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B Methodological Notes About the Public Opinion Data RESEARCH ORGANIZATION/SPONSOR NAME ABBREVIATIONS ANES American National Election Studies AP Associated Press AP/IPSOS Ipsos Associated Press Polls Gallup The Gallup Organization GSS National Opinion Research Center General Social Survey HI Harris Interactive LSAY Longitudinal Study of American Youth NSF Surveys of Public National Science Foundation Surveys of Public Attitudes Toward and Attitudes Understanding of Science and Technology ORC ORC Macro Pew Pew Research Center for People and the Press WSJ The Wall Street Journal SURVEY QUESTIONS The survey questions referred to in Chapter 3 are listed in this section by topic and in the order in which they appear in the chapter. Interest and the Attentive Public Figure 3.1 1981-2000: NSF Surveys of Public Attitudes 2003-2007: Science News Study 2008-2009: ANES Panel Interest in Space There are a lot of issues in the news, and it is hard to keep up with every area. I’m going to read you a short list of issues, and for each one I would like you to tell me if you are very interested, moderately interested, or not at all interested. [Space exploration] Being Well Informed about Space For each issue I’d like you to tell me if you are very well informed, moderately well informed, or poorly informed. [Space exploration] PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION B-1

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Attentiveness to Space The measure of attentiveness was created based on (1) a high level of interest in space exploration, (2) a sense of being well informed about space exploration, and (3) a minimal regular pattern of national news consumption. A minimal pattern of news consumption was defined as doing any one of the following: reading a newspaper in print or online “a few times a week” or “everyday;” reading a news magazine “regularly, that is most issues;” reading a science magazine “regularly, that is most issues;” reading a health magazine “regularly, that is most issues;” watching network or cable television news three or more days a week; reading news online three or more days a week. The computations in the 1980s did not include the online option for newspapers or online news. The NSF Surveys of Public Attitudes were conducted by phone by the Public Opinion Laboratory at Northern Illinois University from 1981 through 1999, and by ORC Macro in 2001 and 2003. Since 2005, the National Opinion Research Center has collected the data as part of the GSS by in-person interview. The 2007-8 Science News Study and 2008 ANES Panel were conducted by Knowledge Networks using an online national probability sample. Other Interest Questions GSS 2012. In-person interview, n=1,974. There are a lot of issues in the news, and it is hard to keep up with every area. I’m going to read you a short list of issues, and for each one -- as I read it -- I would like you to tell me if you are very interested, moderately interested, or not. [Issues about space exploration]. Support for Spending Pew 10/13. Telephone interview, conducted by Abt SRBI, n=1,504. Now I would like to ask you about some parts of the government. Is your overall opinion of [The National Aeronautic and Space Administration, NASA] very favorable, mostly favorable, mostly unfavorable, or very unfavorable? Gallup 8/06. On behalf of the Space Foundation, Telephone interview, n=1,000. NASA’S budget request this year is under one percent of the federal budget which would amount to approximately $58 per year for the average citizen. Do you think the nation should continue to fund space exploration at this current level, a slightly increased level, at a significantly increased level, at a slightly decreased level, at a significantly decreased level, or not fund at all? GSS, annually between 1972-1978, 1980, 1982-1991, 1993; every other year 1994-2012. In-person interview, telephone interview in later years, Sample size varied. We are faced with many problems in this country, none of which can be solved easily or inexpensively. I’m going to name some of these problems, and for each one I’d like you to name some of these problems, and for each one I’d like you to tell me whether you think we’re spending too much money on it, too little money, or about the right amount. First [the space exploration program] . . . are we spending too much, too little, or about the right amount on [the space exploration program]? Pew 1/04. Telephone interview, n=1,503. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION B-2

