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PREPUBLICATION COPY Summary of a Workshop on Mississippi River Water Quality Science and Interstate Collaboration THIS PREPUBLICATION VERSION has been provided to facilitate timely access to the committee’s findings. Although the substance of the report is final, editorial changes may be made throughout the text prior to publication. The final report will be available through the National Academies press in summer 2014.

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Summary of a Workshop on Mississippi River Water Quality Science and Interstate Collaboration Committee on Mississippi River Water Quality Science and Interstate Collaboration Water Science and Technology Board Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu P R E P U B L I C A T I O N C O P Y

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this study was provided by the McKnight Foundation under Grant No. 12-398; the National Research Council Day Fund; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service under Grant No. 68-3A75-13-50; and the Walton Family Foundation under Grant No. 2012-1149. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organi- zations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: X-XXX-XXX-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: X-XXX-XXXXX-X Cover credit: XXX Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; Inter- net, http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America P R E P U B L I C A T I O N C O P Y

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distin- guished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autono- mous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Acade- my of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to se- cure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and educa- tion. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of fur- thering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org P R E P U B L I C A T I O N C O P Y

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COMMITTEE ON MISSISSIPPI RIVER WATER QUALITY SCIENCE AND INTERSTATE COLLABORATION DAVID A. DZOMBAK, Chair, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JAMES B. GULLIFORD, Soil and Water Conservation Society, Ankeny, Iowa DAVID J. MULLA, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis DAVID M. SOBALLE, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Mississippi NRC Staff JEFFREY JACOBS, Director, Water Science and Technology Board MICHAEL J. STOEVER, Research Associate, Water Science and Technology Board v P R E P U B L I C A T I O N C O P Y

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION Mississippi River Basin Water Quality and the Effects of Nutrients The Science of Nutrients and Water Quality 2 WORKSHOP TOPICS AND PRESENTATIONS USDA Healthy Watersheds Initiative Mississippi River Water Quality Monitoring and Science: Federal and State Perspectives Assessing Water Quality Conditions within the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Task Force: Federal and State Perspectives State-level Science and Monitoring of Nutrients and Water Quality Mississippi River Interstate Collaboration and State-level Monitoring and Assessment Monitoring and Evaluating Water Quality: Methods and Uncertainties in Moving from Field to Watershed Scales Case Studies of Agriculture and Water Quality Monitoring Across the Mississippi River basin 3 CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVING WATER QUALITY MONITORING Action-Oriented Monitoring and Evaluation Importance of Long-term Monitoring, Consistent Methods, and Complementary Data Tracking Changes in Land Management Landowner Perceptions and Conservation Practices Importance of Modeling in Monitoring Programs, and Development Needs Interstate and Interagency Collaboration on Monitoring Pilot Projects REFERENCES APPENDICES A Meeting Agenda B Acknowledgement of Reviewers C Committee Member Biographical Information vii P R E P U B L I C A T I O N C O P Y

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