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PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION 6 The Path Forward Previous chapters of this report have set forth a blueprint for the federal government to facilitate juvenile justice reform in states, localities, and tribal jurisdictions based on a developmental approach. In Chapters 3 through 5, the committee made recommendations for the Justice Department and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). In this chapter the committee responds directly to the agency’s request for an explicit roadmap by restating those previous recommendations specifically directed to OJJDP and adding prioritized action steps for each recommendation. First we present the recommendations and action steps aimed at improving OJJDP's internal capacity to guide system reform. Then we outline the recommendations and associated action steps aimed at OJJDP's efforts to assist state, local, and tribal jurisdictions and to collaborate with national organizations to promote reform. The action steps have been broken down into Years 1, 2, and 3 (with corresponding fiscal years [FY], assuming Year 1 begins in fiscal 2015), to provide the OJJDP administrator and leadership with the temporal road map for implementation they requested. RECOMMENDATIONS AND ACTION STEPS A successful transformation effort will require that the OJJDP administrator and executive staff build internal capacity and garner external support from other agencies in the federal government, foundations, and national organizations. In addition, the administrator and executive staff will need to embark immediately upon a process of modifying policies and addressing staffing issues, possibly using the recent example of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s transformation as a guide (U.S. General Accounting Office, 2003; Office of the Inspector General, 2004). The committee stresses the need for OJJDP staff and leadership to be fully engaged in guiding reforms in the field. OJJDP staff should guide the work and develop the changes needed in training and technical assistance (TTA) delivery, solicitations, grant monitoring, etc. As noted in Chapter 3, changing the organization involves managing the climate as well as the process. This will require involving employees at all levels of the agency in the discussions and decisions about the process for implementing change. The first step, to be taken personally by the OJJDP administrator, will be to create a Change Management Team with representatives of every part of the agency. This team will work with the administrator to implement the action steps. The administrator and Change Management Team should anticipate that agency staff will express and experience a range of reactions to the changes that follow. The team should be prepared to engage staff throughout the organization by broadly sharing the rationale for and the scope of the changes, as well as how it will affect staff. This will require the administrator and Change Management Team to develop a full understanding of existing, as well as changing, structures, personnel, and culture within the organization. The administrator should also immediately form a group of external advisers—a Transition Advisory Group—to assist with implementation as outlined below. External consultants and 87 PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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88 IMPLEMENTING JUVENILE JUSTICE REFORM: THE FEDERAL ROLE PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION advisers are necessary to the transition phase, as they will bring specific knowledge and expertise in adolescent development, family engagement, racial disparities, data collection, research methodology, and curriculum development that will inform the work of the agency staff. However, consultants and advisers cannot be a substitute for staff by performing staff functions or providing leadership. For these reforms to be durable over time, it will be necessary for the staff of OJJDP to cultivate necessary staff expertise and become the leaders of change. Improving Internal Capacity Recommendation 3-1: OJJDP should develop a staff training curriculum on the hallmarks of a developmental approach to juvenile justice reform. With the assistance of a team of external experts, it should implement the training curriculum on an ongoing basis and train, assign, or hire staff to align its capabilities with the skills and expertise needed to carry out a developmentally oriented approach to juvenile justice reform. Action Steps for Recommendation 3-1 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) Create an external advisory Develop staff evaluation Ensure an accountability group (the Transition Advisory measures and goals that align process is in place to evaluate Group) to work with an intra- with the skills needed to drive a staff on measures and goals. agency team of staff and developmentally appropriate leadership at all levels of OJJDP juvenile justice reform agenda. (the Change Management Team) to develop, within 3-5 months, a curriculum to inform all professional staff about (1) advances in developmental science and their implications for juvenile justice system improvement and (2) the hallmarks of a developmental approach. Within 6 months, using the Review and evaluate the training Incorporate lessons learned in curriculum, initiate an agency- curriculum to assess quality and updated training programs. wide training