ing frequency of monitoring (daily, monthly, continuous, etc.); time of day; monitoring during, or after, storms; appropriate locations and depths to be monitored; and appropriate balance of samples from, for example, a river’s main channel and slower-velocity backwater areas. Moreover, and with regard to nutrient effects on downstream waters, statistically significant effects may not be measured for years or even decades. In addition, data needs for regulatory activities, such as TMDL assessments, and other uses such as contaminant fate and transport modeling, often need to be considered in designing monitoring programs.

Numerous federal, state, local, and private sector programs and activities have been established and are devoted to monitoring, evaluating, and modeling of water quality, and the effects of nutrients across the Mississippi River basin. All these activities of course have varying mandates, missions, and activities but portions of these programs are devoted to managing water quality and the implications of nutrient loads.

The following chapter includes summaries of presentations and discussions at the workshop, and text boxes that summarize two luncheon presentations. The report’s final chapter summarizes priorities and future opportunities in water quality monitoring, modeling, and evaluation as identified by workshop participants.

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