Elizabeth Stallman Brown, Laurence Yeung, and Keegan Sawyer, Rapporteurs

Roundtable on Public Interfaces of the Life Sciences
Board on Life Sciences
Division on Earth and Life Studies
Board on Science Education
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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WORKSHOP SUMMARY Elizabeth Sta allman Brown, Laurence Yeung, and Keegan Sawyer, Rappo L orteurs Roundtable on Public Interfac of the Life Sciences n ces S Board on Life Sciences S Divisi on Earth an Life Studies ion nd Board on Science Education e Div vision of Behav vioral and Socia Sciences and Education al d The National Acad demies Press Washington, D.C. ,    

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This workshop was supported by grants from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund (1012215), Dupont, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (54107660), Monsanto, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation (2103-38471). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. ISBN-13: 978-0-309-30193-0 ISBN-10: 0-309-30193-9 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America About the cover: Above the cityscape, the title block contains a multi-colored word cloud derived from workshop attendees' ideas for infrastructure building blocks, which are detailed in Chapter 6 and Appendix E. Design by Laurence Yeung.  

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of dist y tinguished schola engaged in sci ars neering research, dedicated to the furtherance of sc ientific and engin e cience and technoology and to their use for the gene welfare. Upo the authority of the charter gran r eral on nted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requ A m uires it to advise the federal gover nment on t scienti and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academ of Sciences. ific my The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the N y w National Acadeemy of Sciences, as a parallel orga anization of outsta anding engineers It is autonomou in its s. us adminnistration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the Natio s onal Academy of Sciences the f respon nsibility for advisi the federal go ing overnment. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors N eering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages educ engine a g cation and researrch, and recogn nizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National r o C s Acadeemy of Engineerin ng. The Innstitute of Medicine was establishe in 1970 by the National Acade ed e emy of Sciences t secure the to service of eminent me es embers of appropriate professions in the examinatio of policy matt on ters pertaining to the health of the pub blic. The Institute acts under the re esponsibility give to the Nationa Academy of en al Scienc by its congres ces ssional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upo n its own initiati ive, to identify iss sues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineb c berg is president of the Institut of Medicine. te The National Research Council was org ganized by the Na ational Academy of Sciences in 1 916 to y associate the broad com mmunity of scien and technology with the Acad nce demy’s purposes o furthering of knowledge and advisin the federal gov ng vernment. Functiooning in accordance with general policies l determmined by the Academy, the Counc has become th principal operating agency of b cil he both the Nation Academy of Sciences and the National Academ of Engineering in providing ser nal S my g rvices to the governnment, the public and the scientif and engineering communities. The Council is a c, fic administered jointly by both Academ and the Instit y mies tute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cice . erone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr. . are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Re esearch Council. www.national

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ROUNDTABLE ON PUBLIC INTERFACES OF THE LIFE SCIENCES COCHAIRS MAY BERENBAUM,* University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign DIETRAM SCHEUFELE, University of Wisconsin–Madison MEMBERS IVAN AMATO, DC Science Café KRISTI ANSETH, University of Colorado, Boulder RICK BORCHELT,* U.S. Department of Energy RODOLPHO DIRZO, Stanford University DAVID EWING DUNCAN, Freelance Journalist JOHN DURANT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DAVID FOWLER, Ogilvy and Mather FRED GOULD, North Carolina State University JAMES HILDRETH, University of California, Davis ALAN LESHNER, American Association for the Advancement of Science BRUCE LEWENSTEIN,* Cornell University GEORGE MATSUMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute JONATHAN D. MORENO, University of Pennsylvania MATTHEW NISBET, American University JOHN OHAB, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory STEPHEN PALACIOS,* Added Value Cheskin KENNETH S. RAMOS,* University of Louisville MARGARET A. RILEY, University of Massachusetts, Amherst TAMI C. SCHILLING, Monsanto JUDY SCOTCHMOOR, University of California Museum of Paleontology (retired) BETH A. SHAPIRO, University of California, Santa Cruz BROOKE SMITH,* COMPASS MARY WOOLLEY, Research!America NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF KEEGAN SAWYER, Program Officer MARTIN STORKSDIECK, Board Director LAURENCE YEUNG, Christine S. Mirzayan Fellow KATI REIMER, Senior Program Assistant ELIZABETH STALLMAN BROWN, Consulting Science Writer *These members of the Roundtable on Public Interfaces of the Life Sciences served as members of the planning committee of the Workshop on Sustainable Infrastructures for Life Science Communication, but were not involved in the writing of this workshop summary. v

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BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES CHAIR JO HANDELSMAN, Yale University MEMBERS ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Burroughs Wellcome Fund ROGER D. CONE, Vanderbilt University Medical Center SEAN EDDY, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Janelia Farm Research Campus SARAH C. R. ELGIN, Washington University DAVID R. FRANZ, Former Cdr USAMRIID, Consultant LOUIS J. GROSS, University of Tennessee, Knoxville ELIZABETH HEITMAN, Vanderbilt University Medical Center JOHN G. HILDEBRAND, University of Arizona, Tucson RICHARD A. JOHNSON, Arnold & Porter, LLC JUDITH KIMBLE, University of Wisconsin–Madison CATO T. LAURENCIN, University of Connecticut Health Center ALAN I. LESHNER, American Association for the Advancement of Science KAREN E. NELSON, J. Craig Venter Institute ROBERT M. NEREM, Georgia Institute of Technology CAMILLE PARMESAN, University of Texas, Austin ALISON G. POWER, Cornell University MARGARET RILEY, University of Massachusetts JANIS C. WEEKS, University of Oregon MARY WOOLLEY, Research!America STAFF FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar/Senior Project Director JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist/Program Director for Biology Education KATHERINE W. BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer INDIA HOOK-BARNARD, Senior Program Officer MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer KEEGAN SAWYER, Program Officer LAURENCE YEUNG, Christine S. Mirzayan Fellow BETHELHEM M. MEKASHA, Financial Associate CARL G. ANDERSON, Program Associate SAYYEDA AYESHA AHMED, Senior Program Assistant ANGELA KOLESNIKOVA, Administrative Assistant vi