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I’d like to ask you some questions about priorities for President (George W.) Bush and Congress this year (2004). As I read from a list, tell me if you think the item I read should be a top priority, important but lower priority, not too important, or should it not be done? Should [expanding America’s space program] be a top priority, important but lower priority, not too important, or should it not be done? The Apollo Program Gallup 5/61. Telephone interview, n=1,545. It has been estimated that it would cost the United States 40 billion dollars--or an average of about $225 per person--to send a man to the moon. Would you like to see this amount spent for this purpose, or not? HI 7/67. Telephone interview, n=1,250. It could cost the United States $4 billion a year for the next few years to finally put a man on the moon and to explore other planets and outer space. All in all, do you feel the space program is worth spending that amount of money or do you feel it isn’t worth it? Gallup 2/67. Telephone interview, n=2,344. In your opinion, do you think it is important or is not important to try to send a man to the moon before Russia does? CBS/NYT 7/79, CBS/NYT 6/94, CBS 7/09. Telephone interview, 1979: n=1,192; 1994: n=978; 2009: n=944. (X number of) years ago, the United States spent a great deal of time, effort and money to land men on the moon. Looking back now, do you think that effort was worth it, or not? International Space Stations and Space Shuttle NSF Surveys of Public Attitudes, 1988, 1992, 1997, 1999. Telephone interview conducted by ORC Macro, 1988: n=2,041, 1992: n=2,001, 1997: n=2,000, 1999: n=1,882. The American space program should build a space station large enough to house scientific and manufacturing experiments. Do you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree? CBS/NYT 1/87, 1/88, 10/88. Telephone interview, 1987: n=1,590; 1988: n=1,663; 1988 n=1,530. Given the costs and risks involved in space exploration, do you think the space shuttle is worth continuing, or not? CBS 12/93, 8/99, 7/05. Telephone interview, 1993: n=892; 1999: n=1,165; 2005: n=1,222. Given the costs and risks involved in space exploration, do you think the space shuttle is worth continuing, or not? NBC/AP 10/81, NBC/AP 11/82; NBC/WSJ 10/85; NBC/WSJ 6/86; Pew 6/11. Computer assisted telephone interview.1981: n=1,598; 1982: n=1,583; 1985: n=1,573; 1986: n=1,599; 2011: n=1,502. Do you think the space shuttle program has been a good investment for this country, or don’t you think so? PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION B-3

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(Between 1981-1986 the question read: Do you think the space shuttle program in a good investment…) CBS/NYT 7/79, CBS/NYT 6/94, CBS 8/99, CBS 7/09. Telephone interview, 1979: n=1,192; 1994: n=978; 1999: n=1,165; 2009: n=944. (X number of) years ago, the United States spent a great deal of time, effort and money to land men on the moon. Looking back now, do you think that effort was worth it, or not? Mars CBS/NYT 6/94, CBS 7/97, CBS 8/99, CBS/NYT 1/04, CBS 7/09. Telephone interview, 1994: n=978, 1997: n=1,042, 1999: n=1,165, 2004: n=1,022, 2009 n=944. Would you favor or oppose the United States sending astronauts to explore Mars? Gallup 7/69, 7/99, 6/05. Telephone interview, 1969: n=1,555; 1999: n=1,061; 2005 n=1,009. There has been much discussion about attempting to land an astronaut on the planet Mars. How would you feel about such an attempt--would you favor or oppose the United States setting aside money for such a project? AP/IPSOS 1/04. Telephone interview, n=1,000. Version 1: As you may have heard, the United States is considering expanding the space program by building a permanent space station on the Moon with a plan to eventually send astronauts to Mars. Considering all the potential costs and benefits, do you favor or oppose expanding the space program this way or do you oppose it? Version 2: As you may have heard, the Bush administration is considering expanding the space program by building a permanent space station on the Moon with a plan to eventually send astronauts to Mars. Considering all the potential costs and benefits, do you favor expanding the space program this way or do you oppose it? Human Versus Robotic Missions Gallup/CNN/USA 2/03. Telephone interview, n=1,000. Some people feel the U.S. space program should concentrate on unmanned missions like Voyager 2, which send back information from space. Others say the U.S. should concentrate on maintaining a manned space program like the space shuttle. Which comes closer to your view? AP/IPSOS 1/04. Telephone interview, n=1,000. Some have suggested that space exploration on the Moon and Mars would be more affordable using robots than sending humans to do the exploration. Would you rather see exploration of the Moon and Mars done by robots or with human astronauts? In light of the space shuttle accident last February, in which seven astronauts were killed, do you think the United States should or should not continue to send humans into space? NASA’s Role, International Collaboration, and Commercial Firms Pew 6/11. Telephone interview, n=1,502. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION B-4

