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MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: FOUNDATIONS OF WORLD-CLASS PRACTICE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS FOUNDATIONS OF WORLD-CLASS PRACTICE JOSEPH A. HEIM and W. DALE COMPTON, Editors Committee on Foundations of Manufacturing National Academy of Engineering NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992
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MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: FOUNDATIONS OF WORLD-CLASS PRACTICE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. This publication has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a National Academy of Engineering report review process. Partial funding for this effort was provided by the Intel Foundation and the National Academy of Engineering Technology Agenda Program. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Manufacturing systems : foundations of world-class practice / Joseph A. Heim and W. Dale Compton, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-04588-6 1. Manufactures—Management. 2. Industrial management. I. Heim, Joseph A. II. Compton, W. Dale. HD9720.5.M38 1992 658.5—dc20 91-36171 CIP Copyright © 1992 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic procedure, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purpose of official use by the United States government. Printed in the United States of America First Printing , December 1991 Second Printing , November 1992
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MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: FOUNDATIONS OF WORLD-CLASS PRACTICE Foreword Manufacturing is a complex activity drawing upon many disciplines and technologies, reflecting management attitudes and philosophies, dependent upon organizational structures, influenced by the customers for products and by the suppliers of the many materials, machines, and equipment used to produce those products. Most efforts to develop a science of manufacturing have concentrated on understanding and improving the performance of unit operations and activities, in the belief that maximizing the effectiveness of the separate parts would result in an optimized system. Although our endeavors have provided a greater understanding of the fundamental phenomena underlying the individual components and an increased awareness of the details needed to direct and control them, we are beginning to realize that the complexity of the myriad relationships, interactions, and dependencies of the components and processes precludes such an approach to system optimization. It is now clear that ignoring the many interactions prevents good predictions of system performance and improved controls. The study on which this report is based was an effort by the National Academy of Engineering to define principles underlying the complexity of manufacturing systems. Many of the findings of this study were presented at an NAE symposium entitled “Foundations of World-Class Manufacturing Systems” held in Washington, D.C., on June 19, 1991. I would like to thank W. Dale Compton, who chaired the symposium and the Committee on
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MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: FOUNDATIONS OF WORLD-CLASS PRACTICE Foundations of Manufacturing, and Joseph A. Heim, the principal staff officer for the project, for their efforts in organizing the symposium and in the publication of this volume. Also, on behalf of the National Academy of Engineering, I would like to thank the committee members (listed on page 254) and the authors who participated in the study and symposium. Special thanks are due to the following individuals in the NAE Program Office who worked on the publication and symposium: H. Dale Langford, Maribeth Keitz, Melvin J. Gipson, Vivienne T. Chin, and Mary J. Ball. This project was carried out under the auspices of the NAE Program Office, directed by Bruce R. Guile. Partial funding for this effort was provided by the Intel Foundation and the National Academy of Engineering Technology Agenda Program. ROBERT M. WHITE President National Academy of Engineering
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MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: FOUNDATIONS OF WORLD-CLASS PRACTICE Preface Recognition of the complexity of the manufacturing system and the need to view it in its entirety was a principal outcome of the February 1987 National Academy of Engineering conference on “Design and Analysis of Integrated Manufacturing Systems: Status, Issues, and Opportunities. ” The conference identified a need for a more intensive search for the elements of a manufacturing systems discipline, based on the belief that a more effective characterization of manufacturing systems would benefit both practitioners and educators. In response, the National Academy of Engineering assembled the Committee on Foundations of Manufacturing in early 1989 to address the disciplinary nature of manufacturing systems. The concept of manufacturing as a discipline implies the existence of “basic laws,” a taxonomy, basic theories of design, and optimization procedures. This study has focused on the systems aspects of manufacturing and has been primarily concerned with those generic issues reflected in world-class manufacturing companies and is not intended to address operational solutions to today's manufacturing problems. The Foundations of Manufacturing Committee met on numerous occasions during 1989 and 1990 to explore the various aspects of manufacturing systems, often meeting with manufacturing experts who are not members of the committee. Individual committee members, as well as the committee, also developed a variety of characterizations of manufacturing systems and
