FIGURE S.2 Depiction of high-frequency ionospheric heating by the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program transmitter. SOURCE: Courtesy of Robert McCoy, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

came from congressional earmarks that went directly to the Air Force without the same level of documentation and justification as a peer-reviewed facility. This funding history and the facilities’ origins in the defense community may have contributed to the perception, as described by some participants, that performing experiments at HAARP was unduly difficult; these participants also stated that it may have contributed to HAARP’s capabilities, as described above, not being widely appreciated.

For example, CEDAR (Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions) is an NSF-sponsored upper atmospheric research program whose goal is “to understand the behavior of atmospheric regions from the middle atmosphere upward through the thermosphere and ionosphere into the exosphere in terms of coupling, energetics, chemistry, and dynamics on regional and global scales.”7 Yet some participants noted that at summer CEDAR workshops there was little mention of research using the

HAARP facility. At various points in this workshop, participants proposed ways to make the facility more welcoming and user-friendly in the future and better coordinated with the CEDAR community. Chapter 6 describes some of these proposals; in particular, NSF representatives at the workshop discussed their desire to move the Poker Flat, Alaska, advanced modular incoherent scatter radar (PFISR) to the HAARP site in Gakona, Alaska. Experiments with the combined facility could then come under the usual NSF procedures for user facilities, which are more open and familiar to many scientists.


7 National Science Foundation, Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR), available at

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