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E Frequency Distributions of Responses to the Stakeholder Survey by Respondent Group Stakeholder groups: 1 = Economic/Industry 4 = Other scientists and engineers 7 = Space writers and science popularizers 2 = Space scientists and engineers 5 = Higher education 8 = Space advocates 3 = Young space scientists and engineers 6 = Security/defense/foreign policy What do you consider to be the main reasons for space exploration in general? Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Knowledge and scientific 64 64 157 81.8 68 78.2 185 77.7 222 78.2 57 82.6 39 75 32 72.7 814 77.5 understanding Technological advances 45 45 61 31.8 39 44.8 63 26.5 103 36.3 20 29 17 32.7 24 54.6 369 35.1 Human economic activity 16 16 15 7.81 17 19.5 16 6.72 38 13.4 8 11.6 5 9.62 4 9.09 116 11 beyond Earth Future settlements in space 11 11 13 6.77 16 18.4 9 3.78 23 8.1 4 5.8 6 11.5 6 13.6 86 8.18 Commercial space travel 0 0 0 0 1 1.15 1 0.42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.19 International cooperation 6 6 12 6.25 3 3.45 2 0.84 5 1.76 1 1.45 2 3.85 1 2.27 30 2.85 National security 7 7 12 6.25 2 2.3 14 5.88 6 2.11 3 4.35 3 5.77 2 4.55 49 4.66 U.S. prestige 15 15 17 8.85 3 3.45 14 5.88 13 4.58 5 7.25 3 5.77 4 9.09 72 6.85 Careers in science, technology, 8 8 13 6.77 7 8.05 8 3.36 10 3.52 7 10.1 3 5.77 1 2.27 56 5.33 math and engineering Basic human drive to explore 36 36 63 32.8 31 35.6 63 26.5 92 32.4 20 29 16 30.8 25 56.8 337 32.1 new frontiers Search for signs of life 3 3 7 3.65 11 12.6 6 2.52 14 4.93 5 7.25 3 5.77 3 6.82 52 4.95 Prevent threats from space 1 1 5 2.6 4 4.6 6 2.52 9 3.17 3 4.35 0 0 3 6.82 31 2.95 Other 12 12 22 11.5 7 8.05 14 5.88 20 7.04 5 7.25 1 1.92 7 15.9 86 8.18 None/No compelling reason 0 0 1 0.52 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2.27 2 0.19 for human space exploration PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-1

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What do you consider to be the main reason against space exploration in general? Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Cost in absolute sense 37 38.5 72 42.1 45 52.3 93 41 141 52.4 31 45.6 24 47.1 7 17.5 442 44.5 Cost in a relative sense 36 37.5 64 37.4 34 39.5 97 42.7 88 32.7 29 42.7 13 25.5 14 35 369 37.2 Lack of clarity about goals or 8 8.33 10 5.85 8 9.3 5 2.2 9 3.35 5 7.35 3 5.88 3 7.5 50 5.04 benefits Risks 6 6.25 5 2.92 10 11.6 15 6.61 15 5.58 1 1.47 3 5.88 1 2.5 56 5.64 Private sector could do it 3 3.13 2 1.17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1.96 0 0 6 0.6 better Other 7 7.29 9 5.26 7 8.14 15 6.61 15 5.58 7 10.3 4 7.84 8 20 71 7.15 None/No compelling reason 15 15.6 28 16.4 9 10.5 30 13.2 36 13.4 8 11.8 13 25.5 12 30 149 15 against human space exploration What do you consider to be the main reasons for human space exploration? Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Knowledge and scientific 30 32.3 53 28.8 27 31 67 29.4 65 24.1 23 34.3 14 26.4 11 24.4 283 28 understanding Technological advances 20 21.5 24 13 17 19.5 19 8.33 38 14.1 9 13.4 3.77 10 22.2 137 13.5 2 Human economic activity 5 5.38 8 4.35 9 10.3 6 2.63 8 2.96 4 5.97 5 9.43 5 11.1 50 4.94 beyond Earth Future settlements in space 13 14 36 19.6 26 29.9 25 11 45 16.7 15 22.4 10 18.9 17 37.8 183 18.1 Commercial space travel 0 0 2 1.09 0 0 1 0.44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0.3 International cooperation 3 3.23 8 4.35 2 2.3 2 0.88 4 1.48 3 4.48 0 0 0 0 20 1.98 National security 2 2.15 5 2.72 1 1.15 4 1.75 1 0.37 1 1.49 1 1.89 1 2.22 16 1.58 U.S. prestige 11 11.8 27 14.7 5 5.75 11 4.82 15 5.56 7 10.5 1 1.89 3 6.67 78 7.71 Careers in science, technology, 11 11.8 16 8.7 2 2.3 4 1.75 10 3.7 8 11.9 1 1.89 7 15.6 58 5.73 math and engineering Basic human drive to explore 25 26.9 63 34.2 31 35.6 54 23.7 84 31.1 24 35.8 14 26.4 16 35.6 305 30.1 new frontiers Search for signs of life 1 1.08 1 0.54 3 3.45 1 0.44 5 1.85 1 1.49 1 1.89 2 4.44 15 1.48 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-2

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Prevent threats from space 1 1.08 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.37 1 1.49 0 0 0 0 3 0.3 Humans can accomplish more 30 32.3 46 25 41 47.1 52 22.8 100 37 22 32.8 25 47.2 14 31.1 327 32.3 than robots Public support 9 9.68 17 9.24 7 8.05 20 8.77 33 12.2 5 7.46 2 3.77 3 6.67 94 9.29 Other 12 12.9 15 8.15 7 8.05 16 7.02 10 3.7 1 1.49 4 7.55 2 4.44 66 6.52 None/No compelling reason 1 1.08 13 7.07 0 0 26 11.4 18 6.67 2 2.99 1 1.89 1 2.22 61 6.03 for human space exploration What do you consider to be the main reasons against human space exploration? Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Cost in absolute sense 33 35.5 76 42 39 45.9 93 38.9 139 52.1 39 56.5 18 34 10 25.6 441 43.5 Cost in a relative sense 20 21.5 36 19.9 11 12.9 54 22.6 31 11.6 11 15.9 6 11.3 4 10.3 170 16.8 Lack of clarity about goals or 5 5.38 17 9.39 3 3.53 9 3.77 8 3 4 5.8 1 1.89 0 0 45 4.43 benefits Risks 29 31.2 47 26 56 65.9 89 37.2 113 42.3 25 36.2 26 49.1 10 25.6 391 38.5 Private sector could do it 2 2.15 1 0.55 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0.3 better Robots could do it better 21 22.6 62 34.3 23 27.1 58 24.3 79 29.6 27 39.1 11 20.8 9 23.1 287 28.3 Other 18 19.4 38 21 17 20 26 10.9 37 13.9 13 18.8 6 11.3 11 28.2 165 16.3 None/No compelling reason 11 11.8 7 3.87 2 2.35 12 5.02 12 4.49 6 8.7 6 11.3 8 20.5 64 6.31 against human space exploration Below are some reasons commonly given for space exploration. For each, please indicate whether you think it is a very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important reason for space exploration in general: Expanding knowledge and scientific understanding Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 87 83.7 172 86.9 73 81.1 203 76.9 259 88.1 58 81.7 50 94.3 40 87 931 84.3 Somewhat important 15 14.4 23 11.6 16 17.8 50 18.9 26 8.84 12 16.9 3 5.66 4 8.7 145 13.1 Not too important 1 0.96 0 0 0 0 3 1.14 6 2.04 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 11 1 Not important at all 0 0 1 0.51 0 0 3 1.14 2 0.68 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0.54 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-3

