2
Board and Standing Committees:
Activities and Membership

The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study committees (see Chapter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific community. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15.

During 2013, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had four standing committees representing various disciplines: Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science (CAPS), the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (CAA; jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy, BPA), the Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (CESAS), and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP).

A new standing committee of the SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB), the Committee on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space (CBPSS), will get underway in 2014. The overarching purpose of the committee is to support scientific progress in space research in the biological, medical, and physical sciences and assist the federal government in integrating and planning programs in these fields. The CBPSS is expected to provide an independent, authoritative forum for identifying and discussing issues in space life and physical sciences between the research community, the federal government, and the interested public. The CBPSS will also monitor the progress in implementation of the recommendations of the decadal survey, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era.

SPACE STUDIES BOARD

HIGHLIGHTS OF SPACE STUDIES BOARD ACTIVITIES

The Space Studies Board’s first meeting of 2013 was on April 4-5 at the Keck Center in Washington, D.C. The first day was a joint session with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. The Boards received a briefing from Al Carnesale, chair of the National Research Council (NRC) report NASA’s Strategic Direction and the Need for a National Consensus. They then received briefings and updates from Charlie Bolden, NASA Administrator; Senate and House staff, including Jeff Bingham, Richard Obermann, Diana Simpson, and Ann Zulkosky; Marshall Porterfield, Division Director of NASA’s Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division; and William Gertenmaier, Associate Administrator Human Exploration and Operations Division (HEOMD). On the second day, the SSB received an update from Chuck Gay, Deputy Associate Administrator, NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and then had a discussion with him and several other representatives from SMD, including Mike Freilich (Earth Science), Vicki Elsbernd (Heliophysics), Jim Green (Planetary), Paul Hertz (Astrophysics), and Geoff Yoder (James Webb Space Telescope; JWST). The Board then received updates from Jean-Pierre Swings, European Space Science Committee Chair; the chairs or representatives of the SSB standing committees; Len Fisk,



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2 Board and Standing Committees: Activities and Membership The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study com- mittees (see Chapter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific community. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15. During 2013, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had four standing committees representing various disciplines: Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science (CAPS), the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (CAA; jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy, BPA), the Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (CESAS), and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP). A new standing committee of the SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB), the Com- mittee on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space (CBPSS), will get underway in 2014. The overarching purpose of the committee is to support scientific progress in space research in the biological, medical, and physical sciences and assist the federal government in integrating and planning programs in these fields. The CBPSS is expected to provide an independent, authoritative forum for identifying and discussing issues in space life and physical sciences between the research community, the federal government, and the interested public. The CBPSS will also monitor the progress in implementation of the recommendations of the decadal survey, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. SPACE STUDIES BOARD HIGHLIGHTS OF SPACE STUDIES BOARD ACTIVITIES The Space Studies Board’s first meeting of 2013 was on April 4-5 at the Keck Center in Washington, D.C. The first day was a joint session with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. The Boards received a briefing from Al Carnesale, chair of the National Research Council (NRC) report NASA’s Strategic Direction and the Need for a National Consensus. They then received briefings and updates from Charlie Bolden, NASA Administrator; Senate and House staff, including Jeff Bingham, Richard Obermann, Diana Simpson, and Ann Zulkosky; Marshall Porterfield, Division Director of NASA’s Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division; and William Gertenmaier, Associate Administrator Human Exploration and Operations Division (HEOMD). On the second day, the SSB received an update from Chuck Gay, Deputy Associate Administrator, NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and then had a discussion with him and several other representatives from SMD, including Mike Freilich (Earth Science), Vicki Elsbernd (Heliophysics), Jim Green (Planetary), Paul Hertz (Astrophysics), and Geoff Yoder (James Webb Space Telescope; JWST). The Board then received updates from Jean-Pierre Swings, European Space Science Committee Chair; the chairs or representatives of the SSB standing committees; Len Fisk, 8

