.7 26.7 24. Employment 78.0 72.5 75. 72.5 75.2 71.6 71.4 71.1 69.5 65.0 66.6 63.2 64.4 65.9 61.6 67. Other 1.6 4.1 4.5 4.2 2.8 2.5 2.2 2.7 2.4 1.9 1.8 2.2 1.6 1.2 1.1 2. Unknown 4.7 1.0 1.2 5.1 4.5 4.9 5.1 1.9 5.1 5.4 5.4 7.8 7.7 7.2 10.6 6. Nonscience total postdoctoral study 1.6 1.6 1.1 1.7 2.0 1.5 1.4 2.0 1.6 2.1 1.0 1.2 1.5 4.2 1.9 2. Employment 91.5 92.7 92.0 92.0 90.5 8S. 6 91.0 92.7 90.6 89.9 89.7 H7.5 86. H 86.1 81.6 88. other 1.8 1.1 2.7 2.1 2.6 2.1 1.5 2.2 1.0 1.6 1.6 2.1 1.5 1.5 1.6 2.0 Unknown 1.1 2.5 4.2 4.1 4.9 7.5 6.1 1.2 4.6 6.1 5.7 7.0 6.2 8.0 10. B 6.8 GRAND TOTAL Postdoctoral study 6.6 10.2 7.7 9.0 6.6 *.7 io.a 11.1 11.0 11.6 12.8 11.1 12.9 11.1 13.5 12.2 Employment 85.9 81.5 85.0 61.1 81.9 61.5 82.2 81.0 81.1 76.8 80.0 77.2 77.6 77.7 74.1 79.2 Other 1.7 1.6 1.S 1.6 2.7 2.4 1.8 2.4 2.7 1.8 1.7 2.1 1.6 1.4 1.5 2.0 Unknown 1.8 2.7 1.8 4.5 4.7 6.4 5.7 1.5 4.9 5.8 5.6 7.1 8.0 7.6 10.7 6.7 SOURCE- NRC, Co ission on Hunan Resources.

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85 These data are provided in much greater detail, by graduation cohort and by the component fields of the summarized field groups above, in Table 34, and the trends, by individual years, are shown graphically for the four summary fields shown above, in Figures 54 through 57. It may be most useful, however, to begin with the data shown above, for the grand total of all fields combined. About 4 out of 5 new PhD's plan to enter employment immediately, and about 1 in 8 plan further training. Almost 1 in 20 of the men, and somewhat more of the women, are uncertain of their plans, and about 1 in 50 have plans not encompassed in the categories given above. The field differences shown above are strik- ing but even so tend to mask the differences among the more specific component fields. As shown above, about 20 percent of the men in the EMP fields and over 30 percent in the life sci- ences plan further training. For women the proportions are markedly higher—perhaps a reflec- tion of the greater degree of difficulty they have in finding suitable employment, which is also reflected in the column marked "unknown." In the behavioral sciences, the proportions are lower: 7 percent for the men and almost 10 per- cent for the women. In the nonscience fields the proportions are still lower, about 2 per- cent for the men and 3 percent for the women. These field differences, and sex differences also, are mirrored in the fractions that plan immediate employment: the percentages range from 92 percent for men in the nonscience fields to less than 50 percent for women in the life sci- ences. It is well to keep these general differ- ences in mind while looking at the time trends shown in Figures 54 through 57 for the four gen- eral fields shown above. In the EMP fields, the proportion seeking postdoctoral training increased slightly but gradually, during the 1960's, as the proportion planning immediate employment slowly decreased. Then, at the end of the 1960's, the change quick- ened; the number going into postdoctoral training increased rapijly, the proportion entering employ- ment went down, and the uncertainty factor rose. In the last 2 years shown, 1973 and 1974, the proportion going into postdoctoral training decreased, for the first time in a decade, as employment steadied. It must be emphasized that these trends are for the general field as a whole; in each of the component fields the changes have been somewhat different, as indicated by the data of Table 29, with somewhat coarser time intervals. In the life sciences, the trend to postdoc- toral study, as seen earlier in Figure 52, has been much stronger than in the EMP fields, and the decrease in immediate employment after the doctorate has been sharper. With the exception of a single year (1972) there has been a steady upward trend in the proportion who are uncertain as to their plans at the time of completing the Survey of Earned Doctorates. And, as for the EMP fields, there are widely divergent trends within the life sciences group. In the biosci- ences, for example, the proportion seeking fur- ther training has approached 50 percent for the men and exceeded that point for the women. This huge number seeking postdoctoral positions strongly suggests, even in the absence of other data, that what is involved here is something more than a desire for advanced training: we are witnessing a "holding pattern" for those who cannot immediately find suitable employment. Within the medical sciences, the peak in post- doctoral training apparently was passed by 1973, for both men and women. In the agricultural sciences, the postdoctoral training segment was never very high; it must be remembered that a substantial portion of this field is of foreign origin and return to their own countries to take up employment. In the behavioral sciences, although the post- doctoral proportion was never very high, the dif- ferences among the component fields is still large; in psychology, the largest field, the per- centages have ranged from 10 percent to 14 per- cent; in the other fields, it has been a minor fraction of that amount. In any case, the pro- portion has remained rather steady, in contrast to the rapid increase in the natural sciences. In the humanities the proportion has increased but from a very low base, and in the other non- science fields the percentage has remained very low, while in all of the nonscience fields imme- diate employment has been the expectation of over 90 percent of the graduates until the last 2 years and has been only slightly less in the most recent data.

