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FIRES IN MASS TRANSIT VEHICLES: GUIDELINES FOR THE EVALUATION OF TOXIC HAZARDS Report of the Committee on Toxicity Hazards of Materials Used in Transit Vehicles National Materials Advisory Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Transportation Research Board National Research Council NMAB-462 National Academy Press 1991

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsiblity for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study by the National Materials Advisory Board was conducted under Contract No. DC- 86-0559 with the Urban Mass Transporation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. This report is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Printed in the United States of America

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ABSTRACT Noteworthy progress has been made recently toward understanding and quantifying the smoke toxicity factors involved in fire hazard assessment. Such progress has led to increased attention to the significance of fire growth parameters for toxic hazard. Methodology has been proposed to use fire test data, including information on the toxic potency of smoke in engineering calculations for the assessment of overall fire hazard. Confidence in the methodology may evolve from comparison with full-scale fire tests as well as from human fire fatality experience. This report addresses fire modeling, fire testing, smoke toxicity testing, fire hazard assessment, and fire risk assessment. In the assessment of potential toxic hazards in the event of fires in mass transit vehicles, the report concludes that selection of candidate materials should be based on analyses using both toxicological and engineering considerations. ~

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COMMITTEE ON TOXICITY HAZARDS OF MATERIALS USED IN TRANSIT VEHICLES Chairman MARTIN SUMMERFIELD, Princeton Combustion Research Laboratories, Inc., Monmouth Junction, New Jersey Members J. WESLEY CLAYTON, JR., Consultants in Toxicology, Inc., Tucson, Arizona FRANCIS E. FENDEI`L, TRW Space and Technology Group, Redondo Beach, California STEVEN C. PACKHAM, Utah Department of Environmental Health, Salt Lake City, Utah GIULIANA C. TESORO, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York KENT J. VOORHEES, Colorado School of Mines, Golden RALPH S. WEULE, Bay Area Rapid Transit Authority, Oakland, California Technical Consultants WALTER G. BERL, Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland GORDON HARTZELL, Consultant, San Antonio, Texas v

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Liaison Representatives ROY FIELD, U.S. Department of Transportation, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Washington, DC WILLIAM T. HATHAWAY, U.S. Department of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts NMAB Staff = STANLEY M. BARKIN, Staff Scientist CATHRYN SUMMERS, Senior Secretary TRB Staff W. CAMPBELL GRAEUB, Senior Program Officer RICHARD F. PAIN, Senior Program Officer V1

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Martin Summerfield, the committee chairman, expresses his gratitude to the members, technical consultants, and liaison representatives of the committee for their commitment to this project. Furthermore, on behalf of the committee, he thanks the following people for providing technical information during the course of this study: Technical Presentations Rosalind C. Anderson, Anderson Laboratories, Inc. John Autian, University of Tennessee Richard W. Bukowski, NIST Herbert H. Cornish, University of Michigan (Professor Emeritus) Howard W. Emmons, Harvard University Paul D. Garn, University of Akron Demetrius A. Kourtides, NASA-Ames Research Center Gordon L. Nelson, Florida Institute of Technology lames Quintiere, NIST Robert S. Strength, Monsanto Polymer Products (Retired) W. Douglas Walton, NIST Frederick W. Williams, Naval Research Laboratory R. Brady Williamson, University of California-Berkeley Technical Tours Center for Fire Research, NIST Howard R. Baum Richard W. Bukowski Richard G. Gann I. Houston Miller Thomas Ohiemiller V11

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Kenneth Stickler W. Douglas Walton FAA Technical Center Thor Eklund Robert Filicfak T. M. Guastavino Richard Hill Constantine Sarkos Bay Area Rapid Transit Authority Raymond Cole Kris Hari ~ vial

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CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BACKGROUND ........ Mission of UMTA, 5 Related Work, 6 Objectives of the Study, 8 Approach, 8 References, 9 FIRE MODELING ................ Background, 1 1 Zone-Type Computer Models, 12 Field-Type Models, 13 Limitations of Present Computer Modeling of Fires, 14 Conclusion, 15 References, 15 FIRE TESTING . e e e e e e e e e ~ e ~ e e ~ ~ e e e e e e e ~ e e e e e e e e e e ~ - e e e e c Cone Calorimeter, 18 OSU Rate of Heat Release, 19 NIST Furniture Calorimeter, 20 Full-Scale Fire Testing, 20 Conclusion, 22 References, 23 e 1X 17

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SMOKE TOXICITY TESTING ................ Introduction, 25 Basic Principles of Smoke Toxicity Testing, 29 Test Methods, 31 Role of Analytical Chemistry, 36 Conclusions, 37 References, 38 5 TOXIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT [Iazard Assessment Engineering NIodels, al Selection of Hazard Engineering Models, 47 Conclusions, 48 References, 48 6 APPENDIXES FIRE RISK ASSESSMENT Conclusion, 53 Reference, 53 A Recommended Fire Safety Practices for Rail Transit Materials Selection, 55 B C D E F Standard Terminology of Fire Standards, 63 Transit Vehicle Fire Experience, 69 Transit Vehicle Interior Materials, 73 Suggested Readings, 85 Curricula Vitae, 87 x . 25 .... 41 ... 51 1