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Brain and Cognition Some New Technologies Daniel Druckman and John I. Lacey, Editors Committee on New Technologies in Cognitive Psychophysiology Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC 1989

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report was sponsored by the United States Army Research Institute. Available from: Committee on New Technologies in Cognitive Psychophysiology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

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COMMITTEE ON NEW TECENO[OGIES IN COGNITIVE PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY JOHN I. LACEY (NAS) (Chair), Department of Psychology, Wright State University (retired) (psychophysiology) EMANUEL DONCHIN, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Champaign (cognitive psychophysiology) MICHAEL S. GAZZANIGA, Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School (cognitive neuroscience, memory) LLOYD KAUFMAN, Department of Psychology, New York University (neuromagnetism, psychophysiology) STEPHEN M. KOSSLYN, Department of Psychology, Harvard University (cognitive neuroscience) MARCUS E. RAICHLE, Division of Radiation Science, Mallinckro~t Institute, Washington University (neurology) DANIEL DRUCKMAN, Study Director (experimental social psychology) ALISON J. FOLEY, Ad~runistrative Secretary DONNA REIFSNIDER, Administrative Secretary 111

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Preface As a part of its mission to apply modern technology to military problems, the Army Research Institute (ARI) asked the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, in its primary role as science advisers to the federal government, to evaluate recent technical developments in the monitoring of brain activity for their relevance to basic and applied issues relating to the acquisition and maintenance of cognitive skills. Accordingly, the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education within the National Research Council considered the proposal. The area to be reviewed is a part of its continuing surveillance of the exploding field of psychobi- ology, particularly the areas of learning and memory; the proposal provided an incentive to explore in detail a part of this vast interdis- ciplinary venture. It was felt that a preliminary review could result in an informed opinion, one based on actual experience with the technologies, concerning the desirability, feasibility, and utility of a larger continuing study of the relations between neuroscience and cognitive science. The commission appointed a small Committee on New Tech- nologies in Cognitive Psychophysiology, specifying that its work was to be completed within the period of one year. The committee was asked not only to conduct the requested review, but also, if it seemed appropriate, to develop plans for a larger, broader, and continuing study. The committee was requested also to suggest ways for ARI to monitor developments in the field of cognitive psychophysiology. v

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V1 PREFACE The committee members were selected both for their acknowI- edged expertise in one of the specific technologies covered in this re- port and for their breadth of contribution to interdisciplinary theory and research. These contributors and their areas of primary respon- sibility were: Emanuel Donchin, event-related potentials; Michael S. Gazzaniga, studies of brain damage; Lloyd Kaufman, the mag- netoencephalogram; Stephen M. Kosslyn, cognitive psychology and cognitive science (with emphasis on one form of interface with com- puter science); and Marcus E. RaichIe, brain imaging (positron emis- sion tomography and magnetic resonance imaging). Overall editorial responsibility for the report was taken by Daniel Druckman, an ex- perimental social psychologist who was study director for the project, and myself, a psychophysiologist. The committee met together twice. The first session was devoted to a briefing from the AR! and then to detailed consideration of the structure and content of the report. Each member outlined the essence of the state of his assigned field and the interrelationships with the other areas of study. Through extensive discussions, a preliminary common format was agreed upon, and writing tasks were assigned. This was followed by an extensive period of writing, submission and circulation of drafts, and preliminary revisions. The telephone and computer were the main vehicles of communication among the committee members, study director Daniel Druckman, and myself. A second meeting was held toward the end of the year, for purposes of melding the separate materials into a more coherent whole, of arriving at a consensus concerning controversial points, and for assessing the future of this preliminary venture and making appropriate recommendations. It was followed by a final period of rewriting and editorial work, again aided by extensive use of telephone and modem. The report draws on a variety of techniques and concepts from diverse fields of research. We ask for the reader's patience in making his or her way through this technical material concerning an emerging interdisciplinary field. Dr. Druckman and ~ bear the responsibility for any editorial deficiencies that remain, and we are grateful for the careful reviews of the report by the Commission Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and the Report Review Committee. On a personal note, ~ express profound thanks to Dr. Druckman for his skilled and professional support of this venture. Special thanks and acknowledgments are made to the administrative secretaries

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e. flu Thou Foley and Young Re~nider and to Cbr~tine L. ~cSbane, who carefully edited the entire report. Jaw I. Law ^~) Cat ~ ~ Is Cogultlve Psycbopbyslology

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Comers ABBREVIATIONS X1 Su~A~ OF CONCLu~ONS AND HECO~END^~NS 1 1 INTRODUCTION 2 THE FIELD OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY 5 7 3 FOUR NEW TECHNOLOGIES: RESEARCH FINDINGS 18 4 FOUR NEW TECHNOLOGIES: CRITICAL PROBLEMS 43 5 APPL~IONS AND ETHICAL CONSIDERS 6 E~ND~G THE DOGEAR REFERENCES 60 65 6g

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Abbreviations ANS ATP 13c CNS CT r' ERF ERP EF 18F Pi MEG MRI MRS NlOO N300 23Na 15o Autonomic nervous system Aclenisone triphosphate A nonradioactive form of carbon whose atomic weight is 13 Central nervous system X-ray computed tomography Electroencephalogram Event-related fields Event-related brain potentials Evoked fields A radioactive form of flouring whose atomic weight is 18 Inorganic phosphate Magnetoencephalography Magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic resonance spectroscopy A negative component of the ERP occurring with a modal latency of 100 mec A negative component of the ERP occurring with a modal latency of 300 msec A nonradioactive form of sodium whose atomic weight is 23 A radioactive form of oxygen whose atomic weight in 15 X1

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x~ ABBREVIATIONS P300 A positive component of the ERP occurring with a modal latency of 300 rnsec PET Positron emission tomography 3iP A nonradioactive form of phosphorous whose atomic weight is 31 pH A measure of hydrogen ion concentration in the tissue PCr Phosphocreatin SQUID Superconducting quantum interference device