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Board and Standing Committees 9 the U.S. Representative to the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR); and Charlie Baker, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) Deputy Assistant Administrator for Satellite and Information Services. On July 8 the Board had a teleconference with John Grunsfeld, Associate Administrator for the NASA SMD and Stephanie Stockman, E/PO (Education/Public Outreach) lead at the SMD to discuss the current budget situation and the changes to SMD’s education and outreach programs. The SSB did not meet during the third quarter. The board’s Executive Committee met August 8-9 in Washing- ton, D.C., where the members held discussions with various stakeholders, including Marc Allen (NASA/SMD); House and Senate Staff, including Tom Hammond, Pamela Whitney, and Ann Zulkosky; and Tammy Dickinson (Office of Science and Technology Policy; OSTP). On day 2, the Executive Committee members discussed the upcoming Earth Science and Applications from Space Decadal Survey with the CESAS chair and vice chair and stakeholders, including Mike Freilich (NASA), Mary Kicza (NOAA) and Sarah Ryker (U.S. Geological Survey; USGS). That was followed by a discussion with Marshall Porterfield (NASA/HEOMD) on a new SSB/Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) standing committee on biological and physical science. The SSB met on November 7-8 at the National Academy of Sciences Building in Washington, DC. On the first day, the Board heard reports from the chairs of the standing committees—CAA, CAPS, CESAS, and CSSP—and then discussed the upcoming NRC Space Science Week. The Board then discussed several potential future activi- ties, including the Board’s 2014 workshop, tentatively titled Sharing the Adventure with the Student (including staff from the NRC’s Board on Science Education); an activity on the Current State of Space Law (including staff from the NRC’s Committee on Science Technology and Law); future SSB advice on mechanisms to improve decadal planning; an ad hoc study on NASA Science Flight Mission Management; and the new standing committee on bio- logical and physical sciences in space. The Board also had a discussion with Sam Scimemi, NASA’s International Space Station (ISS) Director, on NASA’s plans for the ISS for 2014-2020 and beyond; received a briefing on the report Landsat and Beyond: Sustaining and Enhancing the Nation’s Land Imaging Program from committee chair Jeff Dozier; and had a discussion with the chair of CESAS, Mark Abbott, on planning for the upcoming Earth sci- ence decadal survey. The first day was capped off with a discussion on recent European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC) activities with Jean-Pierre Swings, ESSC Chair, and Jean Claude Worms, European Science Foundation. The second day of the meeting focused on science at NASA with a discussion on the status of the Science Mission Directorate’s (SMD’s) program and budget with Marc Allen (NASA/SMD) and remarks and discussion with Ellen Stofan, NASA’s Chief Scientist. SPACE STUDIES BOARD MEMBERSHIP July 1, 2012–June 30, 2013 July 1, 2013–June 30, 2014 Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego (chair) Diego (chair) John M. Klineberg, Space Systems/Loral (retired) John M. Klineberg, Space Systems/Loral (retired) (vice chair) (vice chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University James Anderson, Harvard University James Anderson, Harvard University James Bagian, University of Michigan James Bagian, University of Michigan Yvonne C. Brill, Aerospace Consultant1 Joseph Fuller, Jr., Futron Corporation Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Lawrence Livermore National Thomas R. Gavin, California Institute of Technology Laboratory Neil Gehrels, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Andrew B. Christensen, Dixie State College of Utah Sarah Gibson, National Center for Atmospheric Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Research Institution Heidi B. Hammel, AURA Thomas R. Gavin, California Institute of Technology Roderick Heelis, University of Texas, Dallas Heidi B. Hammel, AURA Joseph S. Hezir, EOP Group, Inc. Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Wesley T. Huntress, Carnegie Institution of Washington 1 Dr. Brill passed away on March 27, 2013.

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10 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2013 Joseph S. Hezir, EOP Group, Inc. Anthony C. Janetos, University of Maryland Anthony C. Janetos, University of Maryland Joan Johnson-Freese, Naval War College Joan Johnson-Freese, Naval War College John F. Mustard, Brown University Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley2 Dava J. Newman, Massachusetts Institute of Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future Technology John F. Mustard, Brown University Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology Saul Perlmutter, Lawrence Berkeley National Marcia J. Rieke, University of Arizona Laboratory David N. Spergel, Princeton University Marcia J. Rieke, University of Arizona Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University David N. Spergel, Princeton University Clifford M. Will, University of Florida Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Clifford M. Will, University of Florida Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Ex Officio and Liaison Participants Lester Lyles, The Lyles Group (ex-officio, chair, NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board) Jean-Pierre Swings, Université de Liège (liaison, chair of the European Space Science Committee) Membership of the SSB Executive Committee July 1, 2012–June 30, 2013 July 1, 2013–June 30, 2014 Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego (chair) Diego (chair) John M. Klineberg, Space Systems/Loral (retired) John M. Klineberg, Space Systems/Loral (retired) (vice chair) (vice chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Lawrence Livermore National Joseph S. Hezir, EOP Group, Inc. Laboratory Dava J. Newman, Massachusetts Institute of Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Technology Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology Marcia J. Rieke, University of Arizona Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Staff in 2013 Michael H. Moloney, Director Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer (through June 28) Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer Ian W. Pryke, Senior Program Officer David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer Dwayne A. Day,* Senior Program Officer, ASEB David Lang,* Program Officer, BPA Abigail A. Sheffer, Associate Program Officer Lewis Groswald, Associate Program Officer (promoted May 18) Celeste A. Naylor, Information Management Associate Tanja E. Pilzak, Manager, Program Operations Christina O. Shipman, Financial Officer 2Dr. Lin passed away on November 17, 2012. * Staff from other NRC Boards who are shared with the SSB.