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DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 1 0.96 2 1.01 1 1.11 5 1.89 1 0.34 1 1.41 0 0 1 2.17 11 1 Driving technological advances Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 78 75 116 58.6 70 77.8 149 56.4 211 71.8 37 52.1 45 84.9 35 76.1 731 66.2 Somewhat important 23 22.1 59 29.8 15 16.7 88 33.3 61 20.8 27 38 7 13.2 9 19.6 284 25.7 Not too important 0 0 14 7.07 4 4.44 15 5.68 16 5.44 5 7.04 0 0 0 0 54 4.89 Not important at all 1 0.96 4 2.02 0 0 4 1.52 2 0.68 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 11 1 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 2 1.92 5 2.53 1 1.11 8 3.03 4 1.36 2 2.82 1 1.89 1 2.17 24 2.17 Extending human economic activity beyond Earth Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 27 26 38 19.2 21 23.3 34 12.9 57 19.4 10 14.1 24 45.3 24 52.2 233 21.1 Somewhat important 41 39.4 54 27.3 35 38.9 84 31.8 101 34.4 23 32.4 15 28.3 15 32.6 362 32.8 Not too important 22 21.2 58 29.3 24 26.7 72 27.3 78 26.5 25 35.2 11 20.8 4 8.7 290 26.3 Not important at all 12 11.5 43 21.7 7 7.78 61 23.1 51 17.4 11 15.5 3 5.66 1 2.17 185 16.8 DON’T KNOW 0 0 1 0.51 1 1.11 3 1.14 2 0.68 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0.63 REFUSED 2 1.92 4 2.02 2 2.22 10 3.79 5 1.7 2 2.82 0 0 2 4.35 27 2.45 Paving the way for future settlements in space Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 38 36.5 39 19.7 29 32.2 19 7.2 60 20.4 10 14.1 21 39.6 26 56.5 239 21.7 Somewhat important 29 27.9 47 23.7 35 38.9 69 26.1 99 33.7 23 32.4 20 37.7 14 30.4 332 30.1 Not too important 18 17.3 58 29.3 18 20 80 30.3 74 25.2 23 32.4 7 13.2 4 8.7 279 25.3 Not important at all 16 15.4 48 24.2 7 7.78 84 31.8 55 18.7 13 18.3 4 7.55 0 0 222 20.1 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-4

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DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.76 1 0.34 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0.27 REFUSED 3 2.88 6 3.03 1 1.11 10 3.79 5 1.7 2 2.82 1 1.89 2 4.35 29 2.63 Paving the way for commercial space travel Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 24 23.1 28 14.1 24 26.7 19 7.2 50 17 6 8.45 22 41.5 16 34.8 186 16.9 Somewhat important 39 37.5 53 26.8 33 36.7 71 26.9 97 33 28 39.4 19 35.9 20 43.5 355 32.2 Not too important 22 21.2 70 35.4 23 25.6 97 36.7 98 33.3 22 31 5 9.43 7 15.2 339 30.7 Not important at all 18 17.3 40 20.2 9 10 64 24.2 42 14.3 13 18.3 7 13.2 2 4.35 192 17.4 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.76 2 0.68 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0.36 REFUSED 1 0.96 7 3.54 1 1.11 11 4.17 5 1.7 2 2.82 0 0 1 2.17 28 2.54 Creating opportunities for international cooperation Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 27 26 71 35.9 30 33.3 69 26.1 99 33.7 20 28.2 34 64.2 20 43.5 365 33.1 Somewhat important 47 45.2 89 45 40 44.4 124 47 135 45.9 23 32.4 15 28.3 16 34.8 482 43.7 Not too important 23 22.1 30 15.2 16 17.8 49 18.6 52 17.7 23 32.4 4 7.55 8 17.4 203 18.4 Not important at all 6 5.77 7 3.54 3 3.33 14 5.3 6 2.04 3 4.23 0 0 1 2.17 38 3.44 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 1 0.96 1 0.51 1 1.11 8 3.03 2 0.68 2 2.82 0 0 1 2.17 16 1.45 Maintaining our national security Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 53 51 79 39.9 28 31.1 92 34.9 126 42.9 30 42.3 27 50.9 17 37 448 40.6 Somewhat important 34 32.7 66 33.3 30 33.3 99 37.5 94 32 26 36.6 15 28.3 17 37 377 34.2 Not too important 9 8.65 30 15.2 24 26.7 51 19.3 52 17.7 10 14.1 8 15.1 7 15.2 186 16.9 Not important at all 3 2.88 19 9.6 5 5.56 12 4.55 19 6.46 4 5.63 3 5.66 3 6.52 65 5.89 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-5

