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LIVABLE CITIES
OF THE FUTURE

Proceedings of a Symposium Honoring the Legacy of George Bugliarello

Mohammad Karamouz and Thomas F. Budinger, Editors

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                                      OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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LIVABLE CITIES OF THE FUTURE Proceedings of a Symposium Honoring the Legacy of George Bugliarello Mohammad Karamouz and Thomas F. Budinger, Editors

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street NW   Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: Publication of this volume does not imply endorsement by the National Acad- emy of Engineering of any conclusions or recommendations reported in these pages. The interpretations and conclusions are those of the symposium speakers represented and do not purport to present the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering. This project was supported by funding from New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering and the National Academy of Engineering Fund. Any opinions, findings, or conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the symposium participants. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-30009-4 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-30009-6 Copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (888) 624-8373 or (202) 334-3313; www.nap.edu. For more information about the National Academy of Engineering, visit the NAE homepage at www.nae.edu. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsi- bility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Preface Livable Cities of the Future, a symposium honoring the legacy of George Bugliarello, was hosted October 26, 2012, by the Polytechnic Institute of New York University1 (NYU-Poly) in the Pfizer Auditorium of the Bern Dibner Library of Science and Technology. The event brought together more than 200 engineers, civic leaders, educators, and futurists to discuss how George Bugliarello’s vision manifests itself in innovative urban planning for the cit- ies of tomorrow. The symposium objectives were to cultivate ideas for best practices and innovative strategies for sustainable urban development and to facilitate the evolution of New York City to a real-life laboratory for urban innova- tion. Participants heard the perspectives and experiences of representatives from private and public service operators, infrastructure agencies, and the academic community. Elected officials and other stakeholders in urban and other sectors examined issues critical to resilient and sustainable cit- ies, such as energy, water supply and treatment, public health, security infrastructure, transportation, telecommunications, and environmental protection. The event was organized in three parts (the program is reproduced in the Appendix). Part I opened with welcome remarks by Jerry Hultin, NYU- 1 On January 1, 2014, Polytechnic Institute became the New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering. v

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vi PREFACE Poly president and symposium chair, and an introduction by symposium cochair and session moderator Mohammad Karamouz, who presented the symposium objectives and reflected on George Bugliarello’s intellectual courage and innovative thinking about the integration of engineering, the biosphere, and society. This was followed by a keynote speech by the Honorable Robert K. Steel, New York City deputy mayor for economic development, and reflections on the legacy of George Bugliarello by Ruth David, president and CEO, Analytic Services, Inc., on behalf of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and by Richard S. Thorsen,2 NYU-Poly vice president emeritus. Part II, on fundamental needs and emerging challenges in large cities, was divided into two sessions. The first addressed infrastructure renewal for water, energy, and transportation, with presentations by Patrick Foye, executive director of the Port Authority of New York/New Jersey (delivered on his behalf by John Ma, his chief of staff); Andrew W. Herrmann,2 presi- dent of the American Society of Civil Engineers; Craig S. Ivey, president of Consolidated Edison Company of New York; and Daniel (Pete) Loucks, professor of civil and environmental engineering at Cornell University. Ilan Juran,2 director of the NYU-Poly Urban Infrastructure Institute, moder- ated the session, which was followed by luncheon speaker Honorable David Miller, former mayor of Toronto. The second session, moderated by John C. Falcocchio,2 director of the NYU-Poly Intelligent Transportation Systems Center, concerned sustainability, information technology, and the environ- ment, with presentations by Joan McDonald, commissioner for the New York State Department of Transportation; Ruthie D. Lyle, with IBM’s Smart Cloud for Social Business; Upmanu Lall, director of the Water Center at Columbia University Earth Institute (text not included in this volume); and Carter H. Strickland, Jr., commissioner for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Part III, a panel discussion of challenges to the way forward, was moderated by Paul Horn,2 New York University Distinguished Scientist in Residence and senior vice provost for research. The panelists were Steven E. Koonin,2 director of the Center for Urban Science and Progress (CUSP); Gerard M. Mooney, vice president of IBM Global Smarter Cities; Thomas D. O’Rourke,2 Thomas R. Briggs Professor of Engineering at Cornell Univer- sity; and Theodore (Ted) S. Rappaport,2 NYU-Poly David Lee/Ernst Weber 2  Member of the Symposium Steering Committee. The complete lists of Steering Com- mittee members and Symposium sponsors are in the Appendix, pages 159–160.