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Board and Standing Committees 11 Meg A. Knemeyer, Financial Officer (from October 7) Sandra Wilson, Senior Financial Assistant Catherine A. Gruber, Editor (through June 28) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator Andrea Rebholz,* Program Coordinator, ASEB Dionna Williams, Program Coordinator Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant (through March 8) Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant (through July 12) Anesia Wilks, Program Assistant (from August) Space Policy Interns Frederick Harrison Dreves, 2013 Summer Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Jinni Meehan, 2013 Fall Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Sierra Smith, 2013 Fall Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern U.S. NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR COSPAR The Committee on Space Research held its annual business meetings in Paris, France, during the week of March 18. Also during the first quarter, COSPAR began soliciting nominations for awards and medals to be pre- sented at the next COSPAR scientific assembly, to be held at the Lomonosov Moscow State University in Moscow, Russia, on August 2-10, 2014. Nominations also opened for candidates to fill COSPAR’s elected leadership posi- tions. By the close of nominations, U.S. representative Lennard Fisk was separately nominated as a candidate for president, vice president, and membership of the COSPAR Bureau. The election for president will take place via a postal ballot of the COSPAR Council in the Spring of 2014. Voting for the other elected posts will take place at the first of the two council meetings scheduled to take place at the Moscow assembly. Information concerning the program of activities planned for the Moscow assembly, together with details concerning travel, accommodation, and registration, can be found at http://cospar2014moscow.com/. COSPAR held its first off-year symposium in Bangkok, Thailand on November 11-15. The off-year symposia were initiated so that small-to-medium size COSPAR member countries can host an international gathering of space scientists without the complications and expense associated with the 30-plus parallel sessions now com- mon at the organization’s biennial scientific assemblies. The topical foci of the Bangkok symposium were plan- etary systems of the Sun and other stars and the future of space astronomy. The symposium was attended by 313 registered participants, including 140 from Thailand, 72 from other Asia-Pacific nations, and 29 from the United States. One of the highlights of the symposium was a round-table discussion on the prospects for space science and international ­ ooperation with south-east Asia, featuring high-level representatives from NASA, the European c Space Agency (ESA), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Centre national d’Études Spatiales (CNES), and the space agency’s of Indonesia, South Korea, and Thailand. The symposium included a training session devoted to magnetospheric studies and space weather and was preceded on November 4-8 by a capacity-building workshop ­ devoted to the theory and practice of correcting land remote sensing imagery for atmospheric effects. Overall, the symposium was a mixed success. The low turnout of participants, combined with the lavish hos- pitality of the Thai organizers, resulted in a financial loss. Nevertheless, the local organizing committee expressed overall satisfaction with the results because of the national and international visibility and prestige they garnered from the participation of senior scientists and agency officials from major space-faring nations. Another positive outcome of the symposium will likely come in the form of applications for COSPAR membership from several south-east Asian nations that do not currently participate in the organization’s activities. Following the completion of the symposium, COSPAR received an invitation from Brazil to host the second off-year symposium in 2015. U.S. Representative to COSPAR Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan (from February 2013) * Staff from other NRC Boards who are shared with the SSB.

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12 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2013 Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB (executive secretary for COSPAR) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator, SSB STANDING COMMITTEES On March 6-8 the SSB’s four standing committees held the first NRC Space Science Week. The first day con- sisted of a plenary session which allowed all four committees to meet together for a keynote presentation from John Grunsfeld, NASA Associate Administrator for Science on the current state of the NASA SMD, a view from Capitol Hill from Jeff Bingham, a briefing on the current status and expected evolution of launch services for SMD from James Norman, and a panel discussion with the leadership of the standing committees. In the afternoon there were two breakout sessions, one was a meeting of CAA and CAPS on Exoplanet Science; and the other was a meeting of the CSSP and CESAS on sustaining observations and the research to operations (R2O) challenge. The CAA/ CAPS session allowed committee members representing communities that intersect on this issue to discuss issues in exoplanet research and receive briefings on Kepler, radial velocity surveys, the architecture and demographics of planetary systems, modeling of exoplanets, and the science of exoplanets and their systems. The CSSP/CESAS session allowed committee members representing communities that rarely meet to examine common needs, and frequent challenges, in sustaining or transitioning to operations particular climate, weather (terrestrial and space), and land use/land change observations. Briefing the committee and/or participating in roundtable discussions were representatives from NASA (ESD and HPD), NOAA (NWS), NSF (GEO/AGS), USGS (Climate and Land Use Change), and OSTP. The next two days were devoted to the individual standing committee business (see below). COMMITTEE ON ASTROBIOLOGY AND PLANETARY SCIENCE The Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science, an activity combining the responsibilities formerly e ­ xercised by Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration and the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, held its third face-to-face meeting on March 6-8 as part of the NRC’s Space Science Week. The CAPS-only sessions included presentations on the current status of NASA’s planetary science, astrobiology, and research and analysis activities. In addition, the committee heard a briefing on planning for the InSight (Interior Exploration ­using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Hear Transport) mission to Mars in 2016 and activities related to NASA’s planned 2020 Mars rover. Scientific presentations on the microbiology of Antarctica’s Lake Vida and the chemical context of the origin of life rounded out the open sessions. Closed session discussions explored issues relating to the 2020 rover, the concept of habitability, and exoplanets. The committee was asked by NASA SMD/Planetary Science Division officials to draft an outline of a possible task to review the report of the 2020 rover science definition team. Potential study activities on the general topics of habitability and exoplanets are also being explored. A committee-wide conference call was held on May 31 to discuss the status of NASA enacted and proposed budgets for fiscal years 2013 and 2014, respectively. The committee was also briefed on NASA’s plans to revise the Astrobiology Roadmap and spent some time discussing the administration’s proposals concerning NASA’s educational activities. At the National Academies’ Keck Center on September 4-6, the committee was briefed on details of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team Report and planetary protection, updates on the status of NASA’s Planetary Science Division and Astrobiology Program, and updates on the Europa Clipper, NASA’s contributions to ESA’s JUICE, NASA’s Asteroid Redirect Mission, and the Venus Spectral Rocket Experiment missions. The committee also had briefings on the phosphorus chemistry of the early Archean ocean and discussed the proposed (STEM) reorganiza- tion proposals. As part of its deliberations at the September meeting, the committee reviewed the planetary science aspects of the draft 2014 SMD Science Plan. Issues in the draft plan relating to a variety of topics, including the Mars 2020 and proposed Europa Clipper missions, the Discovery program and STEM education were discussed at length. The diversity of viewpoints expressed during the discussion were then summarized and transmitted via the CAPS liaison member to the Committee on the Assessment of the NASA Science Mission Directorate 2014 Science Plan (see Chapter 4). CAPS did not meet during the fourth quarter. The committee instead held a series of semi-regular conference calls. The topics discussed in these calls included the planned reorganization of the research and analysis programs