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DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1.52 1 0.34 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0.45 REFUSED 5 4.81 4 2.02 3 3.33 6 2.27 2 0.68 1 1.41 0 0 2 4.35 23 2.08 Enhancing U.S. prestige Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 40 38.5 70 35.4 20 22.2 60 22.7 92 31.3 19 26.8 19 35.9 10 21.7 325 29.4 Somewhat important 43 41.4 86 43.4 37 41.1 116 43.9 116 39.5 30 42.3 20 37.7 22 47.8 464 42 Not too important 18 17.3 28 14.1 22 24.4 61 23.1 64 21.8 18 25.4 9 17 8 17.4 225 20.4 Not important at all 2 1.92 7 3.54 10 11.1 19 7.2 20 6.8 2 2.82 5 9.43 4 8.7 68 6.16 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.09 REFUSED 1 0.96 7 3.54 1 1.11 7 2.65 2 0.68 2 2.82 0 0 2 4.35 21 1.9 Inspiring young people to pursue careers in science, technology, math and engineering Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 65 62.5 127 64.1 62 68.9 133 50.4 199 67.7 38 53.5 42 79.3 29 63 685 62.1 Somewhat important 32 30.8 61 30.8 21 23.3 90 34.1 79 26.9 25 35.2 7 13.2 15 32.6 326 29.5 Not too important 5 4.81 4 2.02 5 5.56 28 10.6 12 4.08 6 8.45 4 7.55 1 2.17 64 5.8 Not important at all 0 0 3 1.52 1 1.11 7 2.65 1 0.34 1 1.41 0 0 0 0 13 1.18 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 2 1.92 3 1.52 1 1.11 6 2.27 3 1.02 1 1.41 0 0 1 2.17 16 1.45 Satisfying a basic human drive to explore new frontiers Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 56 53.9 140 70.7 50 55.6 134 50.8 188 64 32 45.1 41 77.4 32 69.6 662 60 Somewhat important 27 26 42 21.2 30 33.3 93 35.2 88 29.9 27 38 12 22.6 11 23.9 327 29.6 Not too important 17 16.4 10 5.05 6 6.67 22 8.33 15 5.1 10 14.1 0 0 0 0 78 7.07 Not important at all 3 2.88 4 2.02 2 2.22 7 2.65 2 0.68 2 2.82 0 0 2 4.35 22 1.99 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-6

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DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.09 REFUSED 1 0.96 2 1.01 2 2.22 7 2.65 1 0.34 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 14 1.27 Below are some reasons commonly given for space exploration. For each, please indicate whether you think it is a very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important reason for human spaceflight: Expanding knowledge and scientific understanding Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 54 51.9 51 25.8 51 56.7 69 26.1 112 38.1 25 35.2 36 67.9 26 56.5 419 38 Somewhat important 28 26.9 62 31.3 22 24.4 84 31.8 94 32 24 33.8 10 18.9 14 30.4 332 30.1 Not too important 12 11.5 46 23.2 11 12.2 62 23.5 49 16.7 14 19.7 4 7.55 2 4.35 196 17.8 Not important at all 4 3.85 29 14.7 2 2.22 31 11.7 22 7.48 5 7.04 1 1.89 1 2.17 94 8.51 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 1 1.11 1 0.38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.18 REFUSED 6 5.77 10 5.05 3 3.33 17 6.44 17 5.78 3 4.23 2 3.77 3 6.52 61 5.53 Driving technological advances Q3B2 ([Importance for human Stakeholder group space exploration:] Driving 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % technological advances) Very important 58 55.8 58 29.3 53 58.9 66 25 117 39.8 27 38 38 71.7 31 67.4 442 40 Somewhat important 25 24 73 36.9 22 24.4 94 35.6 96 32.7 26 36.6 9 17 8 17.4 347 31.4 Not too important 9 8.65 33 16.7 9 10 58 22 44 15 13 18.3 4 7.55 2 4.35 170 15.4 Not important at all 4 3.85 19 9.6 3 3.33 23 8.71 15 5.1 2 2.82 0 0 1 2.17 65 5.89 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 8 7.69 15 7.58 3 3.33 23 8.71 22 7.48 3 4.23 2 3.77 4 8.7 80 7.25 Extending human economic activity beyond Earth Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 32 30.8 30 15.2 20 22.2 21 7.95 40 13.6 11 15.5 22 41.5 26 56.5 200 18.1 Somewhat important 25 24 51 25.8 31 34.4 58 22 84 28.6 20 28.2 15 28.3 9 19.6 289 26.2 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-7

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Not too important 29 27.9 43 21.7 26 28.9 83 31.4 85 28.9 20 28.2 10 18.9 6 13 296 26.8 Not important at all 12 11.5 59 29.8 9 10 79 29.9 63 21.4 16 22.5 4 7.55 2 4.35 240 21.7 DON’T KNOW 0 0 1 0.51 1 1.11 3 1.14 3 1.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0.72 REFUSED 6 5.77 14 7.07 3 3.33 20 7.58 19 6.46 4 5.63 2 3.77 3 6.52 71 6.43 Paving the way for future settlements in space Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 41 39.4 54 27.3 48 53.3 30 11.4 93 31.6 22 31 29 54.7 28 60.9 341 30.9 Somewhat important 28 26.9 40 20.2 18 20 55 20.8 72 24.5 20 28.2 12 22.6 11 23.9 252 22.8 Not too important 15 14.4 47 23.7 14 15.6 73 27.7 56 19.1 18 25.4 7 13.2 1 2.17 227 20.6 Not important at all 12 11.5 44 22.2 7 7.78 86 32.6 53 18 10 14.1 3 5.66 1 2.17 212 19.2 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.38 1 0.34 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.18 REFUSED 8 7.69 13 6.57 3 3.33 19 7.2 19 6.46 1 1.41 2 3.77 5 10.9 70 6.34 Paving the way for commercial space travel Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 31 29.8 28 14.1 39 43.3 24 9.09 59 20.1 12 16.9 20 37.7 25 54.4 235 21.3 Somewhat important 34 32.7 54 27.3 26 28.9 60 22.7 80 27.2 23 32.4 22 41.5 11 23.9 307 27.8 Not too important 20 19.2 55 27.8 15 16.7 76 28.8 82 27.9 22 31 4 7.55 5 10.9 273 24.7 Not important at all 13 12.5 45 22.7 7 7.78 81 30.7 45 15.3 11 15.5 5 9.43 1 2.17 205 18.6 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.38 3 1.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0.36 REFUSED 6 5.77 16 8.08 3 3.33 22 8.33 25 8.5 3 4.23 2 3.77 4 8.7 80 7.25 Creating opportunities for international cooperation Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 30 28.9 47 23.7 33 36.7 47 17.8 68 23.1 16 22.5 28 52.8 18 39.1 285 25.8 Somewhat important 43 41.4 76 38.4 32 35.6 102 38.6 134 45.6 26 36.6 15 28.3 20 43.5 439 39.8 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-8

