constants and seams, including the supply chain, without losing control of state. It is hosted on an interoperable, accessible, affordable, secure, and reliable hybrid cloud platform and supports commercial products and services, research and development needs, and academic interests.
Dr. Davis explained how smart manufacturing interfaces with the ISA-95 standard.7 He said that the SMLC takes advantage of standards but has not itself been involved in standards development. With respect to the definitions of ISA-95 Levels 0, 1, 2, or 4, the coalition is most interested in ISA-95 Level 3, which relates to manufacturing operations management. Level 3 seems to be a growing space with the most interfaces and thus offers the greatest opportunity for improvements in efficiency.
The SMLC looked at the main reasons the coalition stays together: Most SMLC members are interested in issues that extend beyond any one company. These issues are, for example, related to risk and organizational constraints. Data are part of each element.
The SMLC used a market-driven approach to identify its work flow, focusing on work flow as a service. The SMLC used the smartphone model of apps, toolkits, and so on. “App” is used here very broadly as a general-purpose term that allows systems to interface. The app model allows for enhanced flexibility. A work flow schematic is shown in Figure 3.
Dr. Davis explained that the SMLC uses a market-driven approach. Mapping and interface apps retrieve and manipulate data and map context. The apps should be put somewhere visible, and users should be able to understand how the apps are to be used and how well they perform. The SMLC is also interested in infrastructure that allows for the contribution of apps, broadening the space of innovation. The market is also driving standards-setting. Dr. Davis said this is equivalent to assembling a stack where the lower levels focus on the IoT. The SMLC focuses more on the middle layers, related to smart systems. Big data is the focus of the top of the stack; the amount of data increases as one rises through the stack. Currently, no one wants to share data, but there is a willingness to share apps and their use for different data applications. Dr. Davis pointed out that data valuation is a critical issue; when benefit is derived from the data, understanding the intellectual property becomes important, as does developing a business model to capitalize on that benefit.
Dr. Davis explained that there are many parallels in the health care system. The health care system also has value associated with patient data, as well as derivative intellectual property. One can think of companies as patients.
Dr. Davis noted that the app terminology relates smart manufacturing to