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Board and Standing Committees 13 in NASA’s Planetary Science Division, lessons learned during the development of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), and planetary protection activities associated with MSL. A historical summary of NRC-SSB advice on astrobiology and planetary protection is presented in Figure 2.1. A historical summary of NRC-SSB advice on solar system exploration is presented in Figure 2.2. Membership Philip R. Christensen, Arizona State University (co-chair) J. Gregory Ferry, Pennsylvania State University (co-chair) Sushil K. Atreya, University of Michigan Amy C. Barr, Brown University Richard P. Binzel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology John Clarke, Boston University Geoffrey Collins, Wheaton College Pascale Ehrenfreund, George Washington University Linda T. Elkins-Tanton, Carnegie Institution for Science G. Scott Hubbard, Stanford University Laurie A. Leshin, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Stephen Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute Michael Russell, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Gary Ruvkun, Massachusetts General Hospital Gerald Schubert, University of California, Los Angeles Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto Norman H. Sleep, Stanford University Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, University of New Mexico Roger V. Yelle, University of Arizona Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB Abigail Sheffer, Associate Program Officer, SSB Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB (through March 8) Andrea Rebholz,* Program Coordinator, ASEB COMMITTEE ON ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS The Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the BPA, met in-person on March 6-8 as part of the first-ever NRC Space Science Week. CAA received an update on the progress of the JWST, as well as programmatic updates on NASA’s Astrophysics Program from division director Paul Hertz; the National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) Division of Astronomical Sciences from division director Jim Ulvestad; and the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office High Energy Physics from associate director Jim Siegrist. A wide range of issues that pertained to both individual agencies and the nation’s overall astronomy and astrophysics endeavors were discussed. Among the more prominent issues discussed was the status of the decadal survey-recommended Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission and progress being made on the Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (AFTA) study that is evaluating the suitability of using one of the 2.4-m telescope assets made available in 2012 by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). CAA also discussed the overall portfolios for NASA, NSF, and DOE, and crosscutting issues for the agencies like the status and future of the current ground-based optical/infrared observation system, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and the mid-decadal review for astronomy and astrophysics that will take place in the middle of this decade. The last day of the CAA’s meeting was devoted to closed-session discussion. * Staff from other NRC Boards who are shared with the SSB.

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14 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2013 Conference on Hazard of Planetary Contamination Due to Microbiological Contamination in the Interior of Spacecraft Components (1965) Biology and the Exploration of Mars (1965) “Study on the Biological Quarantine of Venus ” (1967) Extraterrestrial Life—An “Review of the Anthology and Bibliography, Sterilization Supplementary to Biology and the “Review of Planetary Parameter Probability Exploration of Mars (1966) Quarantine Policy” of Growth (Pg)” (1972) (1970) “On Contamination of the Life Sciences in Space (1970) Outer Planets by Earth Organisms” (1976) Post-Viking Biological Investigations of Mars (1977) “Recommendation on Quarantine Policy for Uranus, Neptune, and Titan” (1976) Origin and Evolution of Life—Implications Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, for the Planets: A Scientific Strategy for Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Titan (1978) the 1980s (1981) “On Categorization of the “On NASA Policy for Planetary The Search for Life’s Strategy for the Mars Orbiter Mission” (1985) Protection” (1985) Origins: Progress and Detection and Study of Future Directions in Other Planetary Planetary Biology and Systems and Extrasolar “On Categorization “Recommendation on Chemical Evolution (1990) Planetary Materials: of the Comet Planetary Protection 1990-2000 (1990) Rendezvous– Categorization of the Comet Biological Contamination of Asteroid Flyby Rendezvous-Asteroid Flyby Mars: Issues and Mission” (1986) Mission and the Titan- Recommendations (1992) Cassini Mission” (1988) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned (1997) from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies: Framework for Decision Making (1998) Size Limits of Very Small Microorganisms: Proceedings of a Workshop (1999) “On Scientific Assessment Preventing the of Options for the Forward Disposition of the Galileo Contamination of The Quarantine and Certification Spacecraft” (2000) Europa (2000) of Martian Samples (2002) Signs of Life: A Report Based on the April 2000 Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (2002) Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and International Programs in Astrobiology (2003) Preventing the Forward “Assessment of Planetary Contamination of Mars (2006) Protection Requirements for The Astrophysical Context of Life (2005) Venus Missions” (2006) An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (2007) Exploration of Mars (2007) The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (2007) Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (2007) Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar System Bodies (2012) (2009) Mars related FIGURE 2.1  NRC-SSB advice on astrobiology and planetary protection (1965-2013).