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TABLE 34 POSTDOCTORAL PLANS, BY FIELD, SEX, AND COHORT: PhD's OF 1960-1974 Men Women Total MATHEMATICS 1960- 1964 1965- 1968 Total, 1969- 1971- 1973-1960- 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1970 1972 1974 1974 1964 1968 1970 1972 Total, 1973- 1960- 1974 1974 1960- 1964 1965- 1968 1969- 1970 1971- 1972 Total, 1973-1960- 1974 1974 POSTOOC STUDY 8.5 85.5 2.0 6.3 87.5 1.8 8.3 9.2 8.9 8.1 5.4 4.1 4.4 12.S 7.4 83.9 7.0 84.9 .§:? 6.2 Bilfi 9.4 82.2 8.8 81.8 8.0 84.7 1.8 EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN TOTAL 85.5 82.3 81.6 84.7 87.7 85.8 87.4 81.3 2.0 2.5 1.4 1.9 1.8 87.4 3.9 100.0 4.1 4.0 5.9 7.9 5.1 3.8 7.1 5.7 3.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 PHYSICS 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ««* POSTDOC STUDY 16.6 23.7 37.1 42.8 44.4 31.3 8.6 16.8 41.7 42.9 53.8 45.9 43.3 59.3 74.1 73.9 52.1 45.5 ?H 16.5 75.9 23-! 37.2 42.8 EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN TOTAL 76.0 53.7 45.8 2.9 .2 2.8 2.4 2.1 3.0 2.6 .3 .3 .3 .2 3.4 .8 2.7 2.8 .2 4.5 2.7 2.3 .3 2.1 .3 ':? 2.6 .2 4.4 ioo5:8 100:0 100:8 100:0 100:0 100:0 100:0 100:0 loolo 14.4 100.0 ii:i 5^ 6.4 10^0 9.2 100.0 6.6 100.0 CHEMISTRY 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 POSTDOC STUDY 29.7 64.1 3.2 36.7 49.6 46.4 35.4 29.1 33.5 37.9 45.4 57.5 42.2 44.7 58.2 63.7 60.5 51.8 41.8 2.4 2.8 1.9 2.5 .3 .1 .2 .1 .1 3.2 2.4 2.7 1.6 45.0 43.7 38.1 52.5 25.2 30.0 36.8 49.3 42.2 46.3 35.6 57.7 EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC ill 69.9 63.9 57.0 44.6 OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN 2.8 100.0 3.0 100.0 3 EARTH SCIS 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 100.0 POSTDOC STUDY EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN TOTAL 11.7 20.6 21.5 21.8 15.9 11.1 8.8 28.9 34.2 73.5 71.2 68.7 77.0 66.7 82.4 65.8 50.0 2.4 2.8 1.8 2.3 .1 .1 .2 .1 11.1 2.9 2.6 2.6 3.4 4.5 7.5 4.8 11.1 5.9 2.6 13.2 23.2 69.6 22.8 66.8 8.2 85.1 1.8 11.6 81.7 2.4 20.9 73.2 2.3 21.9 70.5 2.7 21.8 16.0 76.8 2.2 .2 4.9 100.9 lie JI 81.7 2.5 68.8 4.1 7.1 2.T ,-T 3^ 100^ 7:! ENGINEERING 100.0 100.0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 POSTDOC STUDY EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN TOTAL 4.9 5.2 8.3 12.9 13.1 8.6 11.8 8.3 7.1 4.8 84.6 77.6 75.1 83.0 85.3 80.6 85.7 78.6 4.1 4.3 3.8 4.1 il:l 9.3 4.9 8I:1 8.3 7v'l 8.6 88.4 4.0 87.0 81.8 88.4 84.6 83.0 2l6 100.0 100^ 2.8 4.9 7.9 4.2 2.9 2.8 3.6 14.3 5l9 6.2 2.6 3.4 2.8 100.0 4.9 100.0 7.6 100.0 4.2 EMP TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100. 0 100.0 POSTDOC STUDY EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC 13.8 15.1 77.7 20.9 26.5 25.6 19.7 20.2 22.3 28.9 33.8 ??:! ft-3, IV8 26.8 B:l ??•? 2.8 3.3 3.0 3.2 2.8 3.1 .1 .2 .2 .2 .1 3.3 2.6 2.3 2.1 3.2 2.9 3.1 2.6 *«! OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN TOTAL 3.3 100.0 3.7 3.8 5.8 7.8 4.7 5.1 5.2 6.5 9.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 8.8 100.0 100:0 100:0 3la 3.9 5:1 7.9 100.0 4.8 AGRIC SCIS 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 POSTDOC STUDY 9.2 12.0 14.4 14.9 11.3 12.5 17.9 27.9 26.8 24.7 62.4 23.4 67.3 7.3 89.7 9.4 JH EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN TOTAL 87.0 86.8 1.1 2":! 