2
THE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION INFRASTRUCTURE

The education system is the most effective way to attract people into a career. As noted in its 1991 Strategic Plan, the Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel (OSEP) is concerned about the nature of education infrastructure in the United States, which

has a profound effect on the number and quality of individuals in the science and engineering talent pool. Policies addressing the education infrastructure in the United States are diverse and distributed throughout federal, state and local governments, not to mention the private sector.... NRC and OSEP can make a unique contribution to our understanding of the complex issues to be faced by ... education in the next decade and beyond. While these issues are of interest to many other organizations, few of these other actors effectively link fundamental research with policy formulation. NRC and the broader Academy complex specialize in developing such linkages through its unique committee process.

It is in this linking role that the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering addresses those aspects of the S&E education infrastructure that can increase the participation of women in science and engineering.

Data from the National Center for Education Statistics' National Longitudinal High School Study of the Class of 1972 (NLS-72) and its follow-up studies show that, after expressing an initial interest in S&E studies, individuals often switch to nonscience or nonengineering fields (see, for instance, Burkheimer and Novak, 1981, and Eagle et al., 1988). Many undergraduate S&E majors of both sexes switch to education, law, business, or medicine and other health-related fields for graduate study. For



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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s 2 THE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION INFRASTRUCTURE The education system is the most effective way to attract people into a career. As noted in its 1991 Strategic Plan, the Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel (OSEP) is concerned about the nature of education infrastructure in the United States, which has a profound effect on the number and quality of individuals in the science and engineering talent pool. Policies addressing the education infrastructure in the United States are diverse and distributed throughout federal, state and local governments, not to mention the private sector.... NRC and OSEP can make a unique contribution to our understanding of the complex issues to be faced by ... education in the next decade and beyond. While these issues are of interest to many other organizations, few of these other actors effectively link fundamental research with policy formulation. NRC and the broader Academy complex specialize in developing such linkages through its unique committee process. It is in this linking role that the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering addresses those aspects of the S&E education infrastructure that can increase the participation of women in science and engineering. Data from the National Center for Education Statistics' National Longitudinal High School Study of the Class of 1972 (NLS-72) and its follow-up studies show that, after expressing an initial interest in S&E studies, individuals often switch to nonscience or nonengineering fields (see, for instance, Burkheimer and Novak, 1981, and Eagle et al., 1988). Many undergraduate S&E majors of both sexes switch to education, law, business, or medicine and other health-related fields for graduate study. For

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s example, of those female freshmen enrolling in engineering programs in 1985, 35.6 percent dropped out of engineering during their sophomore year compared with approximately 16 percent of the male freshman engineering majors (Engineering Manpower Commission, 1987). The S&E education infrastructure has both formal and informal mechanisms for attracting and retaining talented and qualified individuals into careers in the sciences and engineering. Forming the backbone of the formal S&E education infrastructure are (1) the institutions providing the education to potential scientists and engineers and (2) the policies and programs providing the financial assistance essential for acquiring that education. Informal aspects of the education infrastructure include the media, parents, role models, and mentors. We discuss below the formal and informal mechanisms that have been developed and the data that indicate their effectiveness. Formal Mechanisms Various studies have shown that females intending to major in science, mathematics, and engineering have higher attrition rates from those fields than their male counterparts. For instance, a 1986 survey revealed that only 44.4 percent of females (compared with 54.2 percent of males) intending to major in one of those fields actually received a degree in them (Tables 8 and 9). Further, an examination of college majors ... demonstrates that females of all races consistently majored in science, engineering, or mathematics less often than males.... White females majored in these fields about half as often