activity to train impact. staff on the developmental approach. Within 9 months, train, assign, Continue training and reinforce Continue training on ongoing and hire staff with appropriate on ongoing basis at staff basis and routinely assess skills skills and knowledge aligned meetings and seminars. and knowledge of staff. with the goals of implementing a developmental approach. Develop partnerships with other Implement partnerships with Continue use of interagency federal agencies; state, local, and other federal agencies; state, agreements, details, and IPA tribal governments; universities; local, and tribal governments; authority to maintain the or foundations to engage expert universities; or foundations to necessary level of expertise on staff through the use of engage expert staff through staff. interagency agreements, details, interagency agreements, details, and Intergovernmental Personnel and IPA authority. Act (IPA) authority. PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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THE PATH FORWARD 89 PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION Following the training of key Implement changes in all grant Continue and evaluate. staff, re-examine all grant making, guidance, and making, guidance, and leadership activities to ensure leadership activities to identify that developmentally appropriate specifically how to introduce or reforms become integral to all strengthen developmentally core activities, including appropriate reforms that include ensuring compliance with core approaches for ensuring protections. Assign compliance with core responsibility to staff along with protections, including those accountability measures. described in Recommendation 4- 5. Not applicable Establish a mechanism for Review and assess progress monitoring progress on agency annually. transformation. Recommendation 3-2: OJJDP should establish a better balance between grant monitoring and system reform efforts by examining more efficient ways to monitor grants and compliance with the core protections from the JJDPA. Action Steps for Recommendation 3-2 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) In the first three months, re- Institute a new grant monitoring Continue and evaluate. examine the grant monitoring system. systems to determine less resource-intensive options. Within 6 months develop a grant management process that uses either (1) a random audit of representative samples and in- depth reviews of selected programs, (2) a rotating schedule of full reviews with monitoring or remediation plans in the intervening years, (3) a process of contracting out the monitoring functions, or (4) other possible methods. Consistent with Continue to monitor compliance Continue and evaluate. Recommendation 4-4, develop a with the core protections as part competitive grant process for the of demonstration project demonstration project, implementation. predicated upon documented compliance with core protections. Recommendation 3-3: OJJDP should take a leadership role in local, state, and tribal jurisdictions with respect to the development and implementation of administrative data systems by providing model formats for system structure, standards, and common definitions of data elements. OJJDP PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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90 IMPLEMENTING JUVENILE JUSTICE REFORM: THE FEDERAL ROLE PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION should also provide consultation on data systems as well as opportunities for sharing information across jurisdictions. Action Steps for Recommendation 3-3 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) Within 6 months develop model Convene meetings with localities Review and evaluate. formats for collecting data that have made sufficient regarding juvenile offenders, progress in order to facilitate the juvenile offending, and positive exchange of information about youth development. innovative data practices, management, and organization. Following the development of Continue to compile and share Continue to compile and share the model formats, compile and information. information. share information regarding effective data collection practices and uses across localities, states, and tribal jurisdictions. Work with other governmental Document partnership outcomes. Analyze and reevaluate. agencies (e.g., Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Institutes of Health) whose data collection mechanisms may complement efforts central to OJJDP’s mission to promote a developmental perspective. Recommendation 3-4: OJJDP should focus research efforts toward specific projects related to a developmental perspective on juvenile justice, capitalizing on an integration of its research and program efforts. Action Steps for Recommendation 3-4 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) Initiate ad hoc research groups, Continue using the ad hoc Continue using the ad hoc composed of OJJDP staff as well groups to review and update groups to review and update as external researchers, to priority research areas. priority research areas. Evaluate identify within 6 months priority progress and research research centered on a objectives. developmental perspective. Following the identification of Issue research RFPs, Continue to ensure that research priority research, develop solicitations, and funding RFPs, solicitations, and funding research Requests for Proposals opportunities