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Board and Standing Committees 15 INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANETS PRIMITIVE BODIES Lunar Exploration—Strategy for The Outer Solar System: A Research: 1969-1975 (1969) Program for Exploration (1969) Venus: Strategy for Outer Planets Exploration: Exploration (1970) 1972-1985 (1971) “Report of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration,” Section II of Report on Space Science—1975 (1976) Strategy for the Exploration of Strategy for Exploration of the A Strategy for Exploration Primitive Solar-System Inner Planets: 1977-1987 (1978) of the Outer Planets: Bodies—Asteroids, Comets, 1986-1996 (1986) and Meteoroids: 1980-1990 (1980) Update to Strategy for Exploration of the Inner Planets (1990) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) Assessment of Mars A Science Strategy for the Exploring the Trans- Science and Mission Exploration of Europa (1999) Neptunian Solar Priorities (2001) System (1998) The Exploration of Near-Earth Objects (1998) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (2002) Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion (2005) Assessment of NASA's Mars Architecture 2007-2016 (2006) The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (2007) Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2008) Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (2008) Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA's Constellation System: Interim Report (2008) Launching Science: Science Opportunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System (2009) Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration (2009) Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 (2011) FIGURE 2.2  NRC-SSB advice on solar system exploration (1969-2013). Origins of life topics are covered in Figure 2.1.

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16 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2013 The committee met by teleconference on June 5 to discuss the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Commit- tee’s (AAAC’s) annual report. Martha Haynes, the AAAC chair, and Andy Albrecht, its vice chair, also participated in the call. The call focused on several discussion topics in addition to the AAAC report, including the ground-based optical and infrared system, data sharing, and recent legislation regarding education and public outreach. CAA did not meet during the third quarter, but was actively planning for its fall meeting. During this time the AFTA Science Definition Team released a report on April 30, 2013, describing NASA’s proposed AFTA design reference mission, WFIRST-2.4. NASA SMD contacted CAA via the SSB to initiate a study to assess whether the this mission is responsive to the overall strategy to pursue the science objectives of 2010 astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey, and in particular, the survey’s top-ranked, large-scale, space-based priority, WFIRST. The Astro- physics Focused Telescope is one of two telescopes given to NASA by the NRO. An ad hoc study was approved in October by the NRC’s Governing Board Executive Committee. The study began in December 2013. CAA met on November 4-5, 2013, in Washington, D.C., and received briefings from the NASA Astro­ hysics p Division, NSF Astronomy Division, NSF Antarctic Astronomy and Astrophysics program, the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Office, and the James Webb Space Telescope Program Office. CAA also received overviews and updates from representatives of the SPICA, Gaia, and Euclid missions. The committee also held a discussion with the new chair of the AAAC, Andy Albrecht (UC-Davis). On December 19, the committee held a telecon with the director of NASA Astrophysics Division, Paul Hertz; the chair of the X-ray Science Interest Group, Jay Bookbinder (Harvard Smithsonian CfA); and Tuck Stebbins (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center). The purpose of the telecon was to discuss the recent large-class “L2” and “L3” mission selections by the European Space Agency and their relevance to current and planned U.S. astronomy and astrophysics activities. A historical summary of reports from CAA and related committees is presented in Figure 2.3. Membership Paul L. Schechter, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (co-chair) David N. Spergel, Princeton University (co-chair) Jeremiah K. Darling, University of Colorado, Boulder Megan Donahue, Michigan State University Debra Fischer, Yale University Joshua A. Frieman, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and University of Chicago Charles F. Gammie, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Timothy M. Heckman, Johns Hopkins University Lynne Hillenbrand, California Institute of Technology Robert P. Kirshner, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Christopher F. McKee, University of California, Berkeley Rene A. Ong, University of California, Los Angeles Eve C. Ostriker, Princeton University Marcia J. Rieke, University of Arizona J. Craig Wheeler, University of Texas, Austin Eric M. Wilcots, University of Wisconsin, Madison A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Staff David B. Lang, Program Officer, BPA Lewis Groswald, Associate Program Officer, SSB Dionna Williams, Program Coordinator, SSB

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Board and Standing Committees 17 A Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1979) Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1982) Institutional Arrangements for the Space Telescope (1976) Institutional Arrangements The Explorer Program for Long-Lived Space Space Science in the Twenty- for the Space Telescope: A Astronomy and Observatories for Astronomy First CenturyAstronomy and Mid-Term Review (1985) Astrophysics (1986) and Astrophysics (1987) Astrophysics (1988) The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1991) A Scientific Assessment of A Strategy for Ground-Based Review of Gravity a New Technology Orbital Optical and Infrared Probe B (1995) Telescope (1995) Astronomy (1995) A New Science Strategy for Space Astronomy Ground-Based Solar Failed Stars and Super Federal Funding of and Astrophysics (1997) Research (1998) Planets (1998) Astronomical Research (2000) Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium (2000) U.S. Astronomy and Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos (2002) “Review of Science The Atacama Large Astrophysics: Requirements for the Millimeter Array (ALMA): Managing an Terrestrial Planet Finder: Implications of a Potential Integrated Program Letter Report” (2004) Descope (2005) (2001) “The Review of Progress in Astronomy and The Astrophysical Context of Life (2005) NASA’s Beyond Einstein Portals to the Universe: Astrophysics toward the Decadal Vision Program: An Architecture The NASA Astronomy (The Mid-Course Review)” (2005) for Implementation Science Centers (2007) (2007) A Performance Assessment of NASA’s Astrophysics Program (2007) New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010) Panel ReportsNew Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011) Report of the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from the Assessment of a Plan for U.S. Participation in Euclid (2012) New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey (2012) FIGURE 2.3  NRC-SSB advice on astronomy and astrophysics (1979-2013).