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s TABLE 8: College Major Field of Study of 1980 High School Seniors Who Had Graduated from College by 1986, by Intended Field of Study in High School and by Sex (in percent)   College Graduates, by Major Field of Study     Sex and Intended Field of Study in College in 1980 Total (sample size) SEM* Other All All 1980 High School Seniors Planning to Attend College Males           Total 100.0 (668) 33.9 66.1 100.0 100.0 SEM* 100.0 (230) 54.2 45.8 39.1 31.2 All other fields 100.0 (634) 20.9 79.1 60.9 68.8 Females           Total 100.0 (786) 18.2 81.8 100.0 100.0 SEM* 100.0 (152) 44.4 55.6 18.8 19.6 All other fields 100.0 (634) 12.1 87.9 81.2 80.4 * Science, engineering, and mathematics SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "High School and Beyond" survey, 1986, in Henry A. Gordon, Who Majors in Science? College Graduates in Science, Engineering, or Mathematics from the High School Class of 1980 (NCES 90-658), Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s TABLE 9: 1980 High School Seniors Who Graduated from College by 1986, by Major Field of Study and by Race/Ethnicity and Sex   College Graduates, by Major Field of Study     Sex and Race/Ethnicity Total (sample size) SEM* Other Percentage of All 1986 College Graduates Percentage of All 1980 High School Seniors Males           Total 100.0 (730) 30.8 69.2 100.0 100.0 White 100.0 (491) 31.1 68.9 91.2 79.9 Black 100.0 (114) 26.3 73.7 5. l 10.6 Hispanic 100.0 (125) 29.0 71.1 3.8 9.5 Females           Total 100.0 (868) 16.5 83.6 100.0 100.0 White 100.0 (575) 15.7 84.3 88.5 78.8 Black 100.0 (161) 23.8 76.2 7.8 12.2 Hispanic 100.0 (132) 18.1 81.9 3.7 9.0 * Science, engineering, or mathematics. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "High School and Beyond" survey, 1986, in Henry A. Gordon, Who Majors in Science? College Graduates in Science, Engineering, or Mathematics from the High School Class of 1980 (NCES 90-658), Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s as white males (15.7 percent versus 31.1 percent). Black females, however, majored in science, engineering, or mathematics almost as often as black males (26.3 percent of males versus 23.8 percent of females) (Gordon, 1990; Table 9). The near parity of black females with black males suggests that further study should be done to probe cultural and sociological reasons for this result. Institutions Analyzing the status of women in the S&E education pipeline, one must examine those institutions most effective in producing women scientists and engineers and the programs they have in place to achieve that goal: Ph.D.s: As shown in Table 10, the 10 U.S. doctorate-granting institutions that awarded the most S&E degrees during the past decade are University of California-Berkeley, University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), University of Wisconsin-Madison, Cornell University, Stanford University, University of Minnesota-Minneapolis, Purdue University, University of Michigan, and University of California-Los Angeles. When ranked by S&E Ph.D.s awarded to women, however, their rank order changes dramatically (see Related Tables A and B), and MIT and Purdue are displaced in the top 10 by the Ohio State University and the University of Maryland. These

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s TABLE 10: Top 25 Science and Engineering Doctorate-Granting Institutions, 1980-1990 (all graduates) Institution 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Total 1980-1990 TOTAL, MALE and FEMALE                         Calif, U-Berkeley 540 483 542 519 517 549 563 534 585 658 607 6097 III, U, Urbana-Champ 394 411 358 382 381 442 383 434 444 468 514 4611 Mass Inst Technology 372 384 391 412 389 421 442 436 489 469 478 4683 Wisconsin, U-Madison 400 389 442 398 399 458 413 453 479 485 460 4776 Cornell Univ/NY 330 333 328 355 351 337 371 367 377 395 455 3999 Stanford Univ/CA 327 358 339 308 364 334 393 405 411 412 411 4062 Minnesota, U-Minneapl 291 316 291 275 312 336 381 310 337 360 403 3612 Purdue University/IN 297 326 288 305 308 308 320 300 302 348 383 3485 Michigan, Univ of 292 315 323 376 348 371 348 344 344 335 382 3778 Calif, U-Los Angeles 314 330 310 311 296 296 282 288 363 334 382 3506 Texas, U-Austin 219 228 234 228 227 255 298 330 326 329 367 3041 Ohio State Univ 300 274 305 293 269 323 297 322 307 371 366 3427 Texas A&M University 211 195 180 202 227 221 228 257 253 310 305 2589 Maryland, Univ of 175 172 202 192 209 210 213 220 205 244 301 2343 Michigan State Univ 281 279 305 299 250 240 242 258 268 287 286 2995 Washington, U of 228 231 246 249 237 221 249 262 279 272 283 2757 Penn State Univ 215 233 240 261 243 234 237 251 260 289 282 2745 Florida, Univ of 169 166 142 206 203 216 203 223 236 259 273 2296 Harvard Univ/MA 248 232 244 256 246 205 243 215 242 221 269 2621 NC State U-Raleigh 112 128 168 164 171 175 193 180 210 199 252 1952 Columbia University 228 231 222 197 233 245 219 215 223 254 243 2510 Pennsylvania, U of 201 214 256 217 211 206 202 248 221 272 240 2488 Northwestern Univ/IL 178 184 193 179 188 218 207 211 220 259 234 2271 Calif, U-Davis 233 253 193 276 239 209 229 234 252 247 234 2599 Arizona, Univ of 184 154 179 188 197 182 171 214 225 237 228 2159   SOURCE: National Science Foundation, unpublished data.

