Permanent Stations, Regular Observations, and Long-Term Monitoring

Mcmurdo (Elevation: 24 m Coordinates: 77°55'S, 166°39'E)

AURORA AND AIRGLOW

Photometer observations of aurora

S.B. Mende

COSMIC RADIATION

Super multisection neutron monitor

M.A. Pomerantz

SYNOPTIC OBSERVATIONS

U.S. Naval Support Force, Meteorological Officer

Surface observations

Temperature

Three-hourly;** thermograph, thermometer

Atmospheric pressure

Six-hourly;** Hg barometer, microbarograph

Wind direction and speed

Three-hourly;** aerovane system

Precipitation

Six-hourly; eight-inch rain gauge

Visibility, clouds, ceiling

Three-hourly; visual

Upper-air observations

Pilot balloons

As needed; nonscheduled

Radiosondes and rawinsondes

At 0000 GMT February-October; at 0000 and 1200 GMT October-February; AN/AMT-4A 1680-MHz flight equipment and GMD-1A tracking equipment

**  

Continuous recording



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United States Antarctic Research: Report No. 32 to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) 1 April 1989 - 31 March 1990 Permanent Stations, Regular Observations, and Long-Term Monitoring Mcmurdo (Elevation: 24 m Coordinates: 77°55'S, 166°39'E) AURORA AND AIRGLOW Photometer observations of aurora S.B. Mende COSMIC RADIATION Super multisection neutron monitor M.A. Pomerantz SYNOPTIC OBSERVATIONS U.S. Naval Support Force, Meteorological Officer Surface observations Temperature Three-hourly;** thermograph, thermometer Atmospheric pressure Six-hourly;** Hg barometer, microbarograph Wind direction and speed Three-hourly;** aerovane system Precipitation Six-hourly; eight-inch rain gauge Visibility, clouds, ceiling Three-hourly; visual Upper-air observations Pilot balloons As needed; nonscheduled Radiosondes and rawinsondes At 0000 GMT February-October; at 0000 and 1200 GMT October-February; AN/AMT-4A 1680-MHz flight equipment and GMD-1A tracking equipment **   Continuous recording

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United States Antarctic Research: Report No. 32 to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) 1 April 1989 - 31 March 1990 ATMOSPHERIC CONSTITUENTS Atmospheric water vapor and trace gas concentrations Occasional; atmospheric emission spectrometer D.G. Murcray ASSOCIATED RESEARCH PROGRAMS Blowing snow Three-hourly; visual U.S. Naval Support Force, Meteorological Officer Surface weather observations Continuous; automatic weather stations C.R. Stearns Atmospheric aerosols Intermittent; impaction filters, CN counter W.D. Komhyr; G.G. Lala Ozone profiles 15 balloons/month D.J. Hofmann SPRINGTIME OZONE STUDIES Balloon-borne measurements of aerosols and ozone D.J. Hofmann Palmer (Elevation: 7.5 m Coordinates: 64°46'S, 64°05'W) SYNOPTIC OBSERVATIONS Climatological surface observations: temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind direction and speed, precipitation, visibility U.S. Naval Support Force, Meteorological Officer Six-hourly synoptic: thermometer, barometer, wind gauge, rain gauge South Pole (Elevation: 2800 m Coordinate: 90°S) AURORA AND AIRGLOW All-sky camera for photography of aurora F.T. Berkey; S.B. Mende Photometer observations of aurora T.J. Rosenberg ASTRONOMY Solar seismology M.A. Pomerantz Ultra high energy gamma ray astronomy M.A. Pomerantz

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United States Antarctic Research: Report No. 32 to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) 1 April 1989 - 31 March 1990 COSMIC RADIATION Super multisection neutron monitor M.A. Pomerantz SYNOPTIC OBSERVATIONS Contract Meteorological Observation Team Surface observations Temperature Hourly;** thermograph, thermometers Atmospheric pressure Hourly;** Hg barometer; microbarograph Wind speed and direction Hourly;** aerovane system Precipitation Six-hourly;* visual Visibility, clouds, ceiling Six-hourly;* visual Hydrometers and other obstructions to visibility Six-hourly;* visual Upper-air observations Radiosondes and rawinsondes At 0000 GMT February-October; at 0000 and 1200 GMT October-February; WB 1680-MHz flight equipment and GMD-1A tracking equipment ENERGY-BALANCE MEASUREMENTS J.T. Peterson Direct solar-radiation on a surface Continuous (summer); Eppley normal-incidence pyrheliometer on equatorial mount Total solar and sky radiation on a horizontal surface Continuous (summer); Eppley hemispherical pyranometer Reflected solar radiation Continuous (summer); Inverted Eppley hemispherical pyranometer Diffuse solar radiation Continuous (summer); Eppley hemispherical pyranometer shielded from direct solar radiation by an adjustable shade ring Net radiation Continuous; Wisconsin NET radiometer *   Observations taken at three-hour intervals from October to February **   Continuous recording