that incorporate opportunities incorporate (RFPs), solicitations, and language specific to a language specific to a funding opportunities with developmental perspective. developmental perspective. Re- language specific to a assess on an ongoing basis. developmental perspective. Develop common outcome Issue RFPs that require Continue and re-assess on an measures for research RFPs researchers to use common ongoing basis. recommended by an ad hoc outcome measures research group for data recommended by the ad hoc PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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THE PATH FORWARD 91 PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION collection and research research group for data collection and research. Recruit staff with research and Continue to recruit and retain Continue to recruit. practice experience regarding staff with research and practice developmental science. experience regarding developmental science. Develop research practitioner Promote research practitioner Continue to promote. partnerships and visiting partnerships and visiting fellowships to contribute to the fellowships to contribute to the setting of research agendas setting of research agendas regarding appropriate basic and regarding appropriate basic and applied research. applied research. Assisting External Entities to Promote Reform Recommendation 4-1: OJJDP should promote the development and strengthening of the State Advisory Groups (SAGs) to be juvenile justice reform leaders by supporting meaningful family and youth engagement, fostering partnerships, delivering strategic training and technical assistance aimed at facilitating reform, and ensuring that SAG members and staff are knowledgeable about the hallmarks of a developmental approach to juvenile justice. Action Steps for Recommendation 4-1 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) As part of the curriculum With the Transition Advisory Verify all SAG members are developed under Group, develop a methodology trained in the OJJDP Recommendation 3-3 and in to verify satisfactory completion curriculum on developmental consultation with stakeholders, and use of the curriculum. science and corresponding ensure that the curriculum being juvenile justice system developed can be used to inform practices. all stakeholders (including SAGs) about advances in developmental science and their implications for juvenile justice system improvement. Develop standards for the hiring Issue guidance for hiring SAG Verify that SAGs are and training of staff who serve staff based on the standards. implementing the guidance for the SAGs, based on the the hiring of staff. hallmarks of a developmental approach. Recommendation 4-2: OJJDP should develop a portfolio of training and technical assistance, properly balanced to be both strategic and tactical, to support the implementation of a developmental approach to juvenile justice reform. OJJDP should coordinate with agencies and organizations proficient in providing training and technical assistance based on the hallmarks of a developmental approach to juvenile justice reform. This proficiency should include historical experience working in system improvement efforts. Recommendation 4-3: All applicants for technical assistance or demonstration project grants sponsored by OJJDP should be required to show how they would use the assistance, either PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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92 IMPLEMENTING JUVENILE JUSTICE REFORM: THE FEDERAL ROLE PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION strategically or tactically, to implement or strengthen a developmental approach to juvenile justice reform. Action Steps for Recommendations 4-2 and 4-3 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) Based upon the curriculum Require TTA providers selected Continue and evaluate for developed pursuant to in Year 1 to demonstrate success in accomplishing Recommendation 3-3, require knowledge of the jurisdiction intended purpose. providers of TTA to demonstrate where they are to be deployed. mastery of a developmental Ensure TTA providers are able approach. to facilitate connections among jurisdictions with similar issues. Consistent with Implement a competitive process Continue and evaluate for Recommendation 3-4, establish a to evaluate applicants for success in accomplishing competitive process to evaluate strategic or targeted technical intended purpose. applicants for strategic or assistance based on the targeted technical assistance, excellence of the application and based on excellence of the readiness to engage in reform application and readiness to engage in reform. As part of the curriculum Require TTA providers to Continue and evaluate for development under implement the guides for TTA success in accomplishing Recommendation 3-3, create work plans that have concrete intended purpose. guides for TTA work plans that objectives, strategies to be have concrete objectives, employed, outcomes, progress strategies to be employed, measures, and timelines. outcomes, progress measures, and timelines. Develop an evaluation plan for Begin data collection for the Conduct the evaluation and assessing the impact of evaluation plan for assessing the continue annually. implementing the developmental impact of implementing the perspective in localities and developmental perspective in states. localities and states. Recommendation 4-4: OJJDP should establish new