2.3 1.0 .6 1.2 .2 .2 .2 .2 2.3 1.4 3.1 4.5 5.5 3.4 6.3 2.6 9.3 7.0 3.2 I.• 1.0 1.3 2:1 .9 .2 .6 1.2 IOO.'Q 9.7 100.0 7.6 100.0 loolo 2^ 100.0 3.2 4.6 s'.i 100^ MEDICAL SCIS 100.0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 POSTDOC STUDY 16.8 77.2 3.4 22.4 70.5 3.2 29.5 31.7 30.1 25.9 19.4 25.2 27.6 34.5 61.9 56.5 56.1 64.7 72.2 69.5 64.2 57.7 24.4 26.8 64.1 17.0 76.8 22.7 70.4 29.2 62.2 32.1 56.6 2.6 28.9 26.1 64.6 2.7 EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN TOTAL 62.8 57.5 2^ 100.0 100^ 5.8 8.8 10.7 6.1 2.8 2.6 7.5 6.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 11.6 100.0 7.2 2.6 100.0 3.1 6.0 100. 0 8.5 100.0 10.9 100.0 6.2 8IOSCIENCES 100.0 100.0 100.0 POSTDOC STUDY EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN TOTAL 28.0 67.2 2.1 34.3 45.1 46.6 46.0 39.4 30.4 38.2 49.5 49.0 48.7 45.5 44.8 54.0 62.8 55.4 43.1 40.9 2.3 1.8 1.6 2.1 .1 54.9 34.5 .1 45.2 46.4 28.3 66.6 1.8 15:? J?:8 '•? «:» [:! 48.0 42.6 40.4 52.7 60.0 2.4 2.0 l:I l:l 100^ 3.0 100.0 3.8 5.8 7.5 4.4 3.8 3.9 5.3 8.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 9.6 6.4 2.6 100:0 7.9 100.0 4.7 100.0 LIFE SCI TOT 100.0 100.0 100.0 POSTDOC STUDY fj.;,7 27.6 35.8 37.3 36.6 31.3 29.0 36.6 46.3 46.4 57.9 54.9 54.4 62.2 64.1 57.3 46.0 43.7 2.3 1.7 1.5 2.0 .2 .1 49.1 42.4 49.1 22.4 72.9 1.8 28.7 65.7 2.0 37.2 56.3 2.0 38.7 53.3 1.5 38.8 51.8 1.3 32.8 EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN TOTAL 67.0 39.9 tt0.4 1.7 2.3 a:* I'2, 7.8 PSYCHOLOGY 100.0 .0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 12.8 100.0 POSTOOC STUDY EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN TOTAL 10.4 84.2 2.6 13.4 12.4 12.2 12.3 10.0 10.9 13.1 13.4 80.3 78.1 77.0 80.0 82.7 82.0 81.3 78.2 2.7 3.2 3.1 2.9 .1 .1 .2 .5 .4 .3 4.0 2.0 1.3 1.8 a .4 5.9 7.3 4.5 3.2 5.1 4.3 6.4 .0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 76*:| :| 12.6 79.7 10.3 83.9 2.1 12.7 80.6 2.4 .9 13.3 12.7 78.1 2.4 .9 7!:| nl 12.4 79.9 2.2 .7 4.8 100.0 80.6 3:1 *:! looio 8.3 100.0 lie 5.9 100.0 I.g 3.7 3.6 6.0 100.0 EC ON C-METRC 100:0 100.0 100.0 100.0 POSTDOC STUDY EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN TOTAL 1.6 93.0 1.2 2.3 2.6 4.4 4.2 2.9 2.1 .8 4.0 2.3 89.5 88.7 88.4 90.3 88.7 90.3 88.0 94.7 2.4 1.0 .5 1.3 .1 .2 .1 3.1 4.0 1.0 1.5 5.5 5.8 6.7 5.4 6.2 4.8 7.0 1.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3.5 .1:1 9*:8 4.2 4.1 88.4 .4 .3 ,o*:! 90.7 1.5 87.4 9?:t §.* .0 "1:5 89.2 !;! 1.2 l:f 5:i 1.4 2.2 >*'.*> 100.0 4.2 7.7 loo*: o* S.6 .0 5. 5 6.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

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87 TABLE 34 Continued Men Women Total Total, Total, Total, 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1973-1960- 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1973- 1960- 1960- 1965- 1969- 1971- 1973-1960- 1964 1968 1970 1972 1974 1974 1964 1968 1970 1972 1974 1974 1964 1968 1970 1972 1974 1974 OTHER SOC SCI! 1 POSTDOC STUDY 3.8 3.2 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.1 3.8 4.2 7.8 5.1 7.2 5.9 3.8 3.3 4.9 4.4 5.0 4.4 EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC 89.0 1.6 89.6 1.8 88.5 2.0 87.2 1.6 84.8 .9 87.7 1.5 85.1 86.1 85.1 84.5 83.2 84.5 88.6 89.2 88.0 .1 .1 1.5 1.6 