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BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION CHAIR HELEN R. QUINN, Stanford University MEMBERS GEORGE BOGGS, Palomar College (emeritus) MELANIE COOPER, Michigan State University RODOLFO DIRZO, Stanford University JACQUELYNNE ECCLES, University of Michigan JOSEPH FRANCISCO, Purdue University MARGARET A. HONEY, New York Hall of Science SUSAN KIEFFER, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign MATTHEW KREHBIEL, Kansas State Department of Education MICHAEL LACH, Urban Education Institute, University of Chicago LYNN LIBEN, Pennsylvania State University BRIAN REISER, Northwestern University MARSHALL SMITH, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching ROBERTA TANNER, Thompson School District, Loveland, Colorado (retired) SUZANNE WILSON, University of Connecticut YU XIE, University of Michigan STAFF MARTIN STORKSDIECK, Director HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Deputy Director NATALIE NIELSEN, Senior Program Officer MARGARET HILTON, Senior Program Officer MICHAEL FEDER, Senior Program Officer REBECCA KRONE, Program Associate vii

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Preface The Roundtable on Public Interfaces of the Life Sciences was established in 2013 by the National Research Council. It is a forum for examining the challenges facing life scientists’ ability to communicate and engage in dialogue about advancing areas of the life sciences that may raise public discussion and debate. The Roundtable is overseen by the National Research Council’s Division on Earth and Life Studies, and involves its Board on Life Sciences and the Board on Science Education of the Division on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. The Roundtable aims to strengthen life science engagement by facilitating ongoing discussion and information exchange among life scientists engaged in research, social scientists who study science communication, and practitioners who communicate life science as a profession. One way it does this is by organizing workshops that address issues in life science communication that require more widespread or national attention and discussion. On December 9, 2013, and January 10, 2014, the Roundtable held a workshop called “Sustainable Infrastructures for Life Science Communication.” The two-part workshop focused on identifying infrastructure-related barriers that inhibit or prohibit life scientists from communicating about their work, and characteristics of infrastructure that facilitate or encourage scientists to engage with public audiences. The Statement of Task for the workshop organizing committee is provided in Appendix A. The workshop featured both formal presentations and panel discussions among participants from academia, industry, journalism, the federal government, and nonprofit organizations. The presentations highlighted the motivations of and challenges to life scientist communicators, theoretical approaches to science communication, examples of different types of infrastructure to support science communication, and the need for building more sustainable science communication infrastructures. This document summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. In accordance with the policies of the Roundtable on Public Interfaces of the Life Sciences, the workshop did not attempt to establish any conclusions or recommendations about needs and future directions, focusing instead on issues identified by the speakers and workshop participants. In addition, the organizing committee’s role was limited to planning the workshop. The workshop summary has been prepared by the workshop rapporteurs Elizabeth Stallman Brown, Laurence Yeung, and Keegan Sawyer as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. ix

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purposes of this review are to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their participation in the review of this summary: Rodolfo Dirzo, Stanford University Declan Fahy, American University Erika Schugart, American Society for Microbiology Brooke Smith, COMPASS Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse, nor did they see, the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the authors and the National Research Council. xi

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Contents ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CAKE Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange ICAN International Canopy Network IFFF Insect Fear Film Festival NCI National Cancer Institute NSF National Science Foundation STEM Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics UIUC University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign UMCES University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science 1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW 1 Purpose and Themes, 2 Workshop Overview, 3 About This Report, 4 2 LIFE SCIENTISTS ENGAGED: PERSONAL EXPERIENCES FROM THE FRONTIER 7 Confessions of an Erstwhile Entomophobe, 7 Raising the Bar (Behind Bars) for Public Engagement, 9 Making Science Matter, 10 A Nerd of Trust, 11 3 TRENDS IN PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT MECHANISMS AND ATTITUDES 13 Roots: Historical Perspectives on Science Communication, 13 Off the Record: Perspectives of Journalists, 15 Trends in Government Transparency, 16 Scientists’ Use of the Popular Media and Social Media, 17 Peer Review—Still the Coin of the Realm, 18 Differing Priorities in the Academic, Private, and Nonprofit Sectors, 19 4 MODELS FOR A SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE 21 What Is a Sustainable Infrastructure? 21 Charting a Course: Approaches to Engagement, 22 From Tripedal to Quadrupedal: Discovery, Integration, Application, and Teaching, 25 Extending Cooperative Extension, 25 Bridging the Science–Humanities Divide, 27 Traversing the Valley: The Role of Boundary Organizations, 28 Gauging Success, 28 5 TOWARD A SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE: FRICTION AND MOMENTUM 31 Clearing the Hurdles, 31 Communication Goals and Audiences, 35 6 PATHWAYS AND DESTINATIONS 39 Beginning the Journey, 39 Are We Spending Enough?, 40 If I Had a Million Dollars . . ., 42 Working on the Railroad: An Infrastructure Analogy, 49 xiii

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xiv  Contents    REFERENCES 51 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 53 B Workshop Agenda 55 C Biographies of Workshop Speakers, Panelists, Moderators, and Planning Committee Members 59 D Workshop Attendees 69 E Ideas from the Audience Engagement Exercise: Community Ideas as Building Blocks 71 F Networks, Hubs, and Resources for Science Communication 75