approaches for identifying racial and ethnic disparities across the juvenile justice system, promulgate new guidelines for reducing and eliminating racial and ethnic disparities, build the internal capacity and/or establish partnerships for assisting states with these new requirements, and strengthen the role of State Advisory Groups in monitoring the new guidelines by providing training and technical assistance to State Advisory Groups. Action Steps for Recommendation 4-4 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) Within 6 months issue new Review and assess impact of Review and assess impact of guidelines for reducing racial racial disparities guidelines. guidelines. disparities. Within 12 months create Require jurisdictions to Collect and evaluate the recommendations for data implement data collection outcomes of the plans. collection systems for each of systems for each of the decision the justice system decision points, disaggregated by race, PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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THE PATH FORWARD 93 PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION points, disaggregated by race, ethnicity, and gender; submit the ethnicity, and gender. data to OJJDP and develop plans for reducing disparities at the decision points where disparities are apparent from the data. Within 12 months, working with Provide TTA to SAGs in Continue and assess efficacy of the Transition Advisory Group monitoring the new guidelines. TTA program. and TTA providers, establish training program for SAGs on new racial disparities guidelines. As part of development of data Provide guidance to jurisdictions Begin to phase out use of the collection template and new on phasing out the Relative Rate Relative Rate Index in favor of guidelines on racial disparities, Index. new measures in the template establish process for phasing out (disaggregated data by decision use of the Relative Rate Index. points). Recommendation 4-5: In partnership with other federal agencies and the philanthropic community, OJJDP should develop a multiyear, demonstration project designed to provide substantial technical assistance and financial support to selected states and localities to develop a comprehensive plan for reforming the state’s juvenile justice system based on a developmental approach. The demonstration grant should include a requirement for strategies that reduce racial and ethnic disparities and the unnecessary use of confinement as well as other hallmarks of a developmental approach. OJJDP should ensure that State Advisory Group (SAG) members in states with demonstration sites are intimately involved in their state’s pilot projects and help disseminate lessons learned to other states’ SAGs. Action Steps for Recommendation 4-5 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) Within 6 months develop Launch a demonstration project Assess and evaluate the partnership with foundations. in selected states and localities development, implementation, Within 12 months develop, in that have demonstrated an ability and lessons learned that partnership with foundations, a and willingness to accomplish enhance the tenets of a multiyear demonstration grant multisystem initiatives to developmentally focused program that incorporates the incorporate the hallmarks of the reform. Continue to add cohorts hallmarks of the developmental developmental approach into a of demonstration grantees as approach, emphasizes strategies reform effort of the juvenile the program is taken to scale. to reduce racial and ethnic justice system, including disparities, and includes a TTA strategies to reduce racial and component. ethnic disparities. Recommendation 5-2: OJJDP should initiate and support collaborative partnerships at the federal, state, local, and tribal level and should use them strategically to advance the goal of a developmentally appropriate juvenile justice system. Action Steps for Recommendation 5-2 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) As part of training OJJDP staff Work with federal agency Continue, assess, and evaluate. and management, include federal partners to integrate federal agency leaders, management, programs and target resources, and staff in training about as appropriate, in coordinated PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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94 IMPLEMENTING JUVENILE JUSTICE REFORM: THE FEDERAL ROLE PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION advances in developmental grant strategies, and to provide science and the implications for joint TTA and shared best system-involved youth. practices using the developmental approach. Recommendation 5-3: OJJDP should establish and convene, on an ongoing basis, a Family Advisory Group to the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, composed of youth and families whose lives have been impacted by the juvenile justice system. Action Steps for Recommendation 5-3 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) Within 3 months work with Within 6 months work with the Continue to implement process members of the Coordinating new Youth and Family Advisory for representation of the Youth Council on Juvenile Justice and Group for recommendations of and Family Advisory Group in Delinquency Prevention to two system-involved youth and all relevant coordination formally establish a Youth and two members of system- council deliberations. Family Advisory Group to the involved