1.8 86.7 1.3 84.5 .7 87.2 1.3 OTHER PLANS .T .3 .J UNKNOWN 52 68 100.0 100.0 .0 TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 BEHAV SC TOT POSTDOC STUDY EMPLOYMENT 6.0 6.9 ssls 7.3 7.4 7.0 85.2 7.7 83.9 8.1 10.8 9.6 10.9 9.6 6.2 7.1 8.1 83.9 82.9 81.6 79.6 82.0 87.5 85.9 85.1 7.7 83.7 8.2 7.5 88.0 86.2 84.1 82.5 B1.8 84.7 MILITARY svc 1.9 2.2 2.4 2.1 1.7 .1 .1 .1 1.7 1.9 2.0 1.7 1.3 *"s OTHER PLANS 6.4 100.0 8.3 100.0 UNKNOWN TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 .0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 loo'.o SCIENCE TOTAL POSTDOC STUDY 14.0 16.3 21.4 24.3 23.1 19.5 17.5 21.9 26.9 26.6 26.2 24.3 14.2 16.7 21.9 24.5 23.5 19.9 EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC OTHER PLANS 80.4 2.4 77.0 71.8 2.7 67.0 2.6 66.8 2.1 73.0 2.5 74.6 .1 70.8 65.8 63.8 63.7 67.1 79.9 76.5 71.2 .1 .1 .1 2.2 2.6 2.5 66.3 1.8 72.4 2.3 UNKNOWN TOTAL 3.2 loolo loolo loolo HUMANITIES 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 POSTDOC STUDY EMPLOYMENT 2.2 92.1 87.-61 3.5 4.5 84.3 2.9 MILITARY SVC .7 92.6 90.7 88.1 85.7 90.0 89.2 86.6 83.0 81.1 84.9 91.4 91.9 89.7 86.7 88.8 1.0 .8 .5 .8 .6 .8 .7 .6 .3 .6 OTHER PLANS .3 .2 .2 .1 .3 5.3 3.3 2.7 2.8 2.2 3.0 1.1 .8 .8 .9 .9 .9 UNKNOWN TOTAL 4.7 loolo loolo 7.6 9.2 lOO.'o 5.3 5.2 6.9 9.9 11.9 8.4 4.8 4.8 6.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 8.2 10.0 100.0 6.8 100.0 PROFESSIONS 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 POSTDOC STUDY 1.0 l , 2.2 1.7 EMPLOYMENT 92.3 89.4 87.4 89.4 67 4 89.1 89.1 86.5 89.0 86.4 86.4 87.3 91.9 89.0 87.6 89.0 87.3 88.9 MILITARY SVC 1.3 1.8 2.9 2.9 2.2 2.2 .3 .3 .3 .2 1.1 1.6 2.6 2.6 1.9 2.0 OTHER PLANS •:| UNKNOWN TOTAL § .4 .0 loolo 6.0 100.0 loolo 5.8 100.0 7.9 7.9 7.2 7.7 7.3 5.4 7.6 7.7 6.1 100.0 100 1 0 7.1 EDUCATION 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 POSTOOC STUDY EMPLOYMENT MI LITARY SVC .8 96.3 1.0 1.7 94.8 .4 1.9 93.5 .6 2.2 1.6 94.2 .4 9,-:? 1.2 1.7 2.5 3.4 2.2 .9 1.0 1.7 92.9 92.6 90.5 87.9 91.2 96.1 95.0 94.3 .1 .2 .1 .1 .1 .3 .3 .4 2.1 92.8 .4 **•{ 9l:j '.** OTHER PLANS UNKNOWN 2ii .2 1.0 2.5 1.2 .7 1.0 1.1 1.0 .3 .3 .2 4.7 4.7 5.9 7.5 5.5 2.4 3.4 3.4 .4 .', 6.4 4ll TOTAL 3.1 loolo 3.8 loolo loolo 4.3 100.0 NON-SCI TOT 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 POSTDQC STUDY 1.4 1.2 2.0 2.9 2.0 1.6 1.7 2.6 3.4 4.0 2.9 1.4 1.3 2.1 2.6 ?.» 2.2 EMPLOYMENT 94.1 93.6 92.4 88.8 92.0 91.7 90.8 89.8 87.1 84.9 88.3 93.7 93.1 91.9 90.2 . 7 91.2 MI LI TARY SVC .6 .8 .9 .9 .7 3 .1 .1 .1 .1 .5 .6 .8 .7 .5 .6 OTHER PLANS .1 .1 .1 .2 .2 2*8 2.3 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.9 .6 .5 .4 .4 .6 .5 UNKNOWN TOTAL 3.7 4.3 100.0 4.6 100.0 5.4 loolo 5.1 100.0 loolo 5.1 5.9 7.7 9.4 6.8 3.7 4.5 4.8 100,0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5.9 100.0 7.9 100.0 loolo GRAND TOTAL 100.0 100.0 POSTDOC STUDY 9.9 11.3 14.7 16.3 15.4 13.4 8.5 10.6 13.1 13.1 13.4 12.1 9.8 11.2 14.5 15.8 15.0 13.2 EMPLOYMENT MILITARY SVC 78.9 2.1 752:S ll6 79.6 1.9 84.2 82.0 79.4 77.4 75.9 79.2 84.7 82.4 79.0 .1 .1 .1 .1 1.6 1.9 1.8 7U7 75.3 1.3 ll7 OTHER PLANS 3^4 3l 9 5.2 UNKNOWN 4. 2 5.7 7.7 4.9 4.0 5.0 5.7 7.7 9.2 6.7 3.4 4.0 4.4 6.0 8.0 TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 SOURCE: NRC, Commission on Human Resources.