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s results may indicate that other universities are taking steps to broaden the supply of female Ph.D.s in S&E fields. Baccalaureate Origins: Many of the same institutions that are successful in retaining female S&E graduate students to completion of doctorates have also provided their undergraduate education in S&E fields. Data from the Doctorate Records File indicate that efforts in this area during the 1985-1990 period were particularly successful at University of California-Berkeley, Cornell University, University of Michigan, University of California-Los Angeles, University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign, and University of Wisconsin-Madison. Joining those institutions to form the top 10 baccalaureate institutions of women who received S&E Ph.D.s during 1985-1990 were Pennsylvania State University, Rutgers University, University of California-Davis, and the University of Pennsylvania. The latter four institutions also awarded 17 percent of the Ph.D.s granted to women in the sciences and engineering by the top 25 institutions between 1985 and 1990. As shown in Table 11, however, the number of doctorates awarded to women who received undergraduate degrees from the same institution varies by field. Data from NCES (1970 +) confirm that women, particularly minority women, are somewhat less likely than men to attend the most prestigious research universities as either undergraduate or graduate students. Availability of Financial Support Financial aid is a very important factor in recruiting and retaining able women in science and engineering. At the undergraduate level, schol-

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s TABLE 11: Top Five Baccalaureate Institutions of Female Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients, by Field of Doctorate, 1985-1990 Physical Science Agriculture Biological Science Psychology Social Science Engineering 1 UC-Berkeley 1 Cornell Univ. 1 Cornell Univ. 1 UC-Los Angeles 1 C-Berkeley 1 Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champlain 2 Cornell Univ. 2 Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champlain 2 UC-Berkeley 2 Univ. of Michigan 2 Univ. of Michigan 2 UC-Berkeley and Purdue Univ. 3 Wellesley College 3 UC-Davis 3 UC-Davis 3 UC-Berkeley 3 UC-Los Angeles 3 Univ. of Michigan and Penn State 4 Univ. of Michigan 4 Michigan State 4 Univ. of Michigan 4 Cornell Univ. 4 Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison 4 Cornell Univ. 5 Rutgers Univ. 5. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison 5 Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champlain 5 Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison 5 Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis 5 Ohio State   SOURCE: National Research Council, Doctoral Records File, unpublished data.

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s arships to women for S&E studies often reinforce recruitment efforts (NSF, 1990b; Moran, 1986). Furthermore, undergraduate women are encouraged to continue their S&E studies because they know that financial support will be available for continued studies at the graduate level. At the graduate level, recruitment is strongly tied to the availability of financial support (see, for instance, Anderson, 1990), and retention requires consistent, continuing support. However, women do not receive the same kinds and levels of financial aid as their male counterparts in science and engineering (Table 12), and this may inhibit their entry. An increase in the probability that women students will receive financial support could yield significant increases in female participation in the undergraduate and graduate student segments of the pipeline (Coyle, 1986). Research indicates that women who are offered financial aid at the beginning of their undergraduate education are more likely to continue their studies in the sciences and engineering (Rosenfeld and Hearn, 1982). In addition, needy students, those who cannot afford to complete their education without interruption to earn more money, may require special alternatives such as part-time or continuing education programs, perhaps developed in cooperation with industry. The availability of sustained financial aid when needed by students later in their undergraduate education is also important for retention (Connelly and Porter, 1978). Variations in Ph.D. attainment rates by S&E field are highly correlated with the availability of financial support (Tuckman et al., 1990). Some universities have responded favorably to this finding: Yale University, for instance, has decreased the use of teaching assistants (TAs) but now encourages graduate students to earn Ph.D.s more rapidly by

