Review of
Specialized Degree-Granting
Graduate Programs of the
Department of Defense

in STEM and Management

Committee on Review of Specialized Degree-Granting Graduate Programs
of the DoD in STEM and Management

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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Committee on Review of Specialized Degree-Granting Graduate Programs of the DoD in STEM and Management Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Award HQ0034-10-D-0003, TO9 between the Department of Defense and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommenda- tions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-30339-2 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-30339-7 Cover: The Light Armored Vehicle–Upgrade Project (LAV-UP) image is courtesy of General Dynam- ics Land Systems. Copies are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, NW Keck 360 Washington, DC 20001 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to as- sociate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON REVIEW OF SPECIALIZED DEGREE-GRANTING GRADUATE PROGRAMS OF THE DOD IN STEM AND MANAGEMENT JACQUES S GANSLER, University of Maryland, Chair THOMAS J. BURNS, ENSCO, Inc., Vice Chair ROBERT A. CALICO, JR., Independent Consultant RITA R. COLWELL, University of Maryland EARL H. DOWELL, Duke University JOHN V. FARR, U.S. Military Academy BRENDAN B. GODFREY, University of Maryland WESLEY L. HARRIS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MICHAEL L. HEIL, Ohio Aerospace Institute ROBERT J. HERMANN, Hartford, Connecticut WALTER F. JONES, Office of Naval Research KATHRYN E. NEWCOMER, The George Washington University LEIF E. PETERSON, Human Resources Concepts and Solutions STEPHEN POLLOCK, University Michigan STEVEN E. RAMBERG, National Defense University CHARLES E. THORPE, Clarkson University Staff TERRY J. JAGGERS, Board Director CARTER W. FORD, Study Director MARGUERITE E. SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator DIONNA C. ALI, Research Assistant v

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures ap- proved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Michelle Atchison, University of Texas System, Lawrence D. Brown, University of Pennsylvania, W. Peter Cherry, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Paul G. Gaffney II, Monmouth University (emeritus), Maryellen L. Giger, University of Chicago, Paul J. Kern, The Cohen Group, Louis J. Lanzerotti, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Lester L. Lyles, The Lyles Group, Charles E. Phelps, University of Rochester, and James A. Voytuk, Annapolis, Maryland. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommenda- vii

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viii Acknowledgment of Reviewers tions, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert A. Frosch, Harvard University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Preface Recent National Research Council (NRC) reports on science, technology, en- gineering, and mathematics (STEM) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have focused on the quality of the DoD STEM workforce and the importance of ensur- ing an adequate number of people with the right STEM skill sets in the future.1,2 This report is unique in that it addresses the need for relevant graduate STEM and management education for DoD military and civilians; assesses the cost, benefits, and organizational placement of DoD institutions that grant degrees in STEM and management; and evaluates alternative ways—for example, civilian institutions and distance learning—to ensure adequate numbers and high-quality education outcomes for DoD personnel. TERMS OF REFERENCE Section 245 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (P.L. 112-239) directed the Secretary of Defense to enter into an agreement with the NRC to conduct a review of specialized degree-granting graduate programs of 1  National Research Council (NRC), Assuring the U.S. Department of Defense a Strong Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Workforce, The National Academies Press, Wash- ington, D.C., 2012. 2  NRC, Examination of the U.S. Air Force’s Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Workforce Needs in the Future and Its Strategy to Meet Those Needs, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010. ix

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x Preface the DoD in STEM and management.3,4 The NRC approved the terms of reference specified in the congressional language in May 2013, and funding for the study was received from the Office of the Secretary of Defense in July 2013. The president of the National Academy of Sciences appointed the committee in August 2013.5 The terms of reference for the study include the following: 1. The need by the Department of Defense and the military departments for military and civilian personnel with advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, math- ematics, and management, including a list of the numbers of such personnel needed by discipline. 2. An analysis of the sources by which the Department of Defense and the military departments obtain military and civilian personnel with such advanced degrees. 3. The need for educational institutions under the Department of Defense to meet the needs identified. 4. The costs and benefits of maintaining such educational institutions, including costs relating to in-house research. 5. The ability of private non-Department of Defense institutions (public and private) or distance-learning programs to meet the needs identified. 6. Existing organizational structures, including reporting chains, within the military departments to manage the graduate education needs of the Department of Defense and the military departments in the fields of science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) and management. 7. Recommendations for improving the ability of the Department of Defense to identify, manage, and source the graduate education needs of the Department in such fields. COMMITTEE APPROACH During four data-gathering meetings, the committee met with leaders and staff members from the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Military Services, and various DoD-funded universities—including the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT), the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and the National Defense University—and representatives from civilian universities and industry. Additionally, the committee held smaller site visits with AFIT and NPS officials in Dayton, Ohio, and Monterey, California. 3  For additional Information, see Bill Text Versions, 112th Congress (2011-2012), H.R. 4310, http:// thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c112:H.R.4310:, accessed March 4, 2014. 4  A copy of the congressional tasking is provided in Appendix A. 5  Biographies for the committee members are provided in Appendix B. The committee includes experts from academia, government, and industry with backgrounds in advanced education degree requirements for DoD military and civilian personnel, specifically in science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) and acquisition, technology and logistics management; strategies associated with recruitment and retention of DoD military and civilian personnel requiring these types of ad- vanced degrees; and an understanding of the abilities of both the public and private advanced-degree educational institutions to meet these DoD needs, either in residence or through distance learning.

