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Maureen Mellody, Rapporteur Defense Materials Manufacturing and Infrastructure Standing Committee Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. W911NF-11-C-0212 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, or conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-30379-8 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-30379-6 Cover image: Big Data is partially driven by today’s ever increasing ability to electronically generate and store data. Big Data is also requiring ever increasing computational power to fully mine and understand the data. Thus, beside Big Data itself, at the core of this topic is today’s materials research and development enabling the bootstrapping of the complex electronic materials needed for the computations. Artist: Erik Svedberg. Image created electronically and algorithmically. This report is available in limited quantities from National Materials and Manufacturing Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 nmmb@nas.edu http://www.nationalacademies.edu/nmmb Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to as- sociate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR WORKSHOP ON BIG DATA IN MATERIALS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc., Chair VALERIE BROWNING, ValTech Solutions, LLC JESUS M. DE LA GARZA, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) ROSARIO GERHARDT, Georgia Institute of Technology PAUL KERN, U.S. Army (retired) ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates E. WARD PLUMMER, Louisiana State University ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aviation DENISE F. SWINK, Independent Consultant HAYDN N.G. WADLEY, University of Virginia Staff JAMES LANCASTER, Acting Director ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer MAUREEN MELLODY, Rapporteur JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant v

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DEFENSE MATERIALS MANUFACTURING AND INFRASTRUCTURE STANDING COMMITTEE MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc., Chair VALERIE BROWNING, ValTech Solutions, LLC JESUS M. DE LA GARZA, Virginia Tech ROSARIO GERHARDT, Georgia Institute of Technology PAUL KERN, U.S. Army (retired) ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates E. WARD PLUMMER, Louisiana State University ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aviation DENISE F. SWINK, Independent Consultant HAYDN N.G. WADLEY, University of Virginia Staff JAMES LANCASTER, Acting Director ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant vi

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their ­diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures ­approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confiden- tial to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: David Aspnes (NAS), North Carolina State University, Valerie Browning, ValTech Solutions, LLC, Jesus de la Garza, Virginia Tech, and Sylvia Johnson, NASA Ames Research Center. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views presented at the workshop, nor did they see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by David W. ­ ohnson, J Journal of the American Ceramic Society. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the author and the institution. vii

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Contents OVERVIEW 1 WORKSHOP THEMES 3 Data Availability, 3 Data Size: “Big Data” vs. Data, 6 Quality and Veracity of Data and Models, 7 Data and Metadata Ontology and Formats, 8 Metadata and Model Availability, 8 Culture, 9 SESSION 1: INTRODUCTION TO BIG DATA 11 Frontiers in Massive Data Analysis and Their Implementation, 11 IBM and Big Data, 16 Big Data for Biosecurity, 18 Discussion, 21 SESSION 2: BIG DATA ISSUES IN MATERIALS RESEARCH AND 23 DEVELOPMENT Physics in Big Data, 23 Materials Genome Initiative and Big Data, 26 General Electric Efforts in Materials Data: Development of the ICME-Net, 31 ix

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x Contents Smart Manufacturing: Enterprise Right Time, Networked Data, Information, and Action, 34 Discussion, 39 SESSION 3: BIG DATA ISSUES IN MANUFACTURING 41 Data Needs to Support ICME Development in DARPA Open Manufacturing, 41 The Materials Information System, 44 Discussion, 49 SESSION 4: THE WAY AHEAD 50 Lightweight and Modern Metals Manufacturing Innovation Institute: Implications for Materials, Manufacturing, and Data, 50 Direction of Policy, 54 REFERENCES 57 APPENDIXES A Workshop Statement of Task 61 B Workshop Participants 62 C Workshop Agenda 64 D Acronyms 66