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18 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2013 COMMITTEE ON EARTH SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS FROM SPACE The Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space met in Washington, D.C., on March 6-8 as part of the NRC’s Space Science Week. The second day of the meeting was devoted to discussions on the “continuity” needs for NASA-sustained remote sensing observations of Earth from space. Instruments on NASA research and NOAA “operational” spacecraft measure numerous variables relevant to Earth’s biosphere, hydrosphere, atmo- sphere, and oceans and their interactions on various scales. However, there is a growing tension between the need for measurement continuity of data streams that are critical components of Earth science research programs, including, but not limited, to areas related to climate, and the development of new measurement capabilities. While there is an increasing societal need for information products derived from Earth observations, the federal agencies responsible for providing these measurements face a near-perfect storm of diminished fiscal resources, growth in program costs, and a coming loss of heritage assets. Present throughout the day were representatives from NASA, NOAA, USGS, OSTP, and congressional staff. The committee was briefed by NASA Earth Science Division Director Michael Freilich, who was present for the entire CESAS meeting; Bryon Tapley, then-chair of the NASA Advisory Council’s Earth Science Subcommittee; Jim Tucker, NASA GSFC; Tom Karl, Director, NOAA National Climatic Data Center; and (by teleconference) Kevin Trenberth, National Center for Atmospheric Research. CESAS did not meet in the second or third quarter; however, members were actively engaged in discussions with NASA that resulted in a request for a new project that will examine the “continuity” needs for NASA-sustained remote sensing observations of Earth from space; that study, “A Framework for Analyzing the Needs for Continuity of NASA-Sustained Remote Sensing Observations of the Earth from Space,” is currently underway. CESAS was also in the process of planning the October meeting and arranging teleconference meetings with individuals prior to that meeting. CESAS met on October 29-30, 2013 in Washington, D.C. During the meeting, the committee received brief- ings from agency officials, including Michael Freilich, head of NASA’s Earth Science Division, Mary Kicza, head of NOAA NESDIS, and Sarah Ryker, USGS. A briefing on the ESA’s program in Earth observation science, tech- nology, and applications was delivered by Maurice Borgeaud, Head, Earth Observation Science, Applications, and Future Technologies Department (EOP-S), ESA. The committee also received an update on the study “A Framework for Analyzing the Needs for Continuity of NASA-Sustained Remote Sensing Observations of the Earth from Space” by its chair, Byron Tapley, University of Texas, Austin; a review of the 2012 report Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA’s Implementation of the Decadal Survey was given to the committee by the study chair, Dennis Hartmann, University of Washington. Dr. Tapley also delivered a science talk to the com- mittee on accomplishments of the GRACE mission, for which he is the principal investigator. The featured session of the meeting occurred on October 29 when agency representatives and other stakehold- ers met to discuss lessons learned and ideas for the organization of the next decadal survey in Earth science and applications from space. Planning for the next decadal, which will cover the approximate period of 2018-2028, will occur throughout 2014 to enable a formal start of the study in early 2015 and publication in 2017. As the quarter ended, the committee was planning its next in-person meeting, which took place as part of the 2nd annual NRC Space Science Week in Washington, D.C., on March 3-5, 2014. This meeting focused on preparations for the next decadal survey with community representatives and invited guests representing U.S. international space agency partners in attendance. A historical summary of NRC-SSB advice on Earth science and applications in space is presented in Figure 2.4. Membership Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University (chair) Joyce E. Penner, University of Michigan (vice chair) Steven A. Ackerman, University of Wisconsin, Madison Stacey W. Boland, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Lee-Lueng Fu, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Inez Y. Fung, University of California, Berkeley Chelle L. Gentemann, Remote Sensing Systems

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Board and Standing Committees 19 NASA's Plans for Post-2002 "On Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission" (2000) Earth Observing Missions (1999) The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs (2000) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological Satellites (2000) Review of NASA's Earth Issues in the Integration of Issues in the Integration of Science Enterprise Research Research and Operational Satellite Research and Operational Satellite Strategy for 2000-2010 (2000) Systems for Climate Research—I. Systems for Climate Research—II. Science and Design (2000) Implementation (2001) Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications (2001) Toward New Partnerships in Remote Sensing: Government, the Private Sector, Review of NASA's Earth and Earth Science Research (2002) Science Enterprise Applications Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan (2002) Program Plan (2002) Using Remote Sensing in State and Local Government :Information for “Assessment of NASA's Draft Management and Decision Making (2003) 2003 Earth Science Enterprise Strategy” (2003) Satellite Observations of the Earth's Environment: Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations (2003) Review of Goals and Plans for Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions (2004) NASA's Space and Earth Sciences Utilization of Operational Environmental Satellite Data: (2005) Ensuring Readiness for 2010 and Beyond (2004) “A Review of NASA's 2006 Draft Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions (2005) Science Plan: Letter Report” (2006) Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation (2005) Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (2007) Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Report (2007)* Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring (2008) Uncertainty Assessment of Assessing Requirements Management in Remote Impediments to Interagency for Sustained Ocean Sensing of Climate Collaboration on Space and Color Research and Data: Summary of a Earth Science Missions Operations (2011) Workshop (2009) (2011) Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA’s Implementation of the Decadal Survey (2012) Landsat and Beyond: Sustaining and Enhancing the Nation’s Land Imaging Program (2013) *The edited and final version of this Workshop Summary is also included as Appendix B in Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft (2008) FIGURE 2.4  NRC-SSB advice on Earth science and applications in space (1979-2013).