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PREFACE vii Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Closing remarks were delivered by Katepalli R. Sreenivasan,2 NYU-Poly provost and NYU senior vice provost for science and technology. We are indebted to Symposium Chair Jerry Hultin, Honorary Chair Paul Soros, and the members of the Steering Committee, whose dedicated efforts ensured the breadth and success of this important event. In addition to those identified above, the committee benefited from the expert guidance of Lawrence Chiarelli, interim head of the NYU-Poly Department of Civil and Urban Engineering; Lance A. Davis, NAE executive officer; Kristen Day, head, NYU-Poly Department of Technology, Culture, and Society; Rose J. Emma, former assistant to George Bugliarello; Ivan T. Frisch, former execu- tive vice president and provost, NYU-Poly; Kathleen Hamilton, director, NYU-Poly Marketing and Communications; Charles M. Vest, NAE president and president emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Wm. A. Wulf, NAE president emeritus and former University Professor and AT&T Professor of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Virginia; and Rae Zimmerman, professor of planning and public administration, Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Science, and director, NYU Institute for Civil Infrastructure Systems (ICIS). We also gratefully acknowledge the support of the symposium’s gener- ous sponsors: the American Society of Civil Engineers, National Academy of Engineering, NYU-Poly Department of Civil and Urban Engineering, NYU Center for Urban Science and Progress, Forest City Ratner Com- panies, University Transportation Research Center, Hardesty & Hanover, NYU alumni Walter Bell, Virginia Bugliarello,2 Robert Dalziel,2 and Craig Matthews, and former colleague and University of Pittsburgh professor Tin-Kan Hung. This volume opens with an overview of George Bugliarello’s accomplish- ments and research, followed by a summary of each session and 18 papers based on the speakers’ presentations. We are grateful for thoughtful editing by Cameron Fletcher, NAE senior editor, and for her role in shepherding these proceedings to publication. We also appreciate the assistance of Rose Emma and NYU Environmental Engineering Program graduate students Bianca Caraballa, Jatin Rathi, and Sally-Jeanne Watkins in the preparation of the proceedings. This effort is intended to become a biennial symposium with the purpose of continuing to expand on the contributions toward urban resiliency that George Bugliarello spearheaded. The NYU-Poly Civil and Urban Engineer-

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viii PREFACE ing Department is determined to take a lead role in promoting collaborations among institutions and agencies for a better New York City, and future events will include national figures in policy and decision making, urban planning, resource allocation, and economics as well as cultural and social issues. Mohammad Karamouz, Symposium Cochair NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering Thomas F. Budinger3 University of California, Berkeley 3  NAE Home Secretary and member of the Steering Committee.

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Contents THE LEGACY OF GEORGE BUGLIARELLO: A REVIEW OF HIS VISION AND CONTRIBUTIONS 1 Mohammad Karamouz Overview of George Bugliarello’s Professional Career, 2 His Accomplishments at NYU-Poly, 3 His Scientific, Engineering, and Professional Contributions, 4 Personal Reflections, 8 Closing Remarks, 17 References, 18 Glossary, 20 KEYNOTE SPEECH 21  Economic Development Strategy and the Role of Technology and Innovation in Crafting the Economy of New York City’s Future Robert K. Steel LEGACY OF GEORGE BUGLIARELLO  Reflections on His Global Impact through the National Academy of Engineering, 23 Ruth David ix

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x CONTENTS His Leadership of the Polytechnic Institute and Vision of the Future, 26 Richard S. Thorsen INFRASTRUCTURE RENEWAL: WATER, ENERGY, AND TRANSPORTATION Opening Comments, Session Summary, and Concluding Remarks, 32 Ilan Juran, moderator The Critical Role of Transportation in Livable Cities of the Future, 36 Patrick J. Foye  Sustainable Urban Renewal: Engineers’ Role in Changing the Built Environment, 45 Andrew W. Herrmann Energy As the Core of New York City, 55 Craig S. Ivey Using Water for Urban Renewal, 61 Daniel P. Loucks LUNCHEON SPEECH We Can Fight Climate Change and Create Jobs—Here’s How, 73 David R. Miller SUSTAINABILITY, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, AND ENVIRONMENT Sustainability, Information Technology, and Environment, 80 C. Falcocchio, moderator John  New York State Department of Transportation Sustainability Initiatives, 82 McDonald Joan  IBM Intelligent Operations Center: A Breakthrough in Information Technology for Smarter Cities, 89 Ruthie D. Lyle and Colin Harrison  PlaNYC and the New York City Department of Environmental Protection’s Role in a Greener, Greater New York, 94 Carter H. Strickland, Jr. and Christopher M. Hawkins

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CONTENTS xi CHALLENGES: THE WAY FORWARD Challenges: The Way Forward, 107 M. Horn, moderator Paul  Center for Urban Science and Progress: Opportunities in Urban Data, 109 Steven E. Koonin  Urban Challenges: The Way Forward, 114 Gerard M. Mooney Prospects for Critical Infrastructure, 122 Thomas D. O’Rourke Impacts of Evolving Wireless Communications, 131 Theodore S. Rappaport APPENDIX  Symposium Program 139

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