or legacy families to council. Within 6 months work represent the Youth and Family with the council and identified Advisory Group on the stakeholder groups to secure coordinating council or to serve nominations for the Youth and as liaisons. Family Advisory Group. By 12 Work with the Youth and Family months, fully establish the new Advisory Group on a formal group and convene its first process for nominating members meeting. to the coordinating council and for providing advice to the coordinating council on all matters related to the juvenile justice system. Work with Youth and Family Develop a methodology to Use methodology to monitor Advisory Group to develop and monitor and evaluate training and evaluate. implement a training program program; make changes as for coordinating council needed to institutionalize the members on mechanisms for active and meaningful creating and embedding family- involvement of family members. focused policies and practices to institutionalize the active and meaningful involvement of family members. Recommendation 5-4: OJJDP, with the support of the Attorney General, should use the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention strategically to implement key components of developmentally oriented juvenile justice reform through interagency, intergovernmental (federal-state-local partnering), and public-private partnering activities with specific measurable objectives. Action Steps for Recommendation 5-4 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) Within 6 months work with all To monitor, evaluate, and report Continue, assess, and evaluate. members of the coordinating on results derived from PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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THE PATH FORWARD 95 PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION council to develop a strategic coordinating council plan for collectively improving engagement, work with outcomes for system-involved members of the council to youth. Based upon the hallmarks reinforce agency accountability of a developmental approach, for collaborative efforts through outline a plan that defines a agency plans, reports, and common outcome; establishes outcome measures; reinforce joint strategies; leverages individual accountability resources; outlines agreed upon through performance roles and responsibilities; management systems. Work establishes compatible policies with each agency, through the and procedures; and develops coordinating council, to publicly mechanisms to monitor, issue reports on progress based evaluate, and report on results. upon the accountability Within 12 months disseminate measures. plan to all stakeholders and begin to work with each member of the council to issue guidance on implementation of the plan. Recommendation 5-5: OJJDP should work with its federal agency and Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention partners (i) to blend or leverage available federal funds to support OJJDP demonstration projects and (ii) to provide guidance to eligible grantees on leveraging federal funding at the state or local level. Action Steps for Recommendation 5-5 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) Consistent with Continue to identify Consistent with Recommendation 4.4 launch a opportunities for blending, Recommendation 4.4, within 6 demonstration project in selected assess implementation, improve months work with members of states and localities. Review as needed. the coordinating council to implementation of blended or review the rules and leveraged funding mechanisms, requirements for all relevant improve as needed. federal funding streams. Within 9 months identify mechanisms to blend or leverage funding to support the demonstration project. Within 12 months establish necessary interagency agreements. Issue guidance to the grantees Continue to assess and improve Within 12 months work with with members of the guidance as needed. members of the coordinating coordinating council. Reassess council to develop guidance for guidance as part of review grantees on the allowable process, improve as needed. blending and leveraging of federal funding streams. Recommendation 5-6: OJJDP, with support of the Attorney General, should support and participate in an American Bar Association (ABA) project to formulate a new and updated volume of standards for juvenile justice based on the developmental approach. PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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96 IMPLEMENTING JUVENILE JUSTICE REFORM: THE FEDERAL ROLE PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION Action Steps for Recommendation 5-6 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 (FY 2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) Collaborate with the ABA to Participate in and support the Continue participation. begin plans for a review and task force in collaboration with Disseminate draft standards for update of the Standards for the ABA. review and support completion Juvenile Justice. Work with in subsequent years, if process ABA to select and appoint is not completed during Year 3. members of a task force. Provide support including Continue support, including Continue support, including funding as appropriate. funding as appropriate. funding as appropriate. Recommendation 5-7: OJJDP should increase its capacity to provide training and technical assistance by initiating or capitalizing on partnerships with national organizations