COMMITTEE ON SOCIETAL BENEFITS FROM CONDENSED MATTER AND MATERIALS RESEARCH

ANDREA LIU, University of Pennsylvania, Co-chair

GEORGE CRABTREE, Argonne National Laboratory, Co-chair

EVA Y. ANDREI, Rutgers University

PAUL C. CANFIELD, Ames Laboratory

ALLEN M. GOLDMAN, University of Minnesota

ANDREW J. MILLIS, Columbia University

JUAN J. DE PABLO, University of Chicago

MONICA OLVERA DE LA CRUZ, Northwestern University

STUART S.P. PARKIN, IBM Almaden Research Center

DANIEL C. RALPH, Cornell University

CYRUS R. SAFINYA, University of California at Santa Barbara

JERRY A. SIMMONS, Sandia National Laboratories

MARK STILES, National Institute of Standards and Technology

KATSUYO THORNTON, University of Michigan

DALE VAN HARLINGEN, University of Illinois

DAVID A. WEITZ, Harvard University

Staff

JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director

DONALD C. SHAPERO, Senior Scholar

CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Associate Program Officer (until July 2013)

TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator (until August 2013)

BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate



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Committee on Societal Benefits from Condensed Matter and Materials Research Andrea Liu, University of Pennsylvania, Co-chair George Crabtree, Argonne National Laboratory, Co-chair Eva Y. Andrei, Rutgers University Paul C. Canfield, Ames Laboratory Allen M. Goldman, University of Minnesota Andrew J. Millis, Columbia University Juan J. de Pablo, University of Chicago Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Northwestern University Stuart S.P. Parkin, IBM Almaden Research Center Daniel C. Ralph, Cornell University Cyrus R. Safinya, University of California at Santa Barbara Jerry A. Simmons, Sandia National Laboratories Mark Stiles, National Institute of Standards and Technology Katsuyo Thornton, University of Michigan Dale Van Harlingen, University of Illinois David A. Weitz, Harvard University Staff James C. Lancaster, Director Donald C. Shapero, Senior Scholar Caryn J. Knutsen, Associate Program Officer (until July 2013) Teri G. Thorowgood, Administrative Coordinator (until August 2013) BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate 24 Harvesting the Fruits of Inquiry

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BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY PHILIP H. BUCKSBAUM, Stanford University, Chair DEBRA M. ELMEGREEN, Vassar College, Vice Chair Riccardo Betti, University of Rochester ADAM S. BURROWS, Princeton University, Todd Ditmire, University of Texas at Austin NATHANIEL J. FISCH, Princeton University PAUL FLEURY, Yale University STUART FREEDMAN, University of California at Berkeley S. JAMES GATES, University of Maryland LAURA H. GREENE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University MARK B. KETCHEN, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center MONICA OLVERA DE LA CRUZ, Northwestern University PAUL SCHECHTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology BORIS SHRAIMAN, Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics MICHAEL S. TURNER, University of Chicago ELLEN D. WILLIAMS, PB International MICHAEL S. WITHERELL, University of California at Santa Barbara Staff James C. Lancaster, Director Donald C. Shapero, Senior Scholar DAVID B. LANG, Program Officer CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Associate Program Officer (until July 2013) Teri G. Thorowgood, Administrative Coordinator (until August 2013) Linda Walker, Program Coordinator BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate 25 Harvesting the Fruits of Inquiry

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also spon- sors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own ini- tiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies de- termined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the govern- ment, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org 26 Harvesting the Fruits of Inquiry

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. PHY1016162 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation and by Grant No. DE-SE00004240 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Additional copies of this report are available from the Board on Physics and Astronomy, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; http://www.national-academies.org/bpa. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Harvesting the Fruits of Inquiry How Materials Discoveries Improve Our Lives