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s TABLE 12: Percentage Distribution of Primary Sources of Support of Doctorate Recipients, by Sex and Broad Field, 1989 Source/Gender Year Total Fields Phys. Scncs. Engng. Life Scncs. Social Scncs. Human. Prof/Educ. Other Personal                   Men 1989 34.1 13.7 15.3 22.3 49.1 48.0 74.6 53.5 Women 1989 51.1 13.0 12.5 27.3 59.5 48.0 77.6 57.2 Federal, Non-R.A.                   Men 1989 5.3 4.1 4.1 13.0 4.0 2.3 2.7 2.1 Women 1989 5.7 4.3 10.4 15.1 5.2 1.5 1.9 1.3 R.A., Fed. & Univ.                   Men 1989 27.2 45.4 49.7 34.4 9.2 1.5 3.0 7.2 Women 1989 15.1 42.8 50.5 30.8 8.5 1.5 3.8 9.2 Teaching Assistant                   Men 1989 17.5 25.9 12.1 10.9 21.7 31.5 5.9 21.2 Women 1989 15.7 29.5 10.0 11.8 14.6 35.4 6.4 19.1 Fellowship                   Men 1989 6.0 4.7 4.7 7.7 7.6 11.3 2.4 4.9 Women 1989 6.0 4.9 9.7 8.1 7.1 9.1 2.4 5.2 Other Sources                   Men 1989 9.9 6.2 14.1 11.6 8.4 5.4 11.3 11.1 Women 1989 6.4 5.4 6.9 6.8 5.2 4.4 7.7 8.0   SOURCE: Delores H. Thurgood and Joanne M. Weinman, Summary Report 1989 Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990.

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s offering them fellowships to finish their dissertations (Cheney, 1990). However, it was pointed out to the committee that The graduate education process is evolving into a system serving the needs of the faculty and institution at the expense of the needs of the graduate student population. The shrinking availability of research funds accelerates this process, further compromising the quality of the graduate experience. All graduate students are adversely affected, but women in graduate programs are especially impacted because of their traditional lack of assertiveness.... Their dependency on a major advisor for financial support may force them to endure misuse or abuse: long hours in the laboratory, excessive teaching responsibilities, extended stays in the graduate program (Mulnix, 1990). Table 12 shows that women graduate students in the life sciences and the social sciences are more likely than men to be self-supporting and less likely, in general, to be funded as either TAs or research assistants (RAs). Thus, relative to men, women overall are more likely to be deprived of research time and important opportunities for interaction with peers and faculty. The extent to which these problems occur varies by field and by race/ethnicity. In this context, OSEP examined the numbers of women applying for and receiving graduate fellowships in the programs it administers for NSF. These fellowships are highly selective and prestigious and are generally regarded as early indicators of future success. Although women in general have received about one-third of those awards, primarily in the earth, biomedical, biological, and behavioral science same fields in which most women apply (Tables 13 and 14; see also Related Tables C, D, E, and F)—the percentage of awards to women has increased steadily since 1985. Overall, the proportion of women receiving NSF graduate fellowships is lower than among men, though it appears to vary