that provide training and guidance to their membership and recognize the need for enhanced training in the hallmarks of a developmental approach to juvenile justice reform. Action Steps for Recommendation 5-7 Year 1 (FY 2015) Year 2 - FY (2016) Year 3 (FY 2017) Consistent with Continue developing and Continue developing and Recommendation 4.2, develop sustaining partnerships; continue sustaining partnerships; partnerships with national implementing strategy for continue implementing strategy organizations that participate in targeting TTA to decision for targeting TTA to decision training and demonstrate mastery makers. makers. of the developmental approach. With national partners, develop a strategy for targeted TTA for decision makers at all juvenile justice decision points. As part of the curriculum Initiate training activities for Review and evaluate the developed under stakeholder groups on the training curriculum to Recommendation 3.3, ensure the curriculum. determine success in development of a curriculum accomplishing intended tailored to individual purpose. stakeholders’ particular decision point(s) that communicates developmental science and its implications for that stakeholder’s role in juvenile justice system improvement. CONCLUSION The committee notes that if this prioritized plan is implemented over the next 3 years as outlined, the developmental approach should be fully embedded in the organization’s culture at the end of that period. The agency should then be well positioned to facilitate and sustain support for reforming the juvenile justice system based on the hallmarks of a developmental approach: PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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THE PATH FORWARD 97 PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION • Accountability without Criminalization; • Alternatives to Justice System Involvement; • Individualized Response Based on Assessment of Needs and Risks; • Confinement Only When Necessary for Public Safety; • Genuine Commitment to Fairness; • Sensitivity to Disparate Treatment; and • Family Engagement. Reform of the nation’s juvenile justice systems grounded in advancing knowledge about adolescent development is a widely supported goal, crossing the usual lines of political disagreement. The 2013 National Research Council report summarized the scientific foundation for a developmental approach to reform and distilled its implications for reform. This report sets forth a detailed and prioritized strategic plan for the federal government to support and facilitate developmentally oriented juvenile justice reform. The chapters lay out a plan for OJJDP to accomplish the three key tasks: organizing itself and setting its priorities so that it has the capacity and commitment to carry out its mission; providing guidance and support to enable states, tribal entities, and localities to reform their juvenile justice systems based on a developmental approach; and forging the partnerships that will be needed to achieve and sustain developmentally based reform. System change in juvenile justice necessitates a shared commitment among the various actors and stakeholders to the goal of reform based on a developmentally informed approach. Adequate funding is of course necessary to hire and retain well-qualified staff at all levels of the organization and system—staff who have been trained on adolescent development and are immersed in a culture that embraces the hallmarks of a developmental approach. The available literature recognizes that system change is a complex process and involves a long-term commitment from the organization as change agent and from its personnel. The committee believes that for OJJDP to succeed in redefining itself as an agent for juvenile justice reform, it will require support for the change from its parent agencies within the Department of Justice; the intellectual, technological, and financial resources needed to carry out this change; and the ability to mobilize staff and manage them throughout the overhaul process. The vision for juvenile justice reform must eventually permeate all things that the organization does. The pivotal component of the plan is to strengthen the role, capacity, and commitment of OJJDP, the lead federal agency in the field. By carrying out the recommendations in this report, the federal government will both reaffirm and advance the promise of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act. REFERENCES Office of the Inspector General. (2004, September). The Internal Effects of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Reprioritization. Audit Report 04-39. Available: http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/FBI/a0439/ch1.htm [May, 2014] National Research Council. (2013). Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach. Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform. R.J. Bonnie, R.L. Johnson, B.M. Chemers, and J.A. Schuck (Eds.). Committee on Law and Justice, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. U.S. General Accounting Office. (2003, June). FBI Reorganization: Progress Made in Efforts to Transform, but Major Challenges Continue. GAO-03-759T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available: http://www.gao.gov/assets/120/110065.pdf [June, 2014]. PREPUBLICATION: SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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Appendixes

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