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I- rhD'i rn tfMj EMC rwh* pUn K 1960 1962 1M4 1966 1966 1970 CALENDAR YEAR OF GRADUATION SOURCE NRC. Commmon on Human Rawurcw FIGURE 54 Plans for postdoctoral study, employment, or other activity: EMP fields. I960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 197} 1174 CALENDAR YEAR OF GRADUATION SOURCE NRC. CommiMion on Human Rnowron FIGURE 55 Plans for postdoctoral study, employment, or other activity: life sciences. > rMtdoctorri Study ImtrwdMTt Employm*nl * ihen 1 bahavioraJ iciantm *n lOpUm pottdoc.) 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 CALENDAR YEAR OF GRADUATION SOURCE NRC, CammiMton on Human R* rottdoclo'll StlMtv itudv it ttrt in th* nonKMnc* fi I960 1962 1964 1966 1966 1970 1f72 CALENDAR YEAR OF GRADUATION SOURCE NRC. Commiwon on Human R FIGURE 56 Plans for postdoctoral study, employment, or other activity: behavioral sciences. FIGURE 57 Plans for postdoctoral study. employment, or other activity: the nonscience fields.

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TABLE 35 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF REGIONAL ORIGINS AND DESTINATIONS AT THREE CAREER STAGES PhD's OF 1960-1974 Men BA Women Total PhD Post-PhD BA PhD Post-PhD BA PhD Post-PhD A. Percent from each U.S. region, foreign, and unknown source; Post-PhD destinations New England 8.2 8.7 5.7 8.8 Middle Atlantic 17.4 18.1 13.6 21.2 East North Central 17.6 23.8 13.6 18.0 West North Central 9.1 8.8 5.7 7.8 South Atlantic 7.9 10.7 11.2 9.4 East South Central 3.7 3.2 3.4 4.1 West South Central 6.7 7.2 5.6 7.2 Mountain 4.6 5.6 4.2 3.0 Pacific 9.7 14.1 10.8 9.2 U.S. Total 84.9 100.0 73.9 88.8 Foreign 14.1 — 8.3 10.3 Unknown 1.0 — 17.8 0.9 GRAND TOTAL 100.0 — 100.0 100.0 B. Percentage distributions with foreign and unknown excluded 9.2 6.0 22.8 15.0 22.5 12.5 6.9 4.6 11.6 10.0 3.3 3.0 6.7 5.0 4.3 2.9 12.6 9.6 100.0 68.5 — 5.4 — 26.2 — 100.0 8.3 18.0 17.7 8.9 8.1 3.8 6.8 4.3 9.6 85.4 13.6 1.0 100.0 8.8 5.8 18.7 13.8 23.6 13.4 8.5 5.6 10.9 11.0 3.2 3.4 7.0 5.6 5.4 4.0 13.9 10.6 100.0 73.1 — 7.9 — 19.0 — 100.0 New England 9.6 8.7 7.7 9.9 9.2 8.8 9.7 8.8 7.9 Middle Atlantic 20.5 18.1 18.4 23.9 22.8 21.9 21.1 18.7 18.8 East North Central 20.7 23.8 18.4 20.3 22.5 18.2 20.7 23.6 18.3 West North Central 10.7 8.8 7.7 8.8 6.9 6.7 10.4 8.5 7.6 South Atlantic 9.4 10.7 15.2 10.5 11.3 14.6 9.5 10.9 15.1 East South Central 4.4 3.2 4.6 4.6 3.3 4.4 4.4 3.2 4.7 West South Central 7.9 7.0 7.6 8.1 6.7 7.3 8.0 7.0 7.6 Mountain 5.4 5.6 5.7 3.4 4.3 4.2 4.9 5.4 5.4 Pacific 11.4 14.1 14.6 10.4 12.6 14.0 11.2 13.9 14.5 TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 SOURCE: NRC, Commission on Human Resources. POST-PhD GEOGRAPHIC DESTINATIONS The baccalaureate origins of PhD's are explored in more detail in the chapter dealing with insti- tutional characteristics. Origins have a bearing on the matter of post-PhD plans, because to a great extent the graduates tend to remain in, or return to, their regions of origin. (See Figure 47, page 68 for the states in each re- gion.) It is therefore instructive to examine the regional distribution (including foreign areas as a single region) at three career stages: baccalaureate, doctorate, and postdoctorate levels. The necessary data are shown in Table 35, which is presented in two portions: Part A pre- sents the raw percentage distributions, including the percent from non-U.S. sources and unknown sources and similar percentages for foreign and unknown destinations. In Part B, the foreign and unknown origins and destinations have been ex- cluded, showing the regional changes within the United States alone. Each part of the table is instructive in its own right, and data are pre- sented separately for men, for women, and for both sexes combined. It will be noted in Part A that 14.1 percent of the men and 10.3 percent of the women among the 1960-1974 PhD's come from foreign countries. For about 1 percent of each group the baccalau- reate origin is unknown. At the postgraduation level, however, these proportions change drasti- cally: 8.3 percent of the men and 5.4 percent of the women plan on foreign destinations after the doctorate. A much larger proportion do not know, when they complete the Doctorate Survey form, where they will be going. The "destination unknown" percentages are 17.8 percent for the men and 26.2 percent for the women. It is known that the degree of uncertainty is much greater for those of foreign citizenship, but it is im- possible at this stage to ascertain just what proportion of those from non-U.S. sources will eventually go abroad and what proportion will stay in the United States. The data as tabled indicate a net flow into the United States of almost half of the foreign origin total. Follow- up some time later would probably show that this net figure has diminished. The uncertainties recommend that we look at the U.S. data sepa- rately, excluding those who plan foreign destina- tions and those who are uncertain as to their destinations. These data are provided in Part B of Table 35. The data for men and for women in Part B are roughly similar, although there are interesting differences. Looking first at the combined