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Not too important 18 17.3 40 20.2 18 20 69 26.1 57 19.4 19 26.8 8 15.1 2 4.35 229 20.7 Not important at all 6 5.77 24 12.1 4 4.44 27 10.2 18 6.12 6 8.45 0 0 2 4.35 84 7.61 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 7 6.73 11 5.56 3 3.33 19 7.2 17 5.78 4 5.63 2 3.77 4 8.7 67 6.07 Maintaining our national security Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 31 29.8 28 14.1 14 15.6 27 10.2 49 16.7 16 22.5 18 34 8 17.4 190 17.2 Somewhat important 36 34.6 48 24.2 22 24.4 64 24.2 69 23.5 16 22.5 15 28.3 17 37 281 25.5 Not too important 17 16.4 46 23.2 31 34.4 94 35.6 95 32.3 27 38 12 22.6 12 26.1 328 29.7 Not important at all 10 9.62 63 31.8 18 20 54 20.5 64 21.8 11 15.5 6 11.3 7 15.2 230 20.8 DON’T KNOW 0 0 1 0.51 0 0 4 1.52 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0.45 REFUSED 10 9.62 12 6.06 5 5.56 21 7.95 17 5.78 1 1.41 2 3.77 2 4.35 70 6.34 Enhancing U.S. prestige Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 40 38.5 66 33.3 29 32.2 35 13.3 78 26.5 15 21.1 17 32.1 19 41.3 293 26.5 Somewhat important 42 40.4 64 32.3 27 30 91 34.5 102 34.7 32 45.1 21 39.6 13 28.3 386 35 Not too important 13 12.5 35 17.7 21 23.3 80 30.3 71 24.2 18 25.4 7 13.2 5 10.9 247 22.4 Not important at all 3 2.88 19 9.6 10 11.1 34 12.9 25 8.5 4 5.63 6 11.3 5 10.9 105 9.51 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.09 REFUSED 6 5.77 14 7.07 3 3.33 23 8.71 18 6.12 2 2.82 2 3.77 4 8.7 72 6.52 Inspiring young people to pursue careers in science, technology, math and engineering Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 64 61.5 78 39.4 59 65.6 76 28.8 147 50 33 46.5 36 67.9 33 71.7 516 46.7 Somewhat important 29 27.9 73 36.9 22 24.4 97 36.7 95 32.3 20 28.2 11 20.8 9 19.6 353 32 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-9

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Not too important 4 3.85 23 11.6 4 4.44 53 20.1 29 9.86 9 12.7 4 7.55 1 2.17 126 11.4 Not important at all 1 0.96 14 7.07 2 2.22 19 7.2 5 1.7 6 8.45 0 0 0 0 45 4.08 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 6 5.77 10 5.05 3 3.33 19 7.2 18 6.12 3 4.23 2 3.77 3 6.52 64 5.8 Satisfying a basic human drive to explore new frontiers Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 58 55.8 84 42.4 59 65.6 72 27.3 130 44.2 31 43.7 36 67.9 36 78.3 496 44.9 Somewhat important 25 24 56 28.3 21 23.3 98 37.1 96 32.7 18 25.4 13 24.5 5 10.9 330 29.9 Not too important 11 10.6 29 14.7 3 3.33 48 18.2 39 13.3 14 19.7 2 3.77 0 0 143 13 Not important at all 4 3.85 18 9.09 4 4.44 27 10.2 12 4.08 6 8.45 0 0 2 4.35 72 6.52 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 6 5.77 11 5.56 3 3.33 19 7.2 17 5.78 2 2.82 2 3.77 3 6.52 63 5.71 Most important reason for space exploration in general Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Expanding knowledge and 32 34.4 117 65.4 44 55 123 59.1 163 60.6 32 59.3 33 66 22 48.9 558 57.7 scientific understanding Driving technological 21 22.6 12 6.7 11 13.8 20 9.62 30 11.2 5 9.26 4 8 3 6.67 105 10.9 advances Extending human economic 5 5.38 1 0.56 5 6.25 1 0.48 7 2.6 1 1.85 1 2 3 6.67 24 2.48 activity beyond Earth Paving the way for future 5 5.38 5 2.79 6 7.5 3 1.44 5 1.86 0 0 1 2 5 11.1 30 3.1 settlements in space Paving the way for 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.1 commercial space travel Creating opportunities for 0 0 1 0.56 0 0 2 0.96 1 0.37 0 0 2 4 0 0 6 0.62 international cooperation Maintaining our national 8 8.6 10 5.59 1 1.25 15 7.21 6 2.23 6 11.1 2 4 1 2.22 49 5.07 security Enhancing U.S. prestige 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1.85 0 0 1 2.22 2 0.21 Inspiring young people to 7 7.53 14 7.82 7 8.75 13 6.25 23 8.55 4 7.41 5 10 4 8.89 77 7.96 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-10

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pursue careers in science, technology, math and engineering Satisfying a basic human drive 15 16.1 19 10.6 6 7.5 25 12 33 12.3 4 7.41 2 4 4 8.89 106 11 to explore new frontiers DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2.4 1 0.37 1 1.85 0 0 2 4.44 9 0.93 Next most important reason for space exploration in general Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Expanding knowledge and 21 24.4 16 10.3 10 13.7 24 13.7 51 21.5 8 18.2 5 10.2 8 18.6 142 16.7 scientific understanding Driving technological 23 26.7 39 25.2 28 38.4 51 29.1 65 27.4 11 25 12 24.5 9 20.9 236 27.7 advances Extending human economic 1 1.16 3 1.94 3 4.11 4 2.29 7 2.95 1 2.27 4 8.16 5 11.6 28 3.29 activity beyond Earth Paving the way for future 5 5.81 1 0.65 5 6.85 4 2.29 4 1.69 2 4.55 2 4.08 2 4.65 25 2.94 settlements in space Paving the way for 2 2.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.84 0 0 1 2.04 2 4.65 7 0.82 commercial space travel Creating opportunities for 2 2.33 5 3.23 0 0 7 4 4 1.69 2 4.55 5 10.2 2 4.65 26 3.06 international cooperation Maintaining our national 2 2.33 11 7.1 4 5.48 16 9.14 14 5.91 8 18.2 2 4.08 2 4.65 59 6.93 security Enhancing U.S. prestige 6 6.98 8 5.16 0 0 1 0.57 1 0.42 0 0 1 2.04 1 2.33 18 2.12 Inspiring young people to 15 17.4 35 22.6 13 17.8 36 20.6 45 19 7 15.9 11 22.5 6 14 163 19.2 pursue careers in science, technology, math and engineering Satisfying a basic human drive 8 9.3 36 23.2 10 13.7 24 13.7 43 18.1 5 11.4 6 12.2 3 6.98 133 15.6 to explore new frontiers DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 1 1.16 1 0.65 0 0 8 4.57 1 0.42 0 0 0 0 3 6.98 14 1.65 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-11

