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FIGURE 3 Smart manufacturing work flow. The sections circled in red at the bottom right are related to infrastructure. SOURCE: Jim Davis, University of California, Los Angeles, presentation to the committee on February 5, 2014, Slide 15. Courtesy of Smart Manufacturing Leadership Coalition.

smartphones. The chip layer in a smartphone is analogous to the SMLC work-flow-as-a-service layer; carriers match up to large manufacturers because both groups address issues related to matching platforms and compatibility. Also, smartphones have free core apps as well as paid apps, just as in the smart manufacturing realm. One distinction is that the smart manufacturing community is linking the data flow between existing apps. The apps themselves are not new, but the toolkits (work flows assembled to have a certain function) are the most valuable to the manufacturing community.

Dr. Davis concluded by saying that smart manufacturing cannot be addressed piecemeal. The coalition remains cohesive in its attempt to take a comprehensive view of how to proceed in smart manufacturing, focusing on the architecture to enable and orchestrate the apps while allowing the marketplace to decide the use.

In the discussion period, a participant pointed out that smart manufacturing is customer-driven. In the defense community, the notion of a customer may be



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