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s TABLE 13: NSF Graduate Fellowship Program Applications and Awards, by Sex, 1985 and 1991 Discipline 1985 1991 1985 1991   M W M W M W M W   Total Applicants Total Awards N 2776 1614 4145 3201 362 178 556 394 % 63.2 36.8 56.4 43.6 67.0 33.0 58.5 41.5 Biochem* 246 167 276 256 32 16 31 31 59.6 40.4 51.9 48.1 66.7 33.3 50.0 50.0 Biology 298 274 369 432 32 40 40 53 52.1 42.9 46.1 53.9 44.4 55.6 43.0 57.0 Chemistry 219 118 272 174 32 9 41 16 65.0 35.0 61.0 39.0 78.0 22.0 71.9 28.1 Earth Sci 151 88 116 124 20 9 13 16 63.2 36.8 48.3 51.7 69.0 31.0 44.8 55.2 Appl Math/ Statistics 80 39 100 87 14 1 18 4 67.2 32.8 53.5 46.5 93.3 6.7 81.8 18.2 Mathematics 105 43 132 90 19 1 22 10 70.9 29.1 59.5 40.5 95.0 5.0 68.8 31.2 Physics and Astronomy 309 44 404 99 39 6 57 13 87.5 12.5 80.3 19.7 86.7 13.3 81.4 18.6 Behavioral Sciences** 397 436 627 780 50 50 92 89 47.7 52.3 44.6 55.4 50.0 50.0 50.8 49.2 Biomedical Sciences 154 208 195 311 15 28 23 30 42.5 57.5 38.5 61.5 42.5 57.5 43.4 56.6 Computer Science 182 54 282 67 27 3 40 5 77.1 22.9 80.8 19.2 90.0 10.0 88.9 11.1 Engineering 635 143 1280 692 82 15 179 127 81.6 18.4 64.9 35.1 84.5 15.5 58.5 41.5 * Includes biochemistry, biophysics, and molecular biology. ** Prior to 1991,this field included psychology, economics, and sociology. Bemuse the disaggregation of behavioral sciences——into (1) anthropology, sociology, and linguistics; (2) economics, urban planning, and history of science; (3) political science, international relations, and geography; and (4) psychology——did not occur until 1991,a single category is used here. SOURCE: Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s TABLE 14: NSF Minority Graduate Fellowship Program Applications and Awards, by Sex, 1985 and 1991 Discipline 1985 1991   Men Women Men Women Total Applicants         N 298 305 595 644 % 49.4 50.6 48.0 52.0 Biosciences* 62 79 93 158 44.0 56.0 37.1 62.9 Chemistry/ Earth Science Phys/Astron/ Math 27 22 48 41 55.1 44.9 53.9 46.1 37 32 82 56 53.6 46.4 59.4 40.6 Behavioral Science** 68 116 113 207 37.0 63.0 35.3 64.7 Engineering 65 35 172 119 65.0 35.0 59.1 40.9 Total Awards         N 39 21 87 63 % 65.0 35.0 58.0 42.0 Biosciences* 10 5 16 13 66.7 33.3 55.2 44.8 Chemistry/ Earth Science Phys/Astron/ Math 2 2 4 4 50.0 50.0 50.0   6 1 9 8 85.7 14.3 52.9 47.1 Behavioral Science** 12 11 18 21 52.2 47.8 46.2 53.8 Engineering 9 2 40 17 81.8 18.2 70.2 29.8 * Includes biology, biochemistry, biophysics, and biomedical science. ** Includes anthropology, sociology, and linguistics; economies, urban planning, and history of science; political science, international relations, and geography; and psychology. SOURCE: Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s unpredictably from one field to another and from year to year. Women applicants fare particularly poorly in the fields of computer science, applied mathematics/statistics, and physics/astronomy. Until 1991, when they received 31 percent of the awards in mathematics, women received less than 18 percent of the graduate fellowships in that field. Informal Mechanisms Informal efforts to recruit women into S&E fields typically: address the negative public image of scientists and engineers and of science and engineering; encourage precollege interest of young women in S&E majors and careers; involve parents and peers; and as in formal programs, provide opportunities for female students to interact with scientists and engineers in academe, industry, and government who serve as role models and mentors. Research on retention of both men and women in undergraduate S&E programs indicates that effective programs include the following: orientation programs for freshmen, remedial courses, career seminars, educational and career counseling, peer tutoring, research opportunities, cooperative and summer job programs, campus chapters of professional organizations such as the Society of Women Engineers, recognition awards and events, and exit interviews with graduating seniors. Successful retention programs, such as Purdue University's Women in Engineering Program and the Women in Science Program of Rutgers University's