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20 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2013 Kenneth C. Jezek, Ohio State University Michael D. King, University of Colorado, Boulder Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future Walter S. Scott, Digital Globe, Inc. David L. Skole, Michigan State University William F. Townsend, Independent Aerospace Consultant Steven C. Wofsy, Harvard University Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Lewis Groswald, Associate Program Officer, SSB Andrea Rebholz,* Program Coordinator, ASEB COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS The Committee on Solar and Space Physics, which stood down while work was underway for the solar and space physics (heliophysics) decadal survey, met in person for the first time on March 6-8, 2013, during the NRC’s Space Science Week. The second day of the meeting featured updates on the programs and plans of NSF’s upper atmosphere section, NASA’s Heliophysics division, and the National Space Weather Program. CSSP was also briefed by the following: NASA and NSF regarding their responses to the decadal survey; the chair of the committee developing the NASA Heliophysics Division Program Roadmap, which will provide the detailed implementation of the survey’s recommendations; NSF representatives on the implications for ground-based solar astronomy as a result of the NSF’s Division of Astronomical Sciences’ (AST’s) Portfolio Review of all AST-supported facilities, programs, and other activities. The committee also received an update on the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope. The committee had a discussion of mission management options and implications for cost containment, which was prompted in part by the survey recommendation that NASA Solar-Terrestrial Probe mission line be cost-capped and executed in “principal-investigator mode.” Finally, CSSP was briefed on the report of the recent SSB-sponsored workshop, The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth’s Climate: A Workshop Report. CSSP met by teleconference during the second quarter, including a May 20, 2013, WebEx event with Vicki Elsbernd, acting director of NASA’s Heliophysics Division (HPD). During the call, the committee discussed the implica­ions of sequestration on HPD programs; the outlook for future budgets, and other issues of interest, t includ­ ng implementation of the recently completed decadal survey, roadmap status, and the status of NASA E/PO i programs. The committee devoted considerable time to discussions about NASA E/PO because the President’s proposed FY 2014 budget includes major changes and restructuring of STEM E/PO at NASA and other federal agencies: for FY 2014 and going forward, NASA’s E/PO funds in the SMD are eliminated; individual science mis- sion budgets are reduced, reflecting the elimination of education and outreach funds; and SMD is directed to not fund education. As the second quarter ended, the committee was planning a WebEx teleconference with Richard Behnke, head of the Geospace Section of the NSF’s Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences (GEO/AGS). Members of the committee also continued to work on a popularization of the decadal survey; they also engaged in discussions with agency officials at NASA, NOAA, and NSF regarding potential future activities related to national needs for improved forecasts of space weather events. Planning for a Fall 2013 in-person meeting of the committee was underway. An edited and final version of Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society, the NRC’s second decadal survey in solar and space physics (heliophysics), was published in August 2013. During the fourth quarter, CSSP met from October 31-November 1, 2013, in Washington, D.C. During the meeting, the committee received program updates, including progress in implementation of the recently completed decadal survey in Heliophysics from the newly appointed head of NASA’s Heliophysics Division, David Chenette. The committee also received updates on NOAA NESDIS programs of interest from Thomas Burns and on space * Staff from other NRC Boards who are shared with the SSB.

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Board and Standing Committees 21 weather-related activities and NSF/GEO programs of interest, CubeSats, and the NASA HPD Roadmap, from R ­ ichard Behnke, Geospace Section Head, NSF; Therese Moretto-Jorgenson, NSF; and Maura Hagan, NCAR and chair of the NASA Heliophysics Subcommittee, respectively. Committee member Nathan Schwadron gave a science talk, “Has Voyager Entered the Interstellar Medium?” The committee remains interested in assisting in organizing activities that could be useful to decision mak- ers faced with tight budgets and increasing demands for information about Earth’s space weather. The committee received an update on the National Space Weather Program from Michael Bonadonna of the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology and conducted a roundtable discussion with Mr. Bonadonna and invited guests on a variety of issues pertinent to this subject. Follow-up to these discussions occurred in subsequent committee telecon- ferences and is expected to continue at a focused session at the next committee meeting. A historical summary of reports from CSSP and related committees is presented in Figure 2.5. Membership J. Todd Hoeksema, Stanford University (co-chair) Mary K. Hudson, Dartmouth College (co-chair) Timothy S. Bastian, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Amitava Bhattacharjee, Princeton University Stephen A. Fuselier, Southwest Research Institute Sarah Gibson, National Center for Atmospheric Research, High Altitude Observatory George M. Gloeckler, University of Maryland (emeritus) David L. Hysell, Cornell University Thomas J. Immel, University of California, Berkeley Louis J. Lanzerotti, New Jersey Institute of Technology Judith L. Lean, Naval Research Laboratory Robyn Millan, Dartmouth College Terrance G. Onsager, NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center Aaron Ridley, University of Michigan Nathan A. Schwadron, University of New Hampshire Michelle F. Thomsen, Los Alamos National Laboratory Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer Abigail Sheffer, Associate Program Officer Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant Anesia Wilks, Program Assistant (from August) SPACE RESEARCH DISCIPLINES WITHOUT STANDING COMMITTEE REPRESENTATION As mentioned above, a new standing committee, the Committee on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space (CBPSS), will get underway in 2014. A historical summary of NRC-SSB advice in space biology and medicine is presented in Figure 2.6, and a historical summary of NRC-SSB advice microgravity research is presented in Figure 2.7.