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90 data in the three columns at the right of the page, we can note the net shifts from stage to stage in the regional distribution of the PhD's. Beginning with New England, we see a net drain at each level, from 9.7 percent of the U.S. total at the BA level to 8.8 percent at the PhD level and 7.9 percent at the post-PhD level. The Middle Atlantic States lose slightly between the undergraduate and graduate levels but hold steady at the post-PhD stage. The East North Central States gain at the doctorate level but suffer a net loss at the employment stage. The West North Central States, like New England, lose progressively throughout the three stages. The South Atlantic States gain rather dramati- cally from stage to stage. At the employment stage, it is important to remember that Washington, D.C., is in the South Atlantic region—and a great many PhD's are employed in Washington. The East South Central States, rather weak at the PhD level, come back for a net gain at the employment level; the West South Central States gain back almost as many as the proportion of baccalaureates they produce. The Rocky Mountain States gain a bit at the PhD level and hold the gain at the employment stage. The Pacific Coast, like the South Atlantic, gains progressively throughout the three stages. To summarize briefly, the Northeast and the Midwest lose, between the undergraduate and post-PhD stages, while the South and the West gain. It may be significant that this general trend is characteristic not only of PhD's but of the popu- lation as a whole over the same period. Further data and detail by states and by institutions of origin will be found in Chapter 4. REGIONAL INTERCHANGES Following PhD graduation, people move from region to region for a number of reasons. Some under- take postdoctoral training, some enter academic employment, and some enter employment in nonaca— demic jobs. The regional interchanges, for those who plan to undertake each of these three types of activities, are shown in Table 36 in percent- age terms. The regions of PhD graduation are shown in the rows, the post-PhD destinations in the columns. There are three rows for each re- gion of graduation. The first row gives the destinations, in percentage terms, for those who undertake postdoctoral training. The second row shows the regional distribution of destinations TABLE 36 REGIONAL INTERCHANGES AFTER THE DOCTORATE: PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTIONS, BY REGION OF DESTINATION, FOR PhD's OF 1960-1974 SEEKING TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT IN ACADEME OR ELSEWHERE — ' East North Central West North Central East South Central West South Central Region of PhD New England Middle Atlantic South Atlantic Mountain Pacific U.S. Total Foreign Unknown New England Postdoctoral study 34.4 10.8 5.7 1.6 7.2 0.5 1.3 1.9 11.3 74.7 16.8 8.S Academic employment 36.7 14.3 9.7 2.9 6.7 1.4 2.0 1.7 7.5 83.0 5.5 11.5 Middle Atlantic Nonacademic employment 27.7 14.4 3.7 1.1 8.9 0.6 1.5 1.5 5.1 64.4 13.6 22.0 Postdoctoral study 8.1 39. i 7.7 1.6 7.0 0.8 1.6 1.6 8.2 76.2 13.4 10.5 Academic employment 6.8 45.8 8.9 2.4 7.5 1.6 2.0 1.5 5.2 81.8 5.5 12.7 East North Central Nonacademic employment 4.2 49.9 3.8 0.7 7.5 0.6 1.1 1.0 3.4 72.1 10.4 17.5 Postdoctoral study 6.9 9.8 34.6 3.4 7.4 1.3 2.3 2.3 10.3 78.3 12.9 8.9 Academic employment 3.9 8.8 37.2 6.5 8.3 3.6 3.8 3.3 6.8 82.4 5.4 12.3 West North Central Nonacademic employment 2.3 9.9 33.9 2.S 8.1 1.4 2.2 1.6 5.4 67.4 13.1 19.4 Postdoctoral study 5. 9.3 12.4 23.0 7.9 2.0 3.2 2.7 8.9 79.5 10.2 10.3 Academic employment 2. 4.9 16.4 33. a 6.1 3.3 5.5 4.6 6.0 82.9 4.5 12.6 South Atlantic Nonacademic employment 1. 6.2 10.2 29.0 6.8 1.4 4.1 2.4 4.9 66.3 12.3 21.5 Postdoctoral study 6. 9.3 7.6 2.9 37.6 2.6 3.6 2.1 7.0 79.2 9.9 10.8 Academic employment 3. 7.8 7.5 3.1 45.0 7.4 4.7 1.6 3.S 83.7 3.7 12.6 East South Central Nonacademic employment 2.0 7.8 3.7 1.1 49.3 2.6 2.4 1.0 2.6 72.5 8.3 19.2 Postdoctoral study 3.9 7.2 7.8 4.8 14.2 30.7 6.1 2.3 6.2 83.1 7.3 9.6 Academic employment 0.9 2.1 6.3 3.4 18.0 41.6 10.0 1.1 1.6 85.0 2.0 13.0 West South Central Nonacademic employment 0.8 4.5 4.6 1.8 17.4 39.1 5.6 1.0 1.8 76.8 5.1 18.1 Postdoctoral study 4.6 7.1 8.0 3.3 7.5 2.1 34.7 2.1 7.0 76.3 9.0 14.7 Academic employment 1.1 2.7 6.2 7.3 7.5 6.8 43.6 3.2 4.0 82.3 2.9 14.8 Mountain Nonacademic employment 0.8 3.0 3.0 3.3 6.0 3.1 43.7 2.6 3.8 69.5 7.9 22.6 Postdoctoral study 4.9 8.1 9.5 4.1 8.0 1.1 3.7 24.6 11.5 75.4 10. B 13.8 Academic employment 1.6 3.5 9.5 10.3 4.4 2.1 6.1 29.1 12.3 78.8 4.3 16.9 Nonacademic employment 0.9 3.8 4.7 4.2 4.4 0.7 3.7 34.7 12.5 69.6 7.6 22.8 Pacific Postdoctoral study 7.0 8.2 6.8 2.0 5.5 0.5 1.7 2.4 40.2 74.4 16.4 9.2 Academic employment 3.9 6.4 8.6 4.0 4.1 1.1 2.8 6.5 43. e 81.3 7.2 11.5 Total Nonacademic employment 1.4 5.5 2.6 1.0 4.7 0.4 1.2 2.5 47.7 67.0 15.0 18.0 Postdoctoral study 9.6 14.6 13.6 4.5 10.5 2.0 4.2 3.0 14.8 76.9 13.0 10.1 Academic employment 6.4 13.9 16.4 7.6 11.3 4.7 6.9 4.5 10.7 82. 3 5.0 12.7 Nonacademic employment 4.2 16.1 11.0 4.0 12.0 2.4 4.9 3.6 10.7 69.1 11.3 19.6 SOURCE: NRC, Commission on Human Resources.

