Index

A

Abduction, 118, 121

Abuse of information, 19, 20, 24, 25, 114-116, 158-160

Access to databanks, 18-19, 93-94, 123

Accreditation of laboratories, 16, 17, 100-103, 105-108, 145, 162

Adenine, 2, 33

Admissibility of DNA evidence, 20-23, 52, 131-146

Allele frequency, 10-13, 14, 48, 62, 74-75, 77-79, 81-86, 91, 92-93, 122, 123

Alleles, 4, 32, 36

Allele-specific oligonucleotide probes, 42

American Association of Blood Banks, 102

American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics, 102

American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors, 17, 72, 100, 102-103, 105-106, 107

American Society of Human Genetics, 72, 101-102

American Type Culture Collection, 91

Amplification methods, 40-43, 63-65, 69

Andrews v. State, 138-139

Anomalous bands, 58-59

Appellate opinions, 139-141

Argentina disappearance cases, 86

Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 126

Artifacts, 8, 54-55, 144

ASO (allele-specific oligonucleotide) probes, 42

Assault, 112, 118-120, 143

Automated fingerprint identification systems, 17-18, 111, 113, 117 , 157

Automation,

see Computer technology

Autoradiography, 38-39, 53

Autosomes, 33

B

Band shifting, 54, 60-61, 140-141

Bayesian theory, 85

Behavioral traits, 48, 114

Bias in laboratory analysis, 53

Blind testing,

see Proficiency testing

Blood, 28, 89, 112, 120, 126, 142, 158



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 179
Index A Abduction, 118, 121 Abuse of information, 19, 20, 24, 25, 114-116, 158-160 Access to databanks, 18-19, 93-94, 123 Accreditation of laboratories, 16, 17, 100-103, 105-108, 145, 162 Adenine, 2, 33 Admissibility of DNA evidence, 20-23, 52, 131-146 Allele frequency, 10-13, 14, 48, 62, 74-75, 77-79, 81-86, 91, 92-93, 122, 123 Alleles, 4, 32, 36 Allele-specific oligonucleotide probes, 42 American Association of Blood Banks, 102 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics, 102 American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors, 17, 72, 100, 102-103, 105-106, 107 American Society of Human Genetics, 72, 101-102 American Type Culture Collection, 91 Amplification methods, 40-43, 63-65, 69 Andrews v. State, 138-139 Anomalous bands, 58-59 Appellate opinions, 139-141 Argentina disappearance cases, 86 Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 126 Artifacts, 8, 54-55, 144 ASO (allele-specific oligonucleotide) probes, 42 Assault, 112, 118-120, 143 Automated fingerprint identification systems, 17-18, 111, 113, 117 , 157 Automation, see Computer technology Autoradiography, 38-39, 53 Autosomes, 33 B Band shifting, 54, 60-61, 140-141 Bayesian theory, 85 Behavioral traits, 48, 114 Bias in laboratory analysis, 53 Blind testing, see Proficiency testing Blood, 28, 89, 112, 120, 126, 142, 158