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Preface xi The committee concluded its work during two 3-day meetings focused on finalizing its report, findings, and recommendations. It was our great pleasure to work with the extremely dedicated and professional members of the committee during this study, and it is our hope that this report provides a useful service to DoD and the nation. Jacques S. Gansler, Chair Thomas J. Burns, Vice Chair Committee on Review of Specialized Degree- Granting Graduate Programs of the DoD in STEM and Management

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 THE NEED FOR STEM AND MANAGEMENT GRADUATE 9 EDUCATION IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Technology and Military Operations, 9 Managing the Defense Industrial Base, 10 Looking Forward, 11 Management Competence, 13 Advances in Technology, 14 Workforce Management Competence, 15 Organization of the Report, 21 2 OVERVIEW OF CURRENT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 22 STEM AND MANAGEMENT GRADUATE EDUCATION STEM+M Graduate Education Programs within the Committee’s Purview, 22 STEM+M Graduate Education Delivery Models in the Department of Defense, 25 STEM+M Graduate Programs for Department of Defense Personnel at Civilian Institutions, 27 STEM+M Graduate Degree Programs at the Air Force Institute of Technology and the Naval Postgraduate School, 28 xiii

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xiv Contents Current STEM+M Graduate Education Provided to U.S. Army Active Duty Military Personnel, 40 Concluding Remarks, 41 3 VALUE PROPOSITION FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 42 INSTITUTIONS OFFERING ADVANCED DEGREES IN STEM AND MANAGEMENT Introduction, 42 Overviews of the Air Force Institute of Technology and the Naval Postgraduate School, 44 Overview of the Air Force Institute of Technology, 44 Overview of the Naval Postgraduate School, 45 Enrollment, Accreditation, and Faculty, 45 Research Enterprise, 50 Costs Associated with the Air Force Institute of Technology and the Naval Postgraduate School, 54 The Value Proposition of Department of Defense Graduate Schools, 57 Introduction, 57 Comparing the Value Propositions of the Air Force Institute of Technology, Naval Postgraduate School, and Civilian Institutions, 57 On the Quality of Education, 68 Institutional Organization Considerations, 75 Command Structure of the Naval Postgraduate School, 75 Command Structure of the Air Force Institute of Technology, 76 Department of Defense Policies, 80 Concluding Remarks, 82 4 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO ENSURE HIGH-QUALITY GRADUATE 83 EDUCATION OUTCOMES Introduction, 83 Graduate Education at Civilian Institutions, 83 Air Force Institute of Technology and Naval Postgraduate School Collaborations, 86 Collaborations with Civilian Institutions, 89 Collaborations with Department of Defense Laboratories, 91 Distance Learning, 92 Military Tuition Assistance, 96 Competitively Selected Education at Civilian Institutions, 99 Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation Program, 99 Funding for Civilian Graduate STEM Education, 101

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Contents xv Negotiating Civilian Institution Tuition Costs, 103 Professional Science and Engineering Master’s Degrees, 104 Concluding Remarks, 107 5 PRINCIPAL FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 108 Introduction, 108 Principal Findings and Recommendations, 110 APPENDIXES A Terms of Reference 125 B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 127 C Meetings and Speakers 137 D Select Findings and Recommendations from Assuring the 142 U.S. Department of Defense a Strong Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Workforce

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Acronyms AETC Air Education and Training Command AFIT Air Force Institute of Technology AFMC Air Force Materiel Command AU Air University BOV Board of Visitors BRAC Base Realignment and Closure CNO Chief of Naval Operations CSAF Chief of Staff of the Air Force CUI controlled, unclassified information DAGSI Dayton Area Graduate Studies Institute DAWDF Defense Acquisition Workforce Development Fund DL distance learning DoD Department of Defense DSB Defense Science Board JPME joint professional military education MOOC Massively Open Online Course xvii

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xviii Acronyms NDAA National Defense Authorization Act NDSEG National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship NIH National Institutes of Health NPS Naval Postgraduate School NRC National Research Council NSF National Science Foundation OLI Open Learning Initiative PSM Professional Science Master’s S&E science and engineering S&T science and technology SMART Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation SME subject matter expert STEM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STEM+M science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and management UNM University of New Mexico USNWR U.S. News and World Report USUHS Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences UT United Technologies