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91 of those who plan to enter academic jobs, the third row of those planning nonacademic employ- ment. The destinations, shown in the columns, include the nine census regions of the United States, with a column for the U.S. total. In addition, the total going to foreign countries is given, as is the percentage whose destination is unknown. The final set of rows, at the bottom of the table, provides a general summary for the United States as a whole, and these per- centages furnish a kind of norm that may be used to compare the regions. The diagonal entries, showing those who remain in their region of doctorate, are italicized for particular attention. In each region, a plurality—but never a majority—remain in the PhD region, for each of the three types of activities with which the table is concerned. POSTDOCTORAL EDUCATION REGIONS Regarding the people who undertake postdoctoral training—whether called fellowships, trainee- ships, associateships, or whatever—the plurality who remain in their PhD regions for further training varies considerably. The percentages range from 24.6 percent for the Rocky Mountain States and 28 percent for the West North Central States to 39.5 percent for the Middle Atlantic region and 40.2 percent for the Pacific Coast—a rough reflection of the availability of postdoc- toral training sources in the several regions. The graduates of the several regions vary, too, in the extent to which they go abroad for post- doctoral training. These percentages vary from 16.8 percent for New England and 16.4 percent for the Pacific region to 7.3 percent for those who graduate in the East South Central States, as shown by the next-to-last column on the right of Table 36. The proportion undertaking post- doctoral training in the United States is an approximate complement of the figure for those going abroad, except for the influence of those whose region of training is unknown, as shown in the final column at the right. Summing across all regions of graduation, we see in the row third from the bottom, that the regions vary greatly as destinations for postdoctoral train- ing. The most-sought regions are the Pacific Coast and the Middle Atlantic States, closely followed by the East North Central region and foreign countries. The West North Central, the Deep South, and the Mountain States rank low as areas for further training. ACADEMIC EMPLOYMENT REGIONS The second set of rows in Table 36 concerns those who plan to enter academic employment. Again, there are marked regional variations, whether the regions are considered in terms of the extent to which they are general destinations for such employment, the proportions in each region re- maining there for such jobs, or the percent who go into academic employment outside the United States. In the Middle and South Atlantic regions, 45 percent or more remain in the same region for academic employment; in the Mountain States only 29 percent do so. Of the graduates of New England and Middle Atlantic universities who plan to enter academic jobs, 5.5 percent will go abroad; the percentage is only slightly less (5.4 percent) for the East North Central States and much higher (7.2 percent) for the Pacific region. By contrast, the percentages are very low for the East South Central region (2.0 per- cent) and the West South Central region (2.9 per- cent). At the bottom of the page, where the U.S. summary data are given, we see that of the na- tional total of those entering academe, 16.4 percent will go to East North Central colleges and universities, 13.9 percent to Middle Atlantic schools, and 10.7 percent to Pacific Coast insti- tutions. These three regions are large in popu- lation, of course, and one would expect them to be high on any such index. But the rank orders of the regions vary according to the type of post-PhD activity concerned. The Pacific region is first in postdoctoral training but fourth in academic employment. The East North Central region is first in academic employment but third in postdoctoral training; the Middle Atlantic region is second for both of these types of activities. NONACADEMIC EMPLOYMENT REGIONS The final set of rows in Table 36 concerns non- academic employment—an area that must be ex- pected to become increasingly important in the future, since academic employment tends to stabi- lize. Here the regional variations are quite different from those for training or academic jobs. The Middle Atlantic States rank first, no doubt because of the extent of technically oriented industry and the employment of PhD's by these states and by nonprofit organizations centered in the major cities of this area. The South Atlantic region comes up to second position probably because of the heavy employment of PhD's by the U.S. government in Washington, D.C., and by many other organizations with headquarters there. Not far behind is the East North Central region—another area of extensive industrializa- tion and urban concentration. VALIDATION OF PLANS AT GRADUATION Plans at PhD graduation were the basis for the analyses that have been reported in this chapter. The plans were those stated on the Survey of Earned Doctorates form, usually completed shortly before graduation. The validity of the analyses depends upon these statements and raises the question as to whether the students about to graduate know with a high degree of certainty what their actual situation will be in the fol- lowing year. The validity of these statements has been examined, and the results are reported below. TECHNIQUE OF FOLLOW-UP The Comprehensive Roster of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers makes biennial surveys of a sample of PhD's from the DRF. The sample is carefully

