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G Committee, Panel, and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE MITCHELL E. DANIELS, Jr., Co-Chair, is the president of Purdue University. Immediately prior to this appointment, he served two terms as the 49th Governor of the State of Indiana. Previously, he has been the CEO of the Hudson Institute and president of Eli Lilly and Company’s North America Pharmaceutical Operations. In the political arena, he also served as chief of staff to Senator Richard Lugar, senior advisor to President Ronald Reagan, and director of the Office of Management and Budget under President George W. Bush (January 2001 to June 2003). He is the author of the book Keeping the Republic: Saving America by Trusting Americans. Mr. Daniels earned his B.S. from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and his J.D. from the Georgetown University Law Center. JONATHAN I. LUNINE, Co-Chair, is the director of the Center for Radiophysics and Space Research and the David C. Duncan Professor in the Physical Sciences at Cornell University. Dr. Lunine is interested in how planets form and evolve, what processes maintain and establish habitability, and what the limits of environments capable of sustaining life are. He pursues these interests through theoretical modeling and participation in spacecraft missions. He works with the radar and other instruments on the Cassini Saturn Orbiter and was part of the science team for the Huygens landing on Saturn’s moon Titan. He is co-investigator on the Juno mission to Jupiter, launched in 2011, and an interdisciplinary scientist for the James Webb Space Telescope. Dr. Lunine has contributed to or led a variety of mission concept studies for solar system probes and space-based detection of planets around other stars. He has chaired or served on a number of advisory and strategic planning committees for NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). He is the winner of the Harold C. Urey Prize of the DPS/American Astronomical Society, the Macelwane Medal of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the Zeldovich Prize in Commission B of Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), and the Basic Science Award of the International Academy of Astronautics. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and a fellow of the AGU and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Dr. Lunine received a B.S. in physics and astronomy from the University of Rochester and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in planetary science from the California Institute of Technology. Dr. Lunine has served on several National Research Council (NRC) committees, including as co-chair for the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life and the Committee for a Review of Programs to Determine the Extent of Life in the Universe, and as a member of the Committee on Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010. BERNARD F. BURKE is the William A.M. Burden Professor of Astrophysics, emeritus, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He is also a principal investigator (PI) at the MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research. His research career has covered a wide range of activities, including the co-discovery of Jupiter radio bursts and the discovery of the first “Einstein Ring,” a manifestation of the warping of space-time by matter that was predicted by Albert Einstein in his general theory of relativity. Dr. Burke was president of the American Astronomical Society and served as a member of the National Science Board. He is a member of the NAS and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a fellow of AAAS, and a recipient of the NASA Group Achievement Award for Very Long Baseline Interferometry. He earned a Ph.D. in physics from MIT. Dr. Burke has served on numerous PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-1

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NRC committees, including the Committee on the Assessment of Solar System Exploration, the U.S. National Committee for the International Astronomical Union, and the International Space Year Planning Committee. MARY LYNNE DITTMAR is president and executive consultant for Dittmar Associates, Inc., an engineering and consulting firm in Houston, Texas. Previously, Dr. Dittmar managed International Space Station (ISS) Flight Operations and Training Integration for the Boeing Company and later served as chief scientist and senior manager for Boeing’s Commercial Space Payloads Program before advising on business development and strategic planning for the company’s Space Exploration group. More recently she has acted as senior advisor to executives in a variety of aerospace companies, at NASA, and at the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) where she was instrumental in developing the strategic plan for utilization of the ISS National Laboratory. Dr. Dittmar’s areas of practice focus on strategic planning, public/private partnerships, strategic communications, systems engineering, and change management. She is published in a variety of fields including operations, engineering, artificial intelligence, human factors, communications, and business, and has authored several papers on the impact of regulatory frameworks and investor engagement with emerging sectors such as the commercial spaceflight industry. She also has served as a member of the Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee’s Space Operations Working Group and holds a number of industry and academic awards, including Meritorious Inventions and the Chief Technology Officer’s Award for Technical Excellence from Boeing and NASA’s “Silver Snoopy” Award for significant contributions to human spaceflight, and is a fellow of Sigma Xi, the research honor society of scientists and engineers. Dr. Dittmar earned a Ph.D. in human factors from the University of Cincinnati. PASCALE EHRENFREUND is research professor of space policy and international affairs at the Space Policy Institute of George Washington University. During the past 15 years Dr. Ehrenfreund has contributed as PI, co-investigator, and team leader to experiments in low Earth orbit and on the ISS, as well as to various European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA space missions, including astronomy and planetary missions. She is a lead investigator with the NASA Astrobiology Institute, a virtual institute that integrates research and training programs, and her research experience and interests range from biology to astrophysics. Dr. Ehrenfreund served as the project scientist of NASA’s O/OREOs satellite, the first mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small Payload program currently in orbit. She has served on several committees dealing with space strategy issues, including the European Space Science Committee, ESA’s Life and Physical Science Advisory Committee, and ESA’s Life Science Working Group. Since 2010, she has chaired the Panel on Exploration of COSPAR. Dr. Ehrenfreund is president of IAU Commission 51 (Bioastronomy) and a full member of the International Academy of Astronautics. She serves as member of the NRC Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences and served on the Committee on Planetary Science Decadal Survey: 2013-2022. Dr. Ehrenfreund was a member of the FP7 Space Advisory Group of the European Commission and has been reelected in the Horizon2020 Space Advisory Group and started her term in November 2013. Since 2013 she is president of the Austrian Science Fund. She holds a master in molecular biology from the University of Vienna (Austria), a Ph.D. in astrophysics from the University Paris VII/University Vienna (Austria), a Habilitation in astrochemistry from the University of Vienna (Austria), and a masters in management and leadership from Webster University (Netherlands). She authored and co-authored more than 300 publications. FRANK G. KLOTZ1 (USAF, retired) is the under secretary of energy for nuclear security and administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration. He is a former senior fellow for Strategic Studies and Arms Control at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)and a former commander of Air Force Global Strike Command, where he established and then led a new 23,000-person organization that 1 General Klotz resigned from the committee on April 10, 2014, to take up an appointment as Under Secretary of Energy for Nuclear Security and Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-2

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merged responsibility for all U.S. nuclear-capable bombers and land-based missiles under a single chain- of-command. Earlier in his military career, General Klotz served as the defense attaché at U.S. Embassy Moscow during a particularly eventful period in U.S.-Russian relations. Later, as the director for nuclear policy and arms control on the National Security Council staff, he represented the White House in talks that led to the 2002 Moscow Treaty to reduce strategic nuclear weapons. General Klotz also served as the vice commander of Air Force Space Command. He was awarded the prestigious General Thomas D. White Trophy by the Air Force Association for the most outstanding contribution to progress in aerospace in 2006. General Klotz has spoken extensively on defense and space topics to audiences throughout the United States, as well as abroad. He is the author of Space, Commerce and National Security (1998) and America on the Ice: Antarctic Policy Issues (1990). He served as a White House fellow at the State Department and as a military fellow at CFR. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the International Institute for Strategic Studies, and the Secretary of State’s International Security Advisory Board. A distinguished graduate of the U.S. Air Force Academy, General Klotz attended Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, where he earned an M.Phil. in international relations and a D.Phil. in politics. He is also a graduate of the National War College in Washington, D.