TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY

Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries

Committee on International Soil and Water Research and Development

Water Science and Technology Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

Board on Science and Technology for International Development

Office of International Affairs

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1991



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Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries Committee on International Soil and Water Research and Development Water Science and Technology Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Board on Science and Technology for International Development Office of International Affairs National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991

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Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognized the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Stuart Bondurant is acting president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support of this project was provided by the Agency for International Development No. DPE-5545-A-00-8068-00. The U.S. Agency for International Development reserves a royalty-free and nonexclusive and irrevocable right to reproduce, publish, or otherwise use and to authorize others to use the work for government purposes. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 91-67071 ISBN 0-309-04641-6 A limited number of copies are available from: The Water Science and Technology Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20418 Board on Science and Technology for International Development National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20418 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20418 S–483 Printed in the United States of America

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Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL SOIL AND WATER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT LEONARD BERRY, Chair, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton SUSANNA B. HECHT, University of California, Los Angeles CHARLES W. HOWE, University of Colorado, Boulder JACK KELLER, Utah State University, Logan CHARLES McCANTS, North Carolina State University, Raleigh HUGH POPENOE, University of Florida, Gainesville PAUL TENG, International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines (through September 1990) GORO UEHARA, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Staff CHRIS ELFRING, Project Director PATRICIA CICERO, Project Assistant

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Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD DANIEL A. OKUN, Chair, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill MICHAEL KAVANAUGH, Chair, James M. Montgomery Consulting Engineers, Walnut Creek, California (through June 1991) A. DAN TARLOCK, Vice Chair, Chicago Kent College of Law, Chicago, Illinois NORMAN H. BROOKS, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena RICHARD A CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation, South Charleston, West Virginia KENNETH D. FREDERICK, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. DAVID L. FREYBERG, Stanford University, California WILFORD R. GARDNER, University of California, Berkeley DUANE L. GEORGESON, Metropolitan Water District, Los Angeles, California HOWARD C. KUNREUTHER, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (through June 1991) ROBERT R. MEGLEN, University of Colorado, Denver (through June 1991) JUDY L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens DONALD J. O'CONNOR, HydroQual, Inc., Glen Rock, New Jersey BETTY H. OLSON, University of California, Irvine (through June 1991) STAVROS PAPADOPULOS, S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc., Rockville, Maryland KENNETH W. POTTER, University of Wisconsin-Madison P. SURESH C. RAO, University of Florida, Gainesville (through June 1991) BRUCE E. RITTMANN, University of Illinois, Urbana DONALD D. RUNNELLS, University of Colorado, Boulder PHILIP C. SINGER, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill HUGO F. THOMAS, Department of Environmental Protection, Hartford, Connecticut (through May 1991) JAMES R. WALLIS, IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York (through June 1991) M. GORDON WOLMAN, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland JOY B. ZEDLER, San Diego State University, San Diego, California Staff STEPHEN D. PARKER, Director SHEILA D. DAVID, Senior Staff Officer CHRIS ELFRING, Senior Staff Officer SARAH CONNICK, Staff Officer

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Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries JACQUELINE MACDONALD, Research Associate JEANNE AQUILINO, Administrative Specialist ANITA A. HALL, Administrative Secretary PATRICIA CICERO, Project Assistant

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Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries BOARD ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ALEXANDER SHAKOW, Chair, The World Bank PATRICIA BARNES-MCCONNELL, Michigan State University JORDAN J. BARUCH, Jordan Baruch Associates BARRY BLOOM, Albert Einstein College of Medicine JANE BORTNICK, Congressional Research Service GEORGE T. CURLIN, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases DIRK FRANKENBERG, University of North Carolina RALPH W. F. HARDY, Boyce-Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University FREDRICK HORNE, Oregon State University ELLEN MESSER, Allan Shaw Feinstein World Hunger Program, Brown University CHARLES C. MUSCOPLAT, Molecular Genetics, Inc. JAMES QUINN, Dartmouth College VERNON W. RUTTAN, University of Minnesota ANTHONY SAN PIETRO, Indiana University ERNEST SMERDON, University of Arizona Ex Officio Members GERALD P. DINEEN, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering JAMES B. WYNGAARDEN, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences Staff JOHN HURLEY, Director MICHAEL MCD. DOW, Associate Director

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Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries Contents     SUMMARY   1     A Framework for Assessing Research Priorities   2     Critical Research Priorities   3     An Integrated Research Strategy   3     Conclusions   4 1   INTRODUCTION   6 2   A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RESEARCH PRIORITIES   13     Key Elements in the Research Framework   15     Selecting Appropriate Organisms and Husbandry   16     Applying Systems Analysis to the Research Framework   17     The Research Framework and the Farmer   20     Sidebar         System Properties   18 3   RESEARCH PRIORITIES TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE   22     Overcoming Institutional Constraints on Resource Conservation   25     Enhancing Soil Biological Processes   26     Managing Soil Properties   29     Improving Water Resource Management   33     Matching Crops to Environments   37     Incorporating Social and Cultural Dimensions   41     Sidebars         Organic Residues and Soil Acidity Problems   28     Rainwater Harvesting   32

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Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries     Dealing with the Uncertainties of Early Rains   34     Matching Crops to Environments: The Winged Bean   38 4   SUPPORTING AN INTEGRATED RESEARCH STRATEGY   43     Structures to Link Users and Researchers   43     Structures to Link Research Components   45     Mechanisms to Evaluate the Effects of Research   46     Mechanisms to Set Research Priorities   47     Mechanisms to Integrate Data Requirements for Site-Specific Analysis   48     Critical Communications Issues   49     Sidebar     Networks in International Agricultural Research   44 5   CONCLUSIONS   53     REFERENCES   58     Appendixes A   Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   61 B   Acknowledgment of Workshop Participants   63

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Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries

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