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22 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2013 Solar System Space Physics in the 1980’s: A Research Strategy (1980) An International Discussion on A Strategy for the Explorer The Physics of the Research in Solar and Space Program for Solar and Space Solar-Terrestrial Data Access, Sun (1985) Physics (1983) Physics (1984) Distribution, and Archiving (1984) An Implementation Plan for Priorities in Solar-System Space Physics (1985) Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015Solar and Space Physics (1988) Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics1991 (1991) A Space Physics Paradox (1994) A Science Strategy for Space Physics (1995) Scientific Assessment of NASA’s Space Weather: An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics A Research NASA’s Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (1997) Mission Selections (1997) Perspective (1997) Radiation and the Astronomy and Readiness for the Ground-Based Solar Research: International Space Station: Astrophysics in the Upcoming Solar An Assessment and Strategy for Recommendations to New Millennium Maximum (1998) the Future (1998) Reduce Risk (1999) (2000) The Sun to the Earth–and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics (2002) The Sun to the Earth–and Beyond: Panel Reports (2003) Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos (2004) Exploration of the Outer Solar and Space Physics Distributed Arrays of Small Heliosphere and the Local and Its Role in Space Instruments for Solar- Interstellar Medium: A Exploration (2004) Terrestrial Research: Report Workshop Report (2004) of a Workshop (2006) Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration: Report of a Workshop (2006) Severe Space Weather EventsUnderstanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (2008) A Performance Assessment of NASA's Heliophysics Program (2009) The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth’s Climate: A Workshop Report (2012) Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society (2013) Opportunities for High-Power, High-Frequency Transmitters to Advance Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research [prepublication] (2013) FIGURE 2.5  NRC-SSB advice on solar and space physics (1980-2013).

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Board and Standing Committees 23 SPACE BIOLOGY HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT STUDIES Science in Space: Biological Science and Space Research (1960) Radiobiological Factors in Report on NASA Biology Program Physiology in the Space Manned Spaceflight (1967) (1968) Environment , Vol. 1 and 2 (1968) Space Biology (1970) Radiation Protection Guides and Infectious Disease Life Sciences in Space: Report of Constraints for in Manned the Study to Review NASA Life Space-Mission and Spaceflight: Sciences Programs (1970) Vehicle-Design Probabilities and Studies Involving Countermeasures Priorities for Space Research: Nuclear Missions (1970) 1971-1980 (1971) (1970) Life Beyond the Earth's Scientific Uses of the HZE-Particle Effects in Manned Environment (1979) Space Shuttle (1974) Spaceflight (1973) A Strategy for Space Biology and Medical Science for the 1980s and 1990s (1987) Space Science in the Twenty-First “On the Extended Century: Life Sciences (1988) Duration Orbiter Medical Research “On Several Issues in the Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Program” (1989) Space Life Sciences” Medicine1991 (1991) (1993) “On Continued Operation of the “On Life and Microgravity BEVALAC Facility” (1992) Sciences and the Space Station Program” (1994) Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues “On Peer Review in “On the Planned National and Research Strategies (1996) NASA Life Sciences Space Biomedical Research Programs” (1995) Institute” (1996) A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century (1998) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Review of NASA's Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Biomedical Research Program (2000) Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (2010) Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era (2011) Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation (2012) FIGURE 2.6  NRC-SSB advice on space biology and medicine (1960-2013).

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24 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2013 Materials Processing in Space (1978) Space Science in the Twenty-First Microgravity Science and Century: Imperatives Applications: Report on a for the Decades Workshop (1986, Board on 1995 to 2015. Physics and Astronomy) Fundamental Physics and Chemistry (1988) Toward a Microgravity Research Strategy (1992) "On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program“ (1994) "On the Utilization of the Space Station“ (1994) Microgravity Research Opportunities for the 1990s (1995) "On Archiving An Initial Review of Clarification of Microgravity Microgravity Research in Issues in the Flight Data and Support of Human Exploration Opportunities Samples and Development of Space Report“ (1995) (1996) (1997) "On Research Facilities Planning for the International Space Station“ (1997) Future Biotechnology Research on the International Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human Space Station Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies (2000) (2000) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and The Mission of Microgravity and Physical Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Sciences Research at NASA (2001) Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (2010) Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era (2011) FIGURE 2.7  NRC-SSB advice on microgravity research (1978-2013).