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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

Support for this study was provided by the McKnight Foundation under Grant No. 12-398; the National Research Council Day Fund; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service under Grant No. 68-3A75-13-50; and the Walton Family Foundation under Grant No. 2012-1149. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-30484-9
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-30484-9

Cover credit: Photo courtesy of Michael E. Slifer, Director, USGS Missouri Water Science Center, Rolla, MO.

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