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MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: FOUNDATIONS OF WORLD-CLASS PRACTICE subsystems and began work on developing or obtaining data to illustrate some of the hypothesized relationships. In July 1990 the committee hosted a workshop at the NAS/NAE study center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for several manufacturing executives, practitioners, and university educators. The exchange of ideas during the workshop lent further credence to the need to identify the core set of principles or bases on which manufacturing systems could be analyzed, designed, and managed. The enthusiastic reception for the concept and support for the effort to define and generalize these principles led to the development of several papers (included in this volume) that focus on many of the ideas presented during the workshop. The committee draws heavily on these papers in its arguments concerning the importance of these principles and their application in the manufacturing environment. The committee designated these principles “foundations” of manufacturing because of their comprehensive applicability; they are generic, not specific to a particular industry or company; they are operational in that they lead to specific actions and show directions that should be taken; and their application should lead to improved system performance. These operating principles must be recognized, understood, and aggressively adopted by manufacturing organizations that aspire to world-class performance standards. This report provides a framework that can be used by manufacturing executives and practitioners to improve their capability to predict the outcomes of product, process, and operating decisions and to assist them in analyzing, designing, and controlling their systems. For educators and those engaged in research, the report identifies opportunities for greater exploration and the discovery of additional foundations of manufacturing systems. Furthermore, it reminds us that intense interdisciplinary interactions of the many contemporary engineering, business, and social disciplines needed by modern manufacturing systems will contribute significantly to the global competitiveness of manufacturing in the United States. W. DALE COMPTON, Chairman Foundations of Manufacturing Committee National Academy of Engineering
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MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: FOUNDATIONS OF WORLD-CLASS PRACTICE Contents REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FOUNDATIONS OF MANUFACTURING 1 Executive Summary 3 1. Introduction 9 2. Overview 14 3. Management Practice 27 4. Measuring, Describing, and Predicting System Performance 43 5. Organizational Learning and Improving System Performance 61 6. Educational and Technological Challenges 78 GLOBALLY COMPETITIVE MANUFACTURING PRACTICES 83 Involvement and Empowerment: The Modern Paradigm for Management Success Nancy L. Badore 85 Implementation Projects: Decisions and Expenditures H. Kent Bowen 93 Benchmarking W. Dale Compton 100 Improving Quality Through the Concept of Learning Curves W. Dale Compton, Michelle D. Dunlap, and Joseph A. Heim 107
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MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: FOUNDATIONS OF WORLD-CLASS PRACTICE Organizing Manufacturing Enterprises for Customer Satisfaction Harry E. Cook 116 Customer Satisfaction Harold E. Edmondson 128 The Interface Between Manufacturing Executives and Wall Street Visitors —Why Security Analysts Ask Some of the Questions That They Do Philip A. Fisher 137 Taylorism and Professional Education John E. Gibson 149 The Integrated Enterprise William C. Hanson 158 Time as a Primary System Metric Dan C. Krupka 166 Communication Barriers to Effective Manufacturing James F. Lardner 173 Are There “Laws” of Manufacturing? John D. C. Little 180 Taking Risks in Manufacturing David B. Marsing 189 Constant Change, Constant Challenge Joe H. Mize 196 Manufacturing Capacity Management Through Modeling and Simulation A. Alan B. Pritsker 204 The Power of Simple Models in Manufacturing James J. Solberg 215 Improving Manufacturing Competitiveness Through Strategic Analysis G. Keith Turnbull, Eden S. Fisher, Eileen M. Peretic, John R. H. Black, Arnoldo R. Cruz, and Maryalice Newborn 224 Going to the Gemba Albertus D. Welliver 233 Jazz: A Metaphor for High-Performance Teams Richard C. Wilson 238 Consolidated Bibliography 245 Committee Membership 254 Biographies of Contributing Authors 256 Index 263
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MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: FOUNDATIONS OF WORLD-CLASS PRACTICE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS
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MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: FOUNDATIONS OF WORLD-CLASS PRACTICE This page in the original is blank.