implementation of the decadal surveys. In addition to focusing on the decadal surveys, the workshop also afforded an opportunity to discuss the recent mid-decade reviews. The workshop participants from government and the research community engaged in a dialog that identified ideas for the future evolution of the decadal survey and mid-decade review processes by examining closely how the recent surveys were executed and are being implemented.

A report summarizing the discussions and dialog that took place at the workshop, Lessons Learned in Decadal Planning in Space Science: Summary of a Workshop, was released on August 28, 2013. The summary’s Concluding Remarks are reprinted in Chapter 5. Plans for a follow-on have been formulated and initiation is expected in 2014.

Planning Committee Membership1

Alan M. Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science (co-chair)

Charles F. Kennel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego (co-chair)

Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering

Stacey W. Boland, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

William B. Gail, Global Weather Corporation

J. Todd Hoeksema, Stanford University

Anthony C. Janetos, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, University of Maryland

Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley2

Stephen J. Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute

Ralph L. McNutt, Jr., Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

Paul L. Schechter, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired)


David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director)

Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB

Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB (through March 8)


At the request of the Department of Defense (DOD; Air Force Research Laboratory) and the National Science Foundation (NSF; Directorate for Geosciences/Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences), the SSB held a workshop on May 20-21, 2013 in Washington, D.C., entitled “The Role of High-Power, High Frequency-Band Transmitters in Advancing Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research.” The workshop provided a forum for information exchange between the comparatively small group of researchers engaged in programs of upper atmospheric research using high-power high-frequency (HF) radar transmitters (“heaters”) and the larger ITM (ionosphere-thermosphere-magnetosphere) research community. For a variety of reasons, including the different orientations of DOD, which is primarily interested in applied research related to active ionospheric modification, and the civil agencies, principally NSF, which have broader mandates for basic research, these communities have historically viewed themselves as being distinct with limited overlapping interests.

Per the statement of task, the workshop was organized to consider the utility of heaters in upper atmospheric research in general, with a specific focus on the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter facility, which is located in Gakona, Alaska. The reasons for this are twofold: First, the sponsors of the study were aware of the potential—one that became increasingly apparent during the period between project approval by the National Research Council (NRC) in late Spring 2012 and the actual workshop in late Spring 2013—for substantial cutbacks in support by the Air Force for the continuing operation of HAARP. Second, NSF’s upper atmosphere research section was considering transfer to Gakona, Alaska, of the AMISR (Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar) relocatable modular phased-array radar at Poker Flat, Alaska, for joint research campaigns with the


1 All terms ended on September 30, 2013.

2 Dr. Lin passed away on November 17, 2012.

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