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s Douglass College, have used two other intervention actions that can affect retention of women in S&E majors: the use of professional counselors with training both ill the special problems faced by undergraduate women in traditionally ''masculine'' fields of study and in specific counseling strategies that can increase women's persistence in these fields; and interactions with industrial scientists and engineers in order to enhance the motivation of beginning S&E students (LeBold, 1987). Two additional factors affecting undergraduate retention were noted in the National Engineering Career Development Study: academic performance during the freshman year; and self-perceptions of math, science, and problem-solving ability (Shell et al., 1985). These same factors could also be applicable to undergraduate science majors. The Role of The Media In order to recruit male or female students into science and engineering, those fields must be perceived as positive career choices (MacCorquodale, 1984). However, a number of recent studies in various developed counties suggest that science and engineering, in general, have an "image problem." When students and adults are asked about their image of scientists and engineers, not only are science and engineering strongly viewed as traditionally masculine fields of study, but in most cases scientists and engineers are pictured as "mad" scientists and perpetrators of destruction (Kahle and Matyas, 1987).

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s The positive benefits of S&E research and development have not been the primary focus of the public image, nor have science and engineering generally been viewed by the public as ennobling careers (OTA, 1988; NAS, 1989). Even a cursory glance at popular television and print materials (such as comic books) suggests that the popular media do little to change this public image and can have an important negative influence on students' images of science and engineering and of scientists and engineers. The potential for using popular media in recruitment strategies remains largely untapped (Task Force, 1988). Parental Guidance A study by the American Association for the Advancement of Science found that most of the most effective precollege programs to increase females' participation in science and mathematics involve parents in some way (Malcom, 1983). Parents play an important role in influencing the initial career choices of all students, but especially those of young women. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of programs and materials informing parents about the importance of science and mathematics education for their children, girls as well as boys, and guiding parents on how to assist their children in career choices in these areas. Role Models and Mentors Research indicates that students, both male and female, are influenced by role models and faculty members (see, for instance, Nagy and Cunningham, 1990). Opportunities to interact with S&E personnel have

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s long been central to "career day" and other precollege programs designed to spark young women's interests in S&E careers.2 As John F. Welch, Jr. (1991), chairman and chief executive officer of the General Electric Company, wrote recently: Corporate volunteers can guide America's students toward a world of work, study, and achievement.... GE volunteers and their counterparts at a few other companies have proved that social and economic upward mobility——the glue that holds us all together——can be restored. American nightmares [about inability to compete in the global marketplace] can be changed into American dreams. Undergraduate women in science and engineering have been effectively used to recruit high school students, and women graduate students have successfully served as recruiters of women undergraduates in science and engineering (Hall and Sandler, 1983). At present, however, female S&E faculty role models are most likely to be found among the untenured junior faculty and, therefore, are not generally available for significant time commitments to recruiting and other activities involving greater interactions with students (Cheney, 1990). Recruitment of women students at a given institution would be enhanced by the presence of women faculty at all ranks, a signal to women students that they will be respected and treated fairly. The presence of women faculty at junior ranks only or in adjunct or off-ladder status signals the opposite (Sandler, 1986). However, many top graduate departments in science and engineering still 2 For descriptions of some of these programs, see Sandra L. Keith and Philip Keith, eds., Proceedings of the National Conference on Women in Mathematics and the Sciences (St. Cloud, Minn.: St. Cloud State University, 1990).

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s have no tenured women faculty, which gives an even more negative signal (see, for instance, Selvin, 1991). Undergraduate women and men at large research universities are negatively affected by the frequent lack of interactions with the research-oriented faculty in their departments (Smith, 1990). Many highly talented students may not be receiving adequate encouragement to pursue graduate study. Such a phenomenon would affect women more than men, bemuse women are usually less plugged into the network (Mulnix, 1990). In response, some institutions encourage women S&E faculty members to act as role models and mentors for undergraduate and graduate women in their departments (Malcom, 1983). Institutions address this issue through formal programs that (1) sensitize faculty to the needs of women students, (2) follow the progress of women students throughout their enrollment period, and (3) promote mentoting between undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral women in science and engineering. Examples of programs that seem effective are the Illinois Institute of Technology's Women's Mentoring Organization and the University of Chicago's Mellon Instructorships, which "offer new Ph.D.s the opportunity to work with mentors teaching in the common core (Cheney, 1990), as well as the University of Washington's Women in Engineering Initiative. Institutional Factors Attrition from S&E majors is seldom related only to academic talent and achievement, especially for women (Roby, 1973; LeBold, 1987; Hall, 1982; Sandler, 1986). As Cavanaugh (1990) noted, Women often "drop out" of science in graduate school or