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In your view, is it essential or not essential that the United States continue to be a world leader in space exploration? Time/Yankelovich 1/88. Telephone interview, n= 957. How important do you think it is for this country to be the leading nation in space exploration-- very important, somewhat important, or not important at all? AP/IPSOS 1/04. Telephone interview, n= 1,000. How important do you think it is for this country to be the leading nation in space exploration-- very important, somewhat important, or not important at all? CNN/ORC 7/11. Telephone interview, n=1,009. How important do you think it is for the United States to be ahead of Russia in space exploration-- very important, fairly important, or not too important? Gallup 6/61. In person interview, n=1,625. How important do you think it is for the United States to be ahead of Russia in space exploration-- very important, fairly important, or not too important? Gallup 3/06. Telephone interview, n=1,001. A number of Asian and European countries now have space programs of their own or have announced plans for space activities and exploration. As more countries embark on space programs, how concerned are you that the US will lose its leadership in space? Gallup 4/08. Telephone interview, n=1,000. Both China and the US have announced plans to send astronauts to the moon. China has announced plans to send astronauts to the moon by 2017 and the US has announced plans to send astronauts to the moon by 2018, a year later. To what extent, if any, are you concerned that China would become the new leader in space exploration or take the lead over the US? Time/Yankelovich, 1/88. Telephone interview, n= 957. Do you think it would be a good idea or a bad idea for the United States and the Soviet Union to undertake cooperative efforts in space--such as going to Mars? HI 7/97. Telephone interview, n=1,002. (Would you favor or oppose the following?)...Joint space missions involving Americans, Russians and people from other countries. CBS 7/97. Telephone interview, n=1,042. In general, do you think the US should work with Russia on space missions, or not? Gallup 4/08. Telephone interview conducted for the Coalition on Space Exploration, n=1,000. As you may know the US space shuttles will retire in 2010. The first launch of the Constellation Program is scheduled for 2015, leaving a five-year gap between 2010, the space shuttle’s last scheduled mission, and the first schedule launch of the Constellation Program. During the five- year period America will need to access the International Space Station through the Russian Space Agency who would ferry crew members to the Station. How concerned are you that the US will not have direct access to the Space Station during these five years? PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION B-5

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Yankelovich 12/97. Telephone interview conducted for The Boeing Company, n=1,510. Some people believe that the space program should be funded and manned by private business, while others believe it should be funded and managed by the federal government. Which of these opinions do you agree with more? CNN/ORC 7/11. Telephone interview, n=1,009. In general, do you think the US (United States) should rely more on the government or more on private companies to run the country’s manned space missions in the future? Rationales for Space Exploration CBS/NYT 6/94. Telephone interview, n=978. What do you think is the best reason for exploring space? (open ended question) Gallup 6/04. Telephone interview conducted for the Space Foundation, n=1,000. What do you think is the main reason why America continues to explore space?: It is human nature to explore, to maintain our status as an international leader in space, to provide benefits on earth, to keep our nation safe, it inspires us and motivates our children, or some other reason? Pew 6/11. Telephone interview, n=1,502. Thinking about the space program more generally, how much does the U.S. space program contribute to: Scientific advances that all Americans can use? This country’s national pride and patriotism? Encouraging people’s interest in science and technology? Gallup 6/04. Telephone interview, n=1,000. How much do you agree or disagree with this statement? ‘The quality of our daily lives has benefited from the knowledge and technology that have come from our nation’s space program. Gallup 5/05. Telephone interview, n=1,001. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements: America’s space program helps give America the scientific and technological edge it needs to compete with other nations in the international marketplace. America’s space program benefits the nation’s economy by inspiring students to pursue careers in technical fields. Gallup 4/08. Telephone interview, n=1,000. To what extent do you agree or disagree that the scientific, technical and other benefits of space exploration are worth the risks of human space flight? To what extent do you believe America’s space program inspires young people to consider an education in science, technology, math, or engineering fields? Correlates of Support for Space Exploration LSAY, 1987, 1988, 1989, 2008, 2011. Self-administered questionnaire, 1987: n=4,491, 1988: n=3,708, 1989: n=3,191; 2008: n=2,568; 2011: n=3,154. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION B-6

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There are a lot of issues discussed in the news and it is hard to keep up with every area. For each issue area listed below, please indicate how interested and informed you are about that issue. [Space exploration] PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION B-7