OCR for page 179
databank samples, 113, 117, 118, 125-126, 143 Blood banks, 84 Blood groups, 10, 27, 32, 43, 44, 88 Blot dotting, see Reverse dot hybridization Bone, 121, 125, 126 Boolean searches, 18, 114 Buccal swabs, 118 Bureau of Justice Assistance, 103 C Caldwell v. State, 140-141 California Association of Crime Laboratory Directors, 88, 89 Carryover contamination, 58-59, 66-67 Ceiling frequencies, 13, 82-83, 84, 90-93 Ceiling principle, 13, 14, 25, 82-85, 92, 93, 158 Cell repositories, 14, 90-91 Census categories, 12 Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humaine, 91 Certification of personnel, 16, 98, 100, 145, 153 Chain of custody, 131, 142 Civil cases, 20, 131-132 Cleavage sites, 38, 54 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act, 17, 102, 107 Cobey v. State, 136 College of American Pathologists, 101-102, 107 Commonwealth v. Curnin, 141 Computer technology, 44, 48-49, 60, 61; see also Networks for databanks, 18, 113-114, 117, 123, 125 Confidence limits, 9, 14-15, 75-76, 92 Confidentiality, see Privacy issues Consequentialist ethical analysis, 24-25, 154, 156-157, 158 Constitutional issues, 20, 131, 143, 153 Contamination, 20, 52, 55, 131, 134 in PCR procedures, 65-67, 68, 70 in RFLP procedures, 58-59 Control primers, 70 Controls, in testing, 55, 57-58 for laboratory proficiency, 62-63 Convicted-felon DNA databanks, 17-20, 86-87, 111-129, 142-143, 155, 159, 160, 161 Cooperative services, 153 Coriell Institute of Medical Research, 91 Cost-benefit analysis, see Economics Credit-rating services, 18, 114 Criminal profile, 17-20, 86-87, 111-129, 142-143, 155, 159, 160 Criminal records, 18, 114 Custody cases, 20, 132 Cytosine, 2, 33 D Databanks, 15, 104 access to, 18-19, 93-94, 123 allele frequency, 10, 74-75, 85-86, 91, 122, 124, 125 criminal profile, 17-20, 86-87, 111-129, 142-143, 155, 159, 160 and legal proceedings, 135, 139, 140, 141 privacy issues, 14, 17-20, 24-25, 32, 86-87, 113-116, 121-122, 155 -156, 158-160 samples, 112-113, 116-123, 125-126, 143 sequence variability, 44 see also Automated fingerprint identification systems; Cell repositories; Computer technology; Networks Defense counsels, 146, 147, 160, 161 Defense laboratories, 123 Demography, see Ethnic groups; Subpopulations Dental records, 125, 158 Department of Defense, 125-126 Department of Health and Human Services, 17, 107, 108 see also National Institutes of Health Department of Justice, 17, 107, 108 see also Bureau of Justice Assistance; Federal Bureau of

OCR for page 179
Investigation; National Institute of Justice Dermatoglyphics, see Fingerprinting Diagnostic DNA testing, see Disease testing Diallelic RFLP systems, 4, 35, 36, 45, 46 artifacts, 54 match criteria, 53 Digestion procedures, 36-37, 38, 54 and anomalous results, 58-59 in PCR analysis, 68-69 in Southern blot preparation, 57 Digital DNA typing, 43-44 Digitizing pen, 60 Diploid genome, 2 Disclosure of information, 18-19, 24, 114-115, 132, 148 Discrimination issues, 114, 160 Disease testing, 3, 6, 48, 52, 69, 79 accreditation programs, 101-102 ethical issues, 24, 48 privacy issues, 18-19, 114-115, 116 use of fingerprints, 29 ''DNA fingerprinting," 4, 28 DNA Proficiency Testing Act, 103 Documentation of laboratory procedures, 59, 99, 105, 148 Dot blotting, 42 Drug testing, 126 Due process, 153 E Economics of DNA testing, 48-49, 148-149, 153-154 and profile databanks, 113, 117-118, 120 Electrophoresis, 36 in PCR procedures, 43, 67-68 in RFLP procedures, 37, 38, 57, 60 Employment discrimination, 114, 160 Endonuclease, see Restriction enzymes Enzyme markers, 44 Epstein-Barr virus, 90 Error rates of laboratories, 14, 15, 88-89, 94 Ethical issues, 24-25, 154-158 Ethidium bromide, 57, 58, 63 Ethnic groups, 9, 11-15, 25, 48, 75, 79-85, 91, 158 Evidence samples, 17, 23, 44, 87, 131-132 analysis procedures, 36, 53 contamination of, 55, 59, 65-66, 134 in databanks, 112-113, 121, 125 see also Admissibility; Rules of evidence Exclusion of suspects, 75, 88, 135, 154, 156 Expert testimony, 21-23, 132-133, 145-149, 153 External molecular-weight standards, 59-60 F Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 1, 71-72, 103-104, 116, 153 DNA databank, 10, 12, 77 DNA testing methods, 15, 28, 97 Forensic Science Research and Training Center, 104 Federal laboratories, 20, 116 Federal regulation, 101, 107-108 Federal Rules of Evidence, 21-23, 132, 136-139, 153 Fingerprinting, 17-18, 111-113, 120, 121-122, 125, 155, 157, 161 compared to DNA typing, 29-31, 111-113, 117-118 see also Automated fingerprint identification systems "Floating bins,"; 86 Fluorometry, 53, 63 Forensic Science Research and Training Center, 104 Fourth Amendment issues, 20, 131 Fragment measurements, 59-61 Frequency calculations, 4-5, 9-15, 44-48, 74-86, 90-93 and databanks, 124 and legal proceedings, 141 Frequency theories, 85 Frye v. United States, 21-22, 132-136, 138 Funding issues, 101, 153