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s even after starting their careers. The major factor is the climate of the workplace, with its competitiveness, subtle forms of sexual harassment, off-track assignments or limited responsibilities, and lack of encouragement. Add to this lower salaries and promotion rates, inappropriate responses to reproductive hazards, and lack of provision for child-care and the difficulties of staying in science become obvious. In addition to formal barriers and overt discrimination, women completing studies in traditionally masculine fields often encounter subtle forms of discrimination called "micro-inequities" (Hall, 1982; Ehrhard and Sandler, 1987) that contribute to an unsupportive "campus climate." On an incident-by-incident basis, micro-inequities appear to be insignificant, but collectively they make an important and significant difference in the collegiate experience of men and women. For example, women who try to participate in classroom discussion are ignored or interrupted more frequently than men by both faculty and male students; their questions are more often treated as trivial by faculty; and they are frequent targets of ''good-natured" derogatory humor (Sandler, 1986; Mulnix, 1990). Anecdotal evidence also indicates that faculty, teaching assistants, and graduate students from certain cultures are less accustomed to the presence of female students in the classroom and laboratory and may discriminate against women students either consciously or unconsciously.3 However, the 3 This issue was a topic of much discussion at the conference, "Women in Science and Engineering: Changing Vision to Reality," of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, July 29-31, 1987, and at meetings of the National Research Council's Committee on the International Exchange and Movement of Engineers [see National Research Council, Foreign and Foreign-Born Engineers in the United States: Infusing Talent, Raising Issues, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1988, and Engineering Education and Practice in the United States, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1985]. Although a recurrent theme during subse

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s Committee knows of no research undertaken to determine how common this phenomenon is or how to combat it. Many academic institutions are unaware of the successful activities by other institutions to create a supportive campus climate. Besides programs mentioned earlier, these include data collection and analysis from each department on the participation and advancement of women at the undergraduate, graduate, and faculty levels. The campus climate for women is also enhanced by on-campus branches of professional societies——such as the Society of Physics Students, Chicanos in the Health Sciences, and the Society of Women Engineers——that promote interactions between S&E professionals and students and shepherd women students into professional careers. Priority Issues Policies affecting the S&E education infrastructure are diverse, and many groups——public and private alike——have placed high priority on developing programs to increase the number and quality of women entering science and engineering careers. After some discussion, we have concluded that an effective role for the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering in this area will be: stimulating data collection, to assess the effectiveness of   quent meetings of various professional scientific organizations, this issue has not yet been studied in depth.

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Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing their Numbers in the 1990s educational programs that have been introduced formally over the years; examining data on science majors graduating from historically black undergraduate colleges and universities, to determine the effectiveness of HBCUs in preparing those graduates for S&E careers; specifying those features of effective programs developed in one institution that can be duplicated in another; collecting data in order to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of college admissions policies in newly coeducational institutions, some of which are major sources of future S&E Ph.D.s and which may routinely establish quotas for admitting women and racial/ethnic minorities; studying the career differences of men and women S&E doctorates, by discipline, with reference to their education; developing techniques to disseminate information to academic administrators on the importance of role models and mentors in the undergraduate and graduate S&E infrastructure, pointing out institutional mechanisms that are effective in producing S&E doctorates; examining the incentives (financial support, etc.) available for potential S&E majors; conducting regional and/or national conferences on the effective partnerships in science and engineering between academe, industry, and government; and planning strategic "awareness" sessions for decision makers in the print and visual media in order to eradicate the negative image of science and engineering in society.

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