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Sobrino J. 2012. Urban demographic growth: The case of megacities. In Handbook of Research Methods and Applications to Urban Economies, eds. Kresl PK, Sobrino J. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. pp. 343–371.

Thomas MB, Casula P, Wilby A. 2003. Biological control and indirect effects. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19(2):61.

Wong AKC, Bugliarello G. 1970. Artificial intelligence in continuum mechanics. Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division 96(6):1239–1265.


Adaptive response: the capacity of an entity (e.g., a city) to sense and respond to a perturbation. An effective adaptive response anticipates a threat and leads to action rather than reaction.

Biosoma: concept created by George Bugliarello to consider the interaction of the natural inanimate inorganic environment with the Earth’s biological systems (humans and other species), their social entities, and their machines (artifacts).

DUMBO: acronym for Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass, a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It encompasses two sections: one located between the Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridges, which connect Brooklyn to Manhattan across the East River, and another that continues east from the Manhattan Bridge to the Vinegar Hill area.

MetroTech: the Metropolitan Technology Center, a university-industry park in Brooklyn, conceived and catalyzed by George Bugliarello and Polytechnic University in 1975.

Urban knowledge parks: dense geographical environments combining industry and research-oriented institutions.

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