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United States Antarctic Research: Report No. 32 to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) 1 April 1989 - 31 March 1990 Simultaneous observations with rawin and ozone soundings Intermittent ATMOSPHERIC CONSTITUENTS Total ozone W.D. Komhyr; J.T. Peterson Daily at 0900, 1200, and 1500 GMT as sky conditions permit; Dobson spectrophotometer   Twice per month (more frequently during spring); ozonesondes   Surface ozone W.D. Komhyr; J.T. Peterson Continuous; electrochemical concentration cell   Carbon dioxide sampling W.D. Komhyr; C.D. Keeling; J.T. Peterson Bimonthly, continuous; evacuated flasks, infrared gas analyzer   Trace metals and halogens samplings J.T. Peterson Sufficient samples for analysis; evacuated flasks, filters   Atmospheric turbidity* J.T. Peterson 0900, 1200, 1500 GMT; Linke extinction turbidity meter   Atmospheric trace gases J.T. Peterson Spot measurements; gas chromatograph and evacuated flasks   Atmospheric water vapor and trace gas concentrations D.G. Murcray Occasional; atmospheric emission spectrometer   Radiation and snow albedo S.G. Warren Occasional; solarimeter, spectrophotometer   Ice crystals W. Tape Occasional; photography, camera, crystal replication   ASSOCIATED RESEARCH PROGRAMS Snow accumulation Contract Meteorological Observation Team Monthly   Radioactivity monitoring H.L. Volchok; J.T. Peterson Continuous collections   Carbon-14 analysis J.T. Peterson Semi-weekly samples   Atmospheric aerosols* W.D. Komhyr; G.G. Lala * Observations taken at three-hour intervals from October to February

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United States Antarctic Research: Report No. 32 to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) 1 April 1989 - 31 March 1990 Atmospheric constituents D.G. Murcray GEOPHYSICAL MONITORING FOR CLIMATIC CHANGE (GMCC) COOPERATIVE PROJECTS Carbon dioxide C.D. Keeling Nitrous oxide R.A. Weiss Radionuclides R.J. Larsen Aerosols A. Hogan, G.G. Lala Trace gases R.A. Rasmussen; L. Heidt; R.J. Cicerone 14C M. Poindexter Multi-Station Programs GROUND-BASED ELECTROMAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS South Pole; McMurdo R.A. Helliwell; A.C. Fraser-Smith; U.S. Inan Passive ELF/VLF observations   CONJUGATE PROGRAMS South Pole; McMurdo; Lake Mistissini (Quebec, Canada) T.J. Rosenberg Riometer studies of the ionosphere   South Pole; Lake Mistissini F.T. Berkey Ionosonde studies of the ionosphere   South Pole and five stations in the north [Girardville (L = 4.4) and lac Rebours (L = 4.0), Quebec, Canada; Pittsburgh (L = 3.5), New Hampshire; Durham (L = 3.2), New Hampshire; and Frobisher Bay, NWT]   Three-axis fluxgate magnetometer measurements of micropulsations to investigate the magnetosphere, ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, and latitudinal conjugacy shifts L.J. Lanzerotti; A. Wolfe South Pole; McMurdo; Sonde Stromfjord (Greenland)   Three-axis u-metal-core magnetometer measurements of PC-1 micropulsations R. Arnoldy; L.J. Cahill, Jr.; M.J. Engebretson ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION MONITORING PROGRAM Palmer; McMurdo; South Pole; Ushuaia (Argentina)   Scanning spectroradiometer measurements of UV radiation C.R. Booth

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United States Antarctic Research: Report No. 32 to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) 1 April 1989 - 31 March 1990 AUTOMATIC WEATHER STATIONS Climatological surface observations C.R. Stearns one unit at Byrd Station, Dome C, Rothera Station, Siple Station, Byrd Glacier, Franklin Island and Inexpressible Island; five units in the McMurdo area; four units near Dumont d'Urville; and six units on Ross Ice Shelf   REMOTE SITES Katabatic winds T. Parish; D.H. Bromwich; C.R. Stearns Continuous readout by Tiros N satellite; automatic weather stations at Dome C and upslope from Dumont d'Urville   Surface weather observations C.R. Stearns Continuous readout by Tiros N satellite; automatic weather stations at Byrd Station, Ross Ice Shelf, Byrd Glacier, Franklin Island and Inexpressible Island