OCR for page 179
G Genetic disorders, see Disease testing Genetic drift, 82, 83-84 Genetic mapping, 91, 152, 155 Genetics Society of America, 72 Genomes, 2-3, 9, 34 Genotypes, 32 Governor's Select Committee on DNA Typing, New York, 103 Grandparentage86 Guanine, 2, 33 Guidelines for a Quality Assurance Program for DNA RFLP Analysis, 98-99 H Hair, 28, 120, 158 Haploid genome, 3 Hardy-Weinberg ratios, 4-5, 11, 45, 78, 81-81, 91, 139, 141 Helpfulness standard of evidence, 21-23, 132, 136-137 Heterogeneity of population, 82, 92 Heterozygosity, 4, 36 frequency calculation of, 11, 45, 48, 78 and PCR analysis, 68, 69 and RFLP analysis, 38-40, 58 HLA (human leukocyte antigens), 10, 27, 32, 44, 68, 70, 114 Homicide, 19, 112, 118-120, 143 Homogeneity of populations, 12, 14, 84 Homozygosity, 4, 36, 87 frequency calculation of, 11, 45, 48, 78, 79 and PCR analysis, 68 and RFLP analysis, 38-40, 58 Human genome project, see Genetic mapping Human leukocyte antigens, see HLA Hybridization, 37, 38, 40, 42, 48 and band analysis, 57-59, 60 reverse dot, 42, 67, 68 Hypervariable systems, see VNTR I Immigrants, 84, 155 Immortalized cell lines, 14, 90-91 Individual identification, 9, 28, 43-44, 74-75, 89-90, 113 from fingerprints, 29-31, 113 Information networks, see Networks In limine hearings, 144, 145 Inspections of laboratories, 106 Insurance companies, 114, 160 Internal molecular-weight standards, 60-61 International technology exchange, 25-26, 162-163 Interstate commerce, and laboratory accreditation, 108 Isotopic labeling, 37-38 J Jeffreys, Alex, 4, 40, 43-44 Judicial notice, 133-134, 145 Jury presentations, 14, 20-23, 25, 89, 132, 136-137, 146, 147, 160 -161 Juveniles, 148 K Kelly v. Texas, 140 Kidnapping, 118, 121 Kits, for PCR analysis, 68, 69 L Laboratories, 8, 15, 18-19, 20, 28, 53-55, 97, 101, 105, 112, 116, 161, 162 error rates, 14, 15, 88-89, 94 and legal proceedings, 133, 135, 140-141, 145, 148 licensing, 100-101 protocols, 8, 53-55, 105, 112, 133, 135, 140-141, 145, 148 regulation of, 15, 16-17, 97-108, 162 see also Match criteria; Proficiency testing; Technicians Laboratory Accreditation Board, American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors, 17, 102-103, 105-106, 107 Latent fingerprints, 17-18, 111-113 Leakage between samples, 59 Licensing of laboratories, 100-101