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NASA should not conduct 9 8.65 42 21.2 5 5.56 66 25 50 17 13 18.3 4 7.55 0 0 187 16.9 human space exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit NASA should conduct human 18 17.3 11 5.56 5 5.56 20 7.58 18 6.12 5 7.04 3 5.66 5 10.9 85 7.7 space exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit mainly or exclusively as U.S.- only missions NASA should conduct human 28 26.9 13 6.57 16 17.8 31 11.7 34 11.6 7 9.86 5 9.43 7 15.2 141 12.8 space exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit mainly or exclusively in collaboration with current international partners (such as ISS partners) NASA should conduct human 46 44.2 127 64.1 62 68.9 132 50 186 63.3 45 63.4 40 75.5 31 67.4 656 59.4 space exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit mainly or exclusively as part of an international collaboration that includes current partners as well as new and emerging space powers DON’T KNOW 0 0 1 0.51 1 1.11 1 0.38 1 0.34 1 1.41 0 0 0 0 4 0.36 REFUSED 3 2.88 4 2.02 1 1.11 14 5.3 5 1.7 0 0 1 1.89 3 6.52 31 2.81 Looking beyond the very near term, consider what goals a worthwhile and feasible U.S. human space exploration program might work toward over the next 20 years. How strongly do you favor or oppose the following options for NASA, bearing in mind that these are multi-year projects and the costs given are approximate overall costs. Continue with Low Earth Orbit flights to the International Space Station until 2020 Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Strongly favor 58 55.8 70 35.4 53 58.9 98 37.1 124 42.2 33 46.5 38 71.7 26 56.5 496 44.9 Somewhat favor 28 26.9 70 35.4 28 31.1 102 38.6 104 35.4 25 35.2 10 18.9 11 23.9 373 33.8 Somewhat oppose 8 7.69 29 14.7 6 6.67 41 15.5 38 12.9 10 14.1 4 7.55 3 6.52 135 12.2 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-16

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Strongly oppose 7 6.73 19 9.6 1 1.11 13 4.92 16 5.44 3 4.23 1 1.89 2 4.35 59 5.34 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 1 1.11 0 0 2 0.68 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0.27 REFUSED 3 2.88 10 5.05 1 1.11 10 3.79 10 3.4 0 0 0 0 4 8.7 38 3.44 Extend the International Space Station to 2028 Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Strongly favor 53 51 53 26.8 47 52.2 83 31.4 101 34.4 27 38 34 64.2 22 47.8 412 37.3 Somewhat favor 30 28.9 53 26.8 25 27.8 76 28.8 102 34.7 25 35.2 11 20.8 13 28.3 332 30.1 Somewhat oppose 11 10.6 39 19.7 11 12.2 56 21.2 47 16 10 14.1 6 11.3 5 10.9 184 16.7 Strongly oppose 7 6.73 45 22.7 5 5.56 35 13.3 36 12.2 8 11.3 1 1.89 2 4.35 135 12.2 DON’T KNOW 0 0 1 0.51 1 1.11 0 0 2 0.68 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0.36 REFUSED 3 2.88 7 3.54 1 1.11 14 5.3 6 2.04 1 1.41 1 1.89 4 8.7 37 3.35 Send humans to a Near-Earth asteroid in its native orbit Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Strongly favor 22 21.2 28 14.1 35 38.9 28 10.6 71 24.2 8 11.3 12 22.6 7 15.2 209 18.9 Somewhat favor 30 28.9 56 28.3 30 33.3 64 24.2 105 35.7 22 31 20 37.7 18 39.1 341 30.9 Somewhat oppose 32 30.8 47 23.7 13 14.4 77 29.2 51 17.4 23 32.4 13 24.5 9 19.6 257 23.3 Strongly oppose 17 16.4 58 29.3 10 11.1 76 28.8 54 18.4 17 23.9 6 11.3 7 15.2 243 22 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1.14 3 1.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0.54 REFUSED 3 2.88 9 4.55 2 2.22 16 6.06 10 3.4 1 1.41 2 3.77 5 10.9 48 4.35 Return to the Moon and explore more of it with short visits Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Strongly favor 26 25 30 15.2 26 28.9 41 15.5 61 20.8 15 21.1 28 52.8 13 28.3 239 21.7 Somewhat favor 41 39.4 70 35.4 36 40 79 29.9 109 37.1 23 32.4 16 30.2 14 30.4 380 34.4 Somewhat oppose 22 21.2 45 22.7 19 21.1 72 27.3 73 24.8 18 25.4 7 13.2 10 21.7 263 23.8 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-17

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Strongly oppose 11 10.6 45 22.7 7 7.78 58 22 40 13.6 15 21.1 2 3.77 4 8.7 179 16.2 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 1 1.11 1 0.38 3 1.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0.45 REFUSED 4 3.85 8 4.04 1 1.11 13 4.92 8 2.72 0 0 0 0 5 10.9 38 3.44 Establish outposts on the Moon Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Strongly favor 36 34.6 33 16.7 31 34.4 28 10.6 64 21.8 13 18.3 24 45.3 20 43.5 247 22.4 Somewhat favor 26 25 48 24.2 33 36.7 50 18.9 89 30.3 19 26.8 16 30.2 12 26.1 290 26.3 Somewhat oppose 22 21.2 48 24.2 15 16.7 73 27.7 74 25.2 18 25.4 9 17 4 8.7 255 23.1 Strongly oppose 16 15.4 63 31.8 8 8.89 101 38.3 58 19.7 21 29.6 4 7.55 3 6.52 271 24.6 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 1 1.11 1 0.38 3 1.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0.45 REFUSED 4 3.85 6 3.03 2 2.22 11 4.17 6 2.04 0 0 0 0 7 15.2 36 3.26 Conduct orbital missions to Mars to teleoperate robots on the surface Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Strongly favor 35 33.7 52 26.3 29 32.2 69 26.1 100 34 21 29.6 26 49.1 15 32.6 345 31.3 Somewhat favor 48 46.2 70 35.4 35 38.9 88 33.3 96 32.7 24 33.8 17 32.1 17 37 385 34.9 Somewhat oppose 14 13.5 31 15.7 15 16.7 51 19.3 50 17 12 16.9 9 17 6 13 185 16.8 Strongly oppose 4 3.85 35 17.7 9 10 45 17.1 42 14.3 14 19.7 1 1.89 3 6.52 152 13.8 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0.27 REFUSED 3 2.88 10 5.05 2 2.22 11 4.17 3 1.02 0 0 0 0 5 10.9 34 3.08 Land humans on Mars Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Strongly favor 36 34.6 40 20.2 30 33.3 29 11 68 23.1 19 26.8 27 50.9 29 63 272 24.6 Somewhat favor 29 27.9 46 23.2 36 40 42 15.9 74 25.2 18 25.4 11 20.8 6 13 258 23.4 Somewhat oppose 21 20.2 37 18.7 12 13.3 60 22.7 62 21.1 13 18.3 8 15.1 2 4.35 212 19.2 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-18

