TABLE 5-2 Opportunities for Assessing Teams and Collaborations in Community-Based Activities and Outpatient Teams, Outlined by Lemmietta McNeilly and Patricia Hinton Walker (as informed by group discussions)


Opportunities on a Policy Level (Macrolevel)

  • Financial realignment focused on community-centered care.
  • Amended accreditation standards related to community members serving as faculty/mentors.
  • Support use of technology that engages persons, families, and communities.
  • Consider the individual’s personal health record (PHR) as the person’s electronic health record (EHR)—owned by the “person and family.”
  • Shift resources to legitimate community members as faculty with investment in faculty development.
  • Realignment of financial support for health professions education to more equally support IPE versus just a few disciplines.

Opportunities on an Institutional Level (Mesolevel)

  • Consider adopting models such as the One Health Model—linking caring for humans, animals, and the environment to health and health professions education.
  • Facilitate citizen-learning models of education in communities instead of stop-in/stop-out visitor models for clinical learning experiences.
  • Legitimate service-learning projects with credit versus voluntary projects.
  • Engage community members in decision making regarding such areas as admissions, curriculum, and design of community-centered learning activities.
  • Facilitate IPE teaching/learning with disciplines/providers and health workers beyond disciplines traditionally in health sciences centers.
  • Develop longer-term commitments to service learning in the community such as Penn Nursing LIFE (Living Independent for Elderly) and other longer-term community-centered longitudinal projects (Ghent University) and student-managed clinics.
  • Collaboratively address community needs beyond clinical care to addressing needs such as social determinants of health.
  • Realign financial incentives to assist community settings in fostering access to patients regularly.
  • Collaborate with other universities for development/validation of tools and metrics for team-based, community-based assessments.
  • Re-engage learners in social justice, civic responsibility, and reflective praxis.

clinical and community experiences as well as those at the policy level where accreditation issues could be addressed. And finally, making the most of emerging technologies could potentially drive the assessment process that ultimately improves health and continuity of care for individuals, families, and communities. Walker suggested this strategy can be successful, provided that educators and others allow such creative learning approaches to enter into health professional education.



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