OCR for page 179
Likelihood ratios, 85 Linkage equilibrium, 36, 78, 81, 91 M Match criteria, 53-54 and PCR analysis, 43 and RFLP analysis, 61-63 Medical accreditation programs, 101-102 Medical diagnostics, see Disease testing Membrane transfer, 37, 38, 42, 58-59 Mendel's law, 32, 36, 86 Military personnel, 125-126 Minisatellite repeat codings, 93 Minority groups, see Ethnic groups Missing persons, 121 Misuse of information, 19, 20, 24, 114-116, 158-160 Mitochondrial DNA, 86 Molecular-weight standards, 59-61 Monomorphic probes, 60 Multiallelic systems, see VNTR Multilocus probes, 4, 10, 14-15, 40, 56 Multiple sources in sample, 52, 58, 59, 65-66, 88, 158 Multiplex amplification, 42 Multiplication rule, 5, 10-15, 76-79, 82-83, 89, 92, 145 Mutations, 38, 52, 82 N National Committee on Forensic DNA Typing, 8-9, 14, 16, 70-72, 84, 99 National Institute of Justice, 17, 71, 100, 108 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 71, 99, 116-117 National Institutes of Health, 17, 71, 90, 107 National Science Foundation, 71 Native Americans, 12, 15, 78 Networks, 113-114, 116-117, 123, 125, 126-128, 153; see also Computer technology; Databanks New York v. Neysmith, 88 Nonisotopic labeling, 37-38, 40 Nucleotides, 2-3, 33-35, 64 see also Oligonucleotides O Oligonucleotides, 40, 42 Organizations, see Professional organizations P Paternity determination, 20, 85, 86, 102, 132, 142, 155, 158 Pattern analysis, 53, 57-59 PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis, 5-6, 7, 40-44, 63-70, 85 , 114, 132, 144 commercial kits, 68, 69 People v. Castro,135 Perpetrator populations, 13, 85 Phenotype, 32 Pipettes, 67 Polymerase chain reaction, see PCR analysis Polymorphism, see FRLP analysis; VNTR Population frequencies, 9-15, 21, 44-48, 53, 74-85, 90-93, 157 and databanks, 124 and legal proceedings, 133, 135, 136, 139, 142, 145 Privacy issues, 14, 17-20, 24-25, 32, 86-87, 113-116, 121-122, 148 , 152, 153, 155-156, 158-160 for databanks, 18-19, 86-87, 113-116, 121-122, 143, 158-160 Private laboratories, 15, 18-19, 20, 97, 101, 162 Probability, see Frequency calculations Probative value, of DNA evidence, 22, 52, 134, 136-137 compared to fingerprints, 112 Probes, 54, 56, 144 see also ASO probes; Monomorphic probes; Multiocus probes; Singlelocus probes Product rule, see Multiplication rule Professional organizations, 16-17, 26, 63, 100, 105-106, 148 Proficiency testing, 14, 15, 16-17, 55, 62-63, 88-89, 94, 99, 103-108 Profile repositories, 17-20, 86-87, 111-129

