united parents and allies of children in six targeted states to change laws and practices prosecuting and confining children as adults. She also led the development of the National Parent Caucus, a national network of family members seeking to end the practice of trying, sentencing, and incarcerating children as adults.

Kevin J. Bethel is presently in charge of Patrol Operations for the Philadelphia Police Department, where he oversees both the patrol and detective units for the entire city of Philadelphia. Since completion of the Police Academy in 1986, his assignments have included: police officer-6th District; sergeant-17th District; sergeant-Special Investigative Bureau, Narcotics Strike Force; sergeant-Special Investigative Bureau, Narcotics Field Unit, North Central section; lieutenant-18th District; lieutenant-Internal Affairs Division and lieutenant-Narcotics Intelligence Investigative Unit. Prior to his appointment as deputy commissioner, he served as the commanding officer (captain) of the 17th Police District from 2005 to 2008. He serves on the Advisory Board to the initiative, by the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the MacArthur Foundation, on “Law Enforcement’s Leadership Role in the Advancement of Promising Practices in Juvenile Justice.” Deputy Commissioner Bethel holds a B.S. in criminal justice from Chestnut Hill College and an M.A. in public safety from St. Joseph’s University.

Sandra A. Graham is a professor of psychological studies in education and chair of the Department of Education at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). She received her Ph.D. in education at UCLA. Dr. Graham’s teaching interests include achievement motivation, attribution theory, motivation in minority groups, social development, adolescent development, risk, and resiliency. Her research interests are in the areas of cognitive approaches to motivation, the development of attributional processes, motivation in African Americans, and peer-directed aggression and victimization. Dr. Graham is currently principal investigator on grants from the National Science Foundation and the W. T. Grant Foundation. She also is the recipient of an Independent Scientist Award, funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. She is a former recipient of the Early Contribution Award from Division 15 (Educational Psychology) of the American Psychological Association and a former fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California. She is an associate editor of Developmental Psychology and a member of the MacArthur Foundation Network on Adolescent Development and Juvenile Justice.

Maxwell Griffin, Jr., was appointed associate judge in the Circuit Court of Cook County in 2003. He currently serves in the Child Protection Division of the Cook County Juvenile Court. Judge Griffin joined the bench after a 22-year career as an attorney, during which he received peer recognition in 2003 from Chicago Lawyer as one of the top 20 tort defense lawyers in Chicago. He served as assistant state’s attorney in the Civil Actions Bureau as well as a plaintiff’s personal injury lawyer. Judge Griffin is a member of the Board of Trustees of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges and a board member for the Illinois Judicial Association. He serves as co-lead judge for the Chicago Model Juvenile Court. He is an adjunct faculty member at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law and is a member of the Administrative Office of the Illinois Courts’ education faculty. He is the author of a chapter on medical and mental rights of minors in the Illinois Institute for Continuing Legal Education’s Juvenile Law Handbook. Judge Griffin is a 1980 graduate of the University of Notre Dame Law School.

Patricia Lee has served as a deputy public defender in San Francisco since 1978 and has practiced in the juvenile courts since 1981. She is currently the managing attorney of the San Francisco Public Defender’s juvenile office, and co-director of the Pacific Juvenile Defender Center, which seeks to improve the quality of representation provided by juvenile delinquency attorneys. She served as a technical adviser to the American Bar Association Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention for the Due Process Advocacy Program, which seeks to increase children’s access to quality counsel in juvenile delinquency proceedings. She also established the country’s first advocacy program for girls who have been victims of exploitation. She is a member of the MacArthur Foundation’s Network on Adolescent Development and Juvenile Justice and a member of the Family and Juvenile Law Advisory Committee of the Administrative Office of the Courts, Center for Families, Children and the Courts. She received her undergraduate degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and a law degree from Lincoln University School of Law.

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