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Strongly oppose 15 14.4 69 34.9 10 11.1 123 46.6 82 27.9 21 29.6 7 13.2 4 8.7 328 29.7 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.68 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.18 REFUSED 3 2.88 6 3.03 2 2.22 10 3.79 6 2.04 0 0 0 0 5 10.9 32 2.9 Establish a human presence (base) on Mars Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Strongly favor 21 20.2 19 9.6 17 18.9 14 5.3 25 8.5 5 7.04 20 37.7 18 39.1 137 12.4 Somewhat favor 24 23.1 34 17.2 23 25.6 22 8.33 58 19.7 17 23.9 10 18.9 11 23.9 195 17.7 Somewhat oppose 23 22.1 33 16.7 25 27.8 55 20.8 76 25.9 16 22.5 13 24.5 7 15.2 245 22.2 Strongly oppose 33 31.7 104 52.5 23 25.6 162 61.4 127 43.2 32 45.1 9 17 4 8.7 489 44.3 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0.27 REFUSED 3 2.88 8 4.04 2 2.22 11 4.17 5 1.7 1 1.41 1 1.89 6 13 35 3.17 How important is it for NASA to do each of the following over the next 20 years: Maintain the International Space Station as a laboratory for scientific research Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 47 45.2 51 25.8 48 53.3 87 33 101 34.4 26 36.6 35 66 17 37 406 36.8 Somewhat important 34 32.7 52 26.3 24 26.7 73 27.7 92 31.3 23 32.4 9 17 18 39.1 322 29.2 Not too important 12 11.5 50 25.3 13 14.4 48 18.2 67 22.8 18 25.4 5 9.43 2 4.35 213 19.3 Not important at all 4 3.85 28 14.1 2 2.22 25 9.47 21 7.14 2 2.82 2 3.77 3 6.52 84 7.61 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 7 6.73 17 8.59 3 3.33 31 11.7 13 4.42 2 2.82 2 3.77 6 13 79 7.16 Make the investments necessary to sustain a vigorous program of human space exploration Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 48 46.2 52 26.3 46 51.1 50 18.9 90 30.6 25 35.2 24 45.3 31 67.4 362 32.8 Somewhat important 30 28.9 50 25.3 26 28.9 61 23.1 92 31.3 18 25.4 21 39.6 7 15.2 300 27.2 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-19

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Not too important 15 14.4 39 19.7 11 12.2 64 24.2 64 21.8 16 22.5 3 5.66 0 0 208 18.8 Not important at all 3 2.88 38 19.2 3 3.33 55 20.8 33 11.2 10 14.1 4 7.55 2 4.35 147 13.3 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 1 1.11 1 0.38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.18 REFUSED 8 7.69 19 9.6 3 3.33 33 12.5 15 5.1 2 2.82 1 1.89 6 13 85 7.7 Make the investments necessary to sustain a vigorous program of robotic space exploration Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 50 48.1 143 72.2 58 64.4 151 57.2 218 74.2 36 50.7 41 77.4 23 50 713 64.6 Somewhat important 43 41.4 33 16.7 27 30 74 28 54 18.4 30 42.3 9 17 12 26.1 276 25 Not too important 3 2.88 4 2.02 2 2.22 6 2.27 8 2.72 3 4.23 1 1.89 3 6.52 29 2.63 Not important at all 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1.14 1 0.34 0 0 1 1.89 1 2.17 6 0.54 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.09 REFUSED 8 7.69 18 9.09 3 3.33 29 11 13 4.42 2 2.82 1 1.89 7 15.2 79 7.16 Limit human space exploration to Earth-orbit missions while maintaining robotic missions for exploring in and beyond the solar system Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 18 17.3 60 30.3 17 18.9 87 33 99 33.7 16 22.5 17 32.1 4 8.7 318 28.8 Somewhat important 30 28.9 59 29.8 29 32.2 82 31.1 101 34.4 28 39.4 17 32.1 7 15.2 347 31.4 Not too important 24 23.1 31 15.7 31 34.4 34 12.9 54 18.4 12 16.9 10 18.9 8 17.4 200 18.1 Not important at all 24 23.1 22 11.1 8 8.89 21 7.95 17 5.78 11 15.5 7 13.2 21 45.7 128 11.6 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 1 1.11 1 0.38 1 0.34 0 0 1 1.89 0 0 4 0.36 REFUSED 8 7.69 26 13.1 4 4.44 39 14.8 22 7.48 4 5.63 1 1.89 6 13 107 9.69 Maintain world leadership in human space exploration Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 61 58.7 57 28.8 45 50 63 23.9 107 36.4 28 39.4 27 50.9 19 41.3 401 36.3 Somewhat important 23 22.1 60 30.3 28 31.1 82 31.1 92 31.3 23 32.4 17 32.1 14 30.4 334 30.3 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-20