OCR for page 179
Proof-of-death cases, 20, 132 Proprietary data, 93-94, 148, 162 Prosecutors, 25, 146-147, 160, 161 Protective orders, 23, 93-94, 148 Protocols, 8, 53-55, 72, 105, 112 Publication issues, 56, 93, 137, 138, 144, 162 Public laboratories, 15, 20, 28, 97, 116, 162 Public opinion, 25, 28, 107, 160 Q Quality assurance, 15-17, 32, 97-109, 134, 153 Quantitative analysis of pattern images, 53 see also Frequency calculations R Racial groups, see Ethnic groups Radiocactive isotopes, see Isotopic labeling Rape, 19-20, 65-66, 112, 118-120, 143 Reagents, 53, 54 Recidivists, 19, 86, 118-120, 121, 143 Red-cell enzymes, 27 Reference samples, 14-15, 83-84, 90-91 Regional networks, 126-128, 153 Regulation, 15, 16-17, 97-98, 100-108, 153-154, 162 of commercial kits, 69 Relatives, 14, 25, 86-87, 121, 143 Reliability of testing methods, 51-52, 71, 88, 97, 106, 133-137, 156 Reproducibility of results, 85-86, 116-117, 135 Restriction digestion, see Digestion procedures Restriction enzymes, 3, 4, 34-38, 54, 57 Restriction fragment length polymorphisms, see RFLP analysis Retention of samples, 63, 122 Reverse dot hybridization, 42, 67, 68 RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) analysis, 3-4, 34 , 35, 36-40, 56-63, 85, 98-99 and databanks, 19, 114, 116, 118 State law coverage, 52, 131-132 see also Diallelic RFLP systems; Southern blots Rights of accused, 24-25, 154-157, 159 Robbery, 112, 118, 120 Rule 403, 20, 22, 132, 136 Rule 702, 20, 22, 132, 136-137 Rule 706, 20, 132, 153 Rules of evidence, 20-23, 52, 132, 136-139, 141-142, 145, 153 S Saliva, 28, 142, 158 Samples, 17-20, 36, 44, 53, 58-59, 60 contamination of, 20, 52, 55, 59, 65-67, 68, 134 control, 57-58, 62-63 in databanks, 116-123 leakage, 59 mixed sources of, 52, 58, 59, 65-66, 88, 158 reference, 14-15, 83-84, 90-91 retention of, 63, 122 storage, 18-19, 20, 90, 114-115, 117, 122, 159 Sanctions, 100, 160 Security of information, 18, 19, 24-25, 113-116, 123 Semen, 19, 27, 28, 36, 65-66, 112, 120 Serial repists, 120 Serology, 88, 157-158 see also Blood groups Serum protein, 27, 32 Sex chromosomes, 33 Sex offenses, 19-20, 65-66, 118-120, 143 Single-band patterns, 58 Single-locus probes, 4, 5, 15, 23, 37, 38-40, 48, 52, 56, 57 Societies, see Professional organizations Software for databanks, 14, 18, 87, 117, 125, 128 for fragment measurement, 61 Soldiers, 125-126 Southern, Edwin, 3, 38

OCR for page 179
Southern blots, 5, 37, 38, 63 compared to PCR, 69-70 preparation of, 3, 4, 57, 59 validity as evidence, 23, 52, 131, 142 Spencer v. Commonwealth, 139 Sperm, 65-66 Standardization of methods, 8, 15-17, 26 and databanks, 112, 116-117, 126-128 and quality assurance, 97-109 see also Molecular-weight standards "Star activity,"; 57 State Justice Institute, 71-72 State laboratories, 20, 28, 108, 116 State regulation, 100-101, 108 of databanks, 115-116, 120, 124-125, 126-128, 142-143 State rules of evidence, 20, 21, 52, 132, 141-142 State v. Despain138 State v. Pennell, 139 State v. Schwartz, 135-136 Statistical analysis, see Frequency calculations Statistical disclosure, 18-19, 114-115 Subpopulations, 10-15, 48, 76, 77-85 Suspect samples, 20, 36, 53, 59 in databanks, 17-20, 86-87, 111-129, 142-143, 155, 159, 160 T Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis and Methods, 16, 98-99, 104 , 106, 116-117 Technicians, 15, 16, 17, 25-26, 66, 97, 100 Technological advancement, 15, 55, 70-71, 143-145, 153 Technology transfer, 71 international, 25-26, 162-163 Thermocyclers, 64 Thymine, 2, 33 Trade secrets, 93-94, 148, 162 Twins, 29, 44 Training, 15, 16, 17, 25-26, 96, 104, 108, 125, 153 U UNC (uracil N-glycolase enzyme), 67 Unidentified bodies, 121, 125, 126, 158 United States v. Jakobetz, 138 United States v. Porter, 138 United States v. Yee, 138 Uracil N-glycolase enzyme, see UNC Urban areas, 25 Urine, 28, 126 V Vaginal fluids, 65-66 Validity of methods, 51-52, 140, 145 statistical, 75, 76-79, 90, 134, 140 Variable number tandem repeat, see VNTR Victim samples, 121 Victims' rights, 25, 156-157 VNTR (variable number tandem repeat), 4, 34-40, 45-48 and amplification, 42, 64 match criteria, 42, 53-54 and multiplication rule, 11-12