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Ident tifying and Redu g d ucing Environnmental He ealth Risks of Chem f micals in Our So s O ociety WO ORKSHOP SUMMARY S Rob Pool and Erin Rusch, Rapporteurs bert Round dtable on Env vironmental Health Science Research and Medicin H es, h, ne Board on Population He ealth and Pub Health Pr blic ractice PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The workshop that is the subject of this workshop summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, The Kresge Foundation, Colgate-Palmolive Company, ExxonMobil Foundation, and Royal Dutch Shell. The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the activity. This summary is based on the proceedings of a workshop that was sponsored by the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine. It is prepared in the form of a workshop summary by and in the name of the rapporteurs as an individually authored document. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-30115-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-30115-7 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2014. Identifying and reducing environmental health risks of chemicals in our society: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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The National Acade emy of Scienc is a privat nonprofit, self-perpetuati ces te, ing society of distinguish scholars en y hed ngaged in scien ntific and engin neering researcch, dedicat to the furth ted herance of scieence and technnology and to their use for tthe general welfare. Upo the authority of the charte granted to it by the Congre l on y er ess in 1863, the Academ has a man my ndate that req quires it to ad dvise the fede eral governm on scient ment tific and technic matters. Dr Ralph J. Cice cal r. erone is preside ent of the National Acade N emy of Science es. The National Acade emy of Engin neering was e established in 1964, under t the charter of the Natio r onal Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstan nding engineers It is autonomo in its admin s. ous nistration and i the selection of in n its mem mbers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences t responsibil y the lity for adv vising the feder government The National Academy of Engineering al ral t. l lso sponsors engineering programs aim at meetin national ne g med ng eeds, encouragges educati and researc and recogn ion ch, nizes the super achieveme rior ents of engineeers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Ac D s t cademy of Eng gineering. The Institute of Med dicine was estaablished in 197 by the Natio 70 onal Academy of Science to secure th services of eminent memb es he bers of approp priate professio ons in the examination of policy matter pertaining to the health of the public. T e rs o f The Institut acts under th responsibilit given to the National Acad te he ty demy of Scienc ces by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal gover c c n e rnment and, up pon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical car research, an education. D n i re, nd Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. y t f The Na ational Resea arch Council was organized by the Natio w d onal Academy of Science in 1916 to associate the broad commun of science and technolo es b nity e ogy with th Academy’s purposes of fu he urthering know wledge and adv vising the fede eral governnment. Function ning in accordance with gene policies determined by t eral the Academ the Counc has become the principal operating age my, cil e l ency of both tthe National Academy of Sciences an the Nationa Academy of Engineering in o nd al f providiing services to the govern t nment, the pu ublic, and the scientific a e and engineeering communi ities. The Coun is administ ncil tered jointly by both Academ y mies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicero and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., a e M R one are chair an vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Coun nd r ncil. w www.national l-academies.o org . PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON IDENTIFYING AND REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS OF CHEMICALS IN OUR SOCIETY1 DENNIS J. DEVLIN, ExxonMobil Corporation, Irving, TX LYNN R. GOLDMAN, George Washington University, Washington, DC WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ AL MCGARTLAND, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC SUSAN L. SANTOS, Rutgers School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ KIMBERLY THIGPEN TART, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC PATRICIA VERDUIN, Colgate-Palmolive Company, Piscataway, NJ HAROLD ZENICK, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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ROUNDTABLE ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, RESEARCH, AND MEDICINE1 FRANK LOY (Chair), Washington, DC LYNN R. GOLDMAN (Vice-Chair), George Washington University, Washington, DC HENRY A. ANDERSON, Wisconsin Division of Public Health, Madison JOHN M. BALBUS, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD JAMES K. BARTRAM, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill FAIYAZ BHOJANI, Royal Dutch Shell, The Hague, Netherlands LINDA S. BIRNBAUM, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC LUZ CLAUDIO, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY DENNIS J. DEVLIN, ExxonMobil Corporation, Irving, TX RICHARD A. FENSKE, University of Washington, Seattle DAVID D. FUKUZAWA, The Kresge Foundation, Troy, MI LUIZ A. GALVÃO, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN, University of Pittsburgh, PA RICHARD J. JACKSON, University of California, Los Angeles SUZETTE M. KIMBALL, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA JAY LEMERY, University of Colorado, Denver ANDREW MAGUIRE, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC LINDA A. MCCAULEY, Emory University, Atlanta, GA AL MCGARTLAND, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC DAVID M. MICHAELS, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC CANICE NOLAN, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium CHRISTOPHER J. PORTIER, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 1 Institute of Medicine forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vii PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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PAUL SANDIFER, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Charleston, SC SUSAN L. SANTOS, Rutgers School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ JOHN D. SPENGLER, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA G. DAVID TILMAN, University of Minnesota, St. Paul PATRICIA VERDUIN, Colgate-Palmolive Company, Piscataway, NJ NSEDU OBOT WITHERSPOON, Children’s Environmental Health Network, Washington, DC HAROLD ZENICK, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC IOM Staff KATHLEEN STRATTON, Study Director (from September 2013) ERIN RUSCH, Associate Program Officer HOPE HARE, Administrative Assistant ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice viii PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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Reviewers This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the workshop summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary: Johanna T. Dwyer, Tufts Medical Center Jay Lemery, University of Colorado School of Medicine Patricia Verduin, Colgate-Palmolive Company Lauren Zeise, California Environmental Protection Agency Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Mark R. Cullen, Stanford University. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this workshop summary rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the institution. ix PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Organization of the Summary, 2 Key Themes, 3 2 THE CHALLENGE: CHEMICALS IN TODAY’S SOCIETY 5 The Challenge, 6 The Public Health Approach to Industrial Chemical Assessments, 12 National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures, 19 References, 23 3 CURRENT REGULATORY APPROACHES TO DEALING WITH INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS 25 The Toxic Substances Control Act, 25 The European Commission Approach, 38 Discussion, 42 References, 49 4 MODELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND EXPOSURE SCIENCE 51 Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment, 51 Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, 57 Advancing the Next Generation of Risk Assessment, 61 The Design and Evaluation of Safer Chemical Substitutions: A Framework to Inform Government and Industry Decisions, 66 Discussion, 69 References, 70 5 APPROACHES TO PRIORITIZING CHEMICALS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT AND RISK MANAGEMENT 73 Developing Models to Prioritize Chemicals for Target Testing, 73 Approaches to Priority Setting in California, 79 Assessing and Prioritizing Risks in Canada, 84 American Chemistry Council Views on Chemical Prioritization, 92 Discussion, 96 References, 99 xi PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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xii CONTENTS 6 CURRENT EFFORTS TO REDUCE THE RISK OF CHEMICALS IN OUR SOCIETY 101 Case Study: Sustainability and Green Programs at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 101 Case Study: Johnson & Johnson, 104 Case Study: Dow Chemical Company, 108 Case Study: American Chemical Society Green Chemistry Institute, 112 Case Study: Substitute It Now and GreenScreen, 116 Case Study: Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute, 120 Case Study: Bullitt Center, 123 Discussion, 127 References, 129 7 REFLECTIONS ON THE WORKSHOP AND CONCLUDING REMARKS 131 APPENDIXES A GLOSSARY 137 B AGENDA 149 C SPEAKER BIOSKETCHES 157 PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS