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sumption, security, flood and landslide forecasting, and traffic congestion mitigation.

Upmanu Lall addressed the effects of climate change on urban water in coastal zones, and discussed various issues involved in the development of adaptive approaches to risk mitigation.1 He pointed out that reducing urban water vulnerability to climate variations and change requires the adoption of management, planning, and operational practices based on adaptive rules informed by climate observations and predictions. One immediate opportunity for effecting gains lies in addressing seasonal to interannual climate risk, especially for multiyear droughts.

Carter H. Strickland’s remarks, presented on his behalf by Christopher M. Hawkins, concerned the crucial role of waterways, water supply, energy, and air quality, as set forth in New York City’s “PlaNYC 2030” for environmental sustainability. He cited examples illustrating (1) improvements of waterways to increase opportunities for recreation and restoration of coastal ecosystems, (2) the expansion of capacity for wastewater treatment, (3) green strategies to improve water quality, and (4) the use of various efficiency measures to reduce energy and emissions from existing buildings, wastewater treatment plants, solid waste management facilities, and vehicles.


1 Dr. Lall’s remarks are not included in this volume.

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