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92 TABLE 37 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION, BY FIELD GROUP, OF 1973 ACTIVITY FOR 1972 PhD's WHO PLANNED POSTDOCTORAL TRAINING AFTER GRADUATION Men Women Field Postdoctoral Full- Employed Part- Hot Postdoctoral Full- Employed Part- Not Group Training Time Time Employed Training Time Time Employed EMP fields 61 .2 36.7 1.1 1.0 57. 1 28 .6 14.3 — Life sciences 68 .8 29.4 0.9 0.9 78. 0 20 .9 — 1.1 Behavioral sciences 20 .2 71.9 — 7.9 35. 5 51 .6 12.9 -- TOTAL, SCIENCES 61 .1 36.5 1.0 1.4 65. 3 28 .7 5.3 0.7 SOURCE: NRC, Commission on Human Resources. stratified by year of doctorate, field of doctor- ate, and sex. Each cell in the three-dimensional table made up by these three variables is sampled in inverse proportion to the number of cases in the cell, and the sample is weighted so as to re- produce the original number. Cells with very few cases are included in toto; cells with high frequencies have a smaller proportion of cases— but a larger total number—included, in the sample. The object of the sampling scheme is to insure that relatively sparse fields—or other groups, such as women—are represented by numbers suffi- cient to permit analysis. If all individuals in a cell are included, each case will have a weight of 1. If only 10 percent are included, each will have a weight of 10. Across all cases in the population, a sampling ratio of 1 to 6 was approx- imated; in the biosciences, because of the inter- est in more detailed data in this area, a minimum sampling ratio of 1 in 4 was used. Because not all individuals in the sample respond to the follow-up questionnaire, a further weight was applied to each case, so that the respondent group could be "blown up" to represent the orig- inal population, on the assumption that the re- spondents were a representative sample of all cases in the base population. Studies made to date indicate that this latter assumption holds to a degree sufficient to permit highly valid analyses. This, then, was the system of follow- up used in the validation study reported below. VALIDATION OF PLANS FOR TRAINING When the 1972 PhD's were followed up via the sampling scheme described above, one of the first questions to be examined was whether those who planned to take postdoctoral training were actually holding postdoctoral appointments at the time of follow-up. Here the results were a bit ambiguous apparently because of time phase relationships. The Doctorate Survey question- naires are customarily completed some time prior to graduation—it may be several months in some cases. Graduation is defined in terms of the formal commencement date. When followed up, the earliest response date possible for the 1973 respondents was April of 1973. In practice, it was frequently later, since the follow-up pro- cess, for those who did not respond immediately, extended through the summer. Thus there was considerable opportunity for many who had planned training to have completed it and to have entered regular jobs. In some cases, no doubt, the training took less than a year and was terminated when a suitable job turned up. Whatever the reasons, the data, by field arid sex, for the 1972 PhD's, followed up in 1973, are given in Table 37. It is apparent from Table 37 that the majority of both men and women who had said that they planned to take postdoctoral training were actu- ally engaged in such training in the following year, but that a substantial number, if they had undertaken such training, had already left it for regular employment. The percentages are different for the two sexes, more women than men remaining in training status. This is to be expected if, as other data show, the women have experienced more difficulty in obtaining jobs. The data of the above table, showing a larger proportion of women in part-time jobs, tend to bear out this interpretation. The largest dif- ferences, however, are among the fields; in the behavioral sciences only a small minority of those planning postdoctoral training were actu- ally so engaged at the time of follow-up.

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93 TABLE 38 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION, BY FIELD GROUP, OF 1973 ACTIVITY FOR 1972 PhD's WHO PLANNED IMMEDIATE EMPLOYMENT AFTER GRADUATION Men Women Employed Employed Field Postdoctoral Full- Part- Not Postdoctoral Full- Part- Not Group Training Time Time Employed Training Time Time Employed EMP fields 1.6 96.5 0.1 1.8 1.8 83.6 14.6 _ Life sciences 2.4 96.0 1.6 — 8.5 79.7 6.8 5.1 Behavioral sciences 0.3 99.1 — 0.6 1.9 87.3 10.8 — TOTAL, SCIENCES 1.1 97.4 0.1 1.4 2.8 85.8 10.7 0.7 SOURCE: NRC, Commission on Human Resources. VALIDATION OF PLANS FOR EMPLOYMENT When those who said on the Doctorate Survey that they intended to enter employment rather than training were followed up, the results, by sex and for the same field groups as those shown in Table 37, were as shown in Table 38. In Table 38 the agreement between Doctorate Survey expectations and actual experience as shown a year later on follow-up is very good. Of the men expecting to be employed, 97.4 per- cent are so employed; of the women, 85.8 per- cent are employed full time and 10.7 percent part-time, for a total of 96.5 percent. To expect a higher level of agreement would in fact be unrealistic.