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Not too important 8 7.69 41 20.7 11 12.2 58 22 58 19.7 14 19.7 4 7.55 4 8.7 195 17.7 Not important at all 3 2.88 19 9.6 2 2.22 27 10.2 20 6.8 4 5.63 4 7.55 4 8.7 83 7.52 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 1 1.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.09 REFUSED 9 8.65 21 10.6 3 3.33 34 12.9 17 5.78 2 2.82 1 1.89 5 10.9 90 8.15 Improve orbital technologies such as weather and communication satellites Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 48 46.2 123 62.1 55 61.1 179 67.8 220 74.8 41 57.8 41 77.4 12 26.1 711 64.4 Somewhat important 38 36.5 38 19.2 22 24.4 41 15.5 45 15.3 20 28.2 8 15.1 15 32.6 223 20.2 Not too important 8 7.69 14 7.07 7 7.78 10 3.79 12 4.08 5 7.04 2 3.77 10 21.7 66 5.98 Not important at all 3 2.88 5 2.53 2 2.22 1 0.38 3 1.02 2 2.82 0 0 3 6.52 19 1.72 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 7 6.73 18 9.09 4 4.44 33 12.5 14 4.76 3 4.23 2 3.77 6 13 85 7.7 Plan for a manned mission to Mars Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 36 34.6 31 15.7 29 32.2 25 9.47 52 17.7 20 28.2 23 43.4 20 43.5 231 20.9 Somewhat important 22 21.2 48 24.2 36 40 46 17.4 84 28.6 18 25.4 14 26.4 13 28.3 277 25.1 Not too important 23 22.1 41 20.7 12 13.3 70 26.5 57 19.4 12 16.9 7 13.2 3 6.52 222 20.1 Not important at all 14 13.5 60 30.3 10 11.1 92 34.9 83 28.2 17 23.9 8 15.1 2 4.35 285 25.8 DON’T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.34 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.09 REFUSED 9 8.65 18 9.09 3 3.33 31 11.7 17 5.78 4 5.63 1 1.89 8 17.4 88 7.97 Expand space exploration collaborations with other countries Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very important 32 30.8 78 39.4 43 47.8 88 33.3 150 51 29 40.9 35 66 21 45.7 470 42.6 Somewhat important 48 46.2 76 38.4 33 36.7 112 42.4 102 34.7 29 40.9 16 30.2 12 26.1 422 38.2 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-21

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Not too important 12 11.5 20 10.1 10 11.1 24 9.09 24 8.16 7 9.86 1 1.89 5 10.9 103 9.33 Not important at all 4 3.85 6 3.03 0 0 8 3.03 2 0.68 2 2.82 0 0 1 2.17 21 1.9 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 8 7.69 18 9.09 4 4.44 32 12.1 16 5.44 4 5.63 1 1.89 7 15.2 88 7.97 Currently, how involved are you in space-related work? Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very involved 46 44.2 89 45 24 26.7 0 0 23 7.82 15 21.1 15 28.3 28 60.9 233 21.1 Somewhat involved 29 27.9 106 53.5 32 35.6 0 0 99 33.7 23 32.4 29 54.7 11 23.9 325 29.4 Not involved 27 26 0 0 33 36.7 260 98.5 171 58.2 33 46.5 9 17 4 8.7 532 48.2 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 2 1.92 3 1.52 1 1.11 4 1.52 1 0.34 0 0 0 0 3 6.52 14 1.27 How involved are you in work related to human spaceflight? Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Very involved 30 40 25 12.8 0 0 0 0 2 1.64 3 7.89 4 9.09 15 38.5 75 13.4 Somewhat involved 29 38.7 51 26.2 12 21.4 0 0 22 18 14 36.8 11 25 16 41 150 26.9 Not involved 16 21.3 119 61 44 78.6 0 0 98 80.3 21 55.3 29 65.9 8 20.5 333 59.7 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 What is the highest degree you completed? Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % High school or some college 2 1.92 0 0 3 3.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3.77 5 10.9 12 1.09 Bachelor’s degree 28 26.9 12 6.06 25 27.8 3 1.14 0 0 1 1.41 10 18.9 18 39.1 95 8.61 Master’s degree 44 42.3 16 8.08 12 13.3 25 9.47 1 0.34 15 21.1 26 49.1 9 19.6 147 13.3 Professional degree 10 9.62 8 4.04 2 2.22 12 4.55 3 1.02 8 11.3 1 1.89 3 6.52 46 4.17 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-22

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Doctorate 18 17.3 160 80.8 47 52.2 219 83 289 98.3 47 66.2 14 26.4 9 19.6 791 71.7 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 2 1.92 2 1.01 1 1.11 5 1.89 1 0.34 0 0 0 0 2 4.35 13 1.18 In what year where you born? Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % 1915 0 0 1 0.51 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.09 1917 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1.14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0.27 1918 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.76 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.18 1919 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.09 1920 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1.14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0.27 1921 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.76 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0.18 1922 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1.52 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0.36 1923 0 0 1 0.51 0 0 4 1.52 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0.45 1924 0 0 1 0.51 0 0 5 1.89 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0.54 1925 0 0 1 0.51 0 0 2 0.76 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0.27 1926 0 0 2 1.01 0 0 5 1.89 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 8 0.72 1927 0 0 5 2.53 0 0 7 2.65 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 13 1.18 1928 0 0 6 3.03 0 0 8 3.03 0 0 1 1.41 0 0 1 2.17 16 1.45 1929 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 3.03 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0.72 1930 0 0 3 1.52 0 0 8 3.03 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 1 1931 0 0 5 2.53 0 0 5 1.89 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 11 1 1932 0 0 4 2.02 0 0 6 2.27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0.91 1933 0 0 4 2.02 0 0 11 4.17 0 0 1 1.41 0 0 0 0 16 1.45 1934 0 0 2 1.01 0 0 6 2.27 0 0 1 1.41 1 1.89 0 0 10 0.91 1935 0 0 7 3.54 0 0 4 1.52 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 1 1936 0 0 3 1.52 0 0 7 2.65 1 0.34 1 1.41 0 0 0 0 12 1.09 1937 0 0 6 3.03 0 0 5 1.89 1 0.34 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 1.09 1938 1 0.96 9 4.55 0 0 10 3.79 0 0 3 4.23 0 0 0 0 21 1.9 1939 1 0.96 7 3.54 0 0 7 2.65 2 0.68 2 2.82 0 0 0 0 19 1.72 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-23

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1940 1 0.96 6 3.03 0 0 9 3.41 1 0.34 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 18 1.63 1941 0 0 1 0.51 0 0 9 3.41 1 0.34 5 7.04 2 3.77 0 0 18 1.63 1942 2 1.92 4 2.02 0 0 6 2.27 1 0.34 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 1.18 1943 1 0.96 7 3.54 0 0 7 2.65 2 0.68 3 4.23 0 0 1 2.17 20 1.81 1944 3 2.88 4 2.02 0 0 8 3.03 4 1.36 6 8.45 1 1.89 0 0 26 2.36 1945 2 1.92 5 2.53 0 0 5 1.89 5 1.7 1 1.41 0 0 0 0 17 1.54 1946 2 1.92 4 2.02 0 0 9 3.41 6 2.04 3 4.23 0 0 0 0 23 2.08 1947 1 0.96 6 3.03 0 0 7 2.65 7 2.38 6 8.45 1 1.89 1 2.17 26 2.36 1948 0 0 9 4.55 0 0 6 2.27 4 1.36 3 4.23 0 0 0 0 22 1.99 1949 6 5.77 9 4.55 0 0 12 4.55 5 1.7 5 7.04 3 5.66 0 0 40 3.62 1950 2 1.92 10 5.05 0 0 6 2.27 9 3.06 2 2.82 2 3.77 1 2.17 31 2.81 1951 3 2.88 5 2.53 0 0 2 0.76 9 3.06 1 1.41 2 3.77 0 0 21 1.9 1952 3 2.88 6 3.03 1 1.11 11 4.17 12 4.08 4 5.63 2 3.77 2 4.35 41 3.71 1953 3 2.88 2 1.01 0 0 9 3.41 11 3.74 0 0 1 1.89 0 0 26 2.36 1954 6 5.77 3 1.52 0 0 4 1.52 10 3.4 2 2.82 3 5.66 2 4.35 29 2.63 1955 4 3.85 6 3.03 0 0 5 1.89 21 7.14 1 1.41 3 5.66 1 2.17 41 3.71 1956 3 2.88 2 1.01 0 0 3 1.14 18 6.12 3 4.23 2 3.77 1 2.17 32 2.9 1957 2 1.92 5 2.53 0 0 2 0.76 22 7.48 2 2.82 1 1.89 2 4.35 35 3.17 1958 7 6.73 4 2.02 0 0 3 1.14 16 5.44 1 1.41 1 1.89 1 2.17 32 2.9 1959 3 2.88 1 0.51 0 0 3 1.14 24 8.16 2 2.82 2 3.77 1 2.17 35 3.17 1960 2 1.92 5 2.53 0 0 2 0.76 12 4.08 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 22 1.99 1961 5 4.81 2 1.01 1 1.11 2 0.76 13 4.42 3 4.23 0 0 1 2.17 26 2.36 1962 7 6.73 3 1.52 0 0 0 0 9 3.06 3 4.23 1 1.89 1 2.17 24 2.17 1963 3 2.88 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 4.08 0 0 1 1.89 0 0 16 1.45 1964 2 1.92 2 1.01 0 0 1 0.38 9 3.06 2 2.82 3 5.66 1 2.17 20 1.81 1965 3 2.88 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2.04 1 1.41 5 9.43 0 0 15 1.36 1966 2 1.92 1 0.51 0 0 0 0 5 1.7 1 1.41 1 1.89 0 0 10 0.91 1967 4 3.85 1 0.51 1 1.11 0 0 5 1.7 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 12 1.09 1968 2 1.92 2 1.01 0 0 2 0.76 4 1.36 0 0 2 3.77 2 4.35 14 1.27 1969 4 3.85 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2.04 0 0 2 3.77 0 0 12 1.09 1970 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1.36 0 0 1 1.89 1 2.17 6 0.54 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-24

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1971 1 0.96 1 0.51 1 1.11 1 0.38 2 0.68 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0.54 1972 2 1.92 2 1.01 1 1.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1.89 1 2.17 7 0.63 1973 1 0.96 2 1.01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5.66 1 2.17 7 0.63 1974 2 1.92 2 1.01 0 0 0 0 4 1.36 0 0 1 1.89 2 4.35 11 1 1976 0 0 1 0.51 0 0 0 0 2 0.68 0 0 1 1.89 0 0 4 0.36 1977 0 0 0 0 2 2.22 0 0 1 0.34 0 0 1 1.89 0 0 4 0.36 1978 0 0 2 1.01 2 2.22 0 0 2 0.68 0 0 1 1.89 0 0 7 0.63 1979 1 0.96 0 0 1 1.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 3 0.27 1980 1 0.96 0 0 6 6.67 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 8 0.72 1981 0 0 0 0 10 11.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0.91 1982 1 0.96 0 0 4 4.44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 6 0.54 1983 0 0 0 0 7 7.78 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 8 0.72 1984 0 0 0 0 9 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1.89 2 4.35 12 1.09 1985 2 1.92 0 0 5 5.56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4.35 9 0.82 1986 0 0 0 0 5 5.56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0.45 1987 0 0 0 0 4 4.44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0.36 1988 0 0 0 0 7 7.78 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0.63 1989 0 0 0 0 9 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1.89 2 4.35 12 1.09 1990 0 0 0 0 3 3.33 0 0 0 0 1 1.41 0 0 0 0 4 0.36 1991 0 0 0 0 3 3.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 4 0.36 1992 0 0 0 0 5 5.56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2.17 6 0.54 1993 0 0 0 0 1 1.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4.35 3 0.27 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 3 2.88 6 3.03 2 2.22 7 2.65 6 2.04 1 1.41 0 0 2 4.35 26 2.36 Are you male or female? Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Male 93 89.4 165 83.3 66 73.3 226 85.6 267 90.8 62 87.3 36 67.9 33 71.7 936 84.8 Female 8 7.69 29 14.7 23 25.6 34 12.9 25 8.5 8 11.3 17 32.1 11 23.9 152 13.8 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-25

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REFUSED 3 2.88 4 2.02 1 1.11 4 1.52 2 0.68 1 1.41 0 0 2 4.35 16 1.45 Are you currently employed? Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Yes 99 95.2 167 84.3 77 85.6 163 61.7 292 99.3 58 81.7 51 96.2 36 78.3 928 84.1 No 2 1.92 27 13.6 12 13.3 95 36 1 0.34 12 16.9 2 3.77 8 17.4 158 14.3 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 3 2.88 4 2.02 1 1.11 6 2.27 1 0.34 1 1.41 0 0 2 4.35 18 1.63 Which of the following best describes your current job? Stakeholder group 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % 6 % 7 % 8 % Total % Postsecondary educator 4 4.04 73 43.7 16 20.8 72 44.2 272 93.2 10 17.2 16 31.4 3 8.33 460 49.6 Scientist in a non-teaching 0 0 32 19.2 26 33.8 36 22.1 1 0.34 5 8.62 4 7.84 2 5.56 105 11.3 position Engineer 15 15.2 11 6.59 23 29.9 10 6.13 4 1.37 13 22.4 1 1.96 6 16.7 82 8.84 Managerial or professional 79 79.8 42 25.2 0 0 36 22.1 8 2.74 30 51.7 16 31.4 19 52.8 223 24 Other, please specify: 1 1.01 8 4.79 11 14.3 8 4.91 5 1.71 0 0 13 25.5 6 16.7 52 5.6 DON'T KNOW 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 REFUSED 0 0 1 0.6 1 1.3 1 0.61 2 0.68 0 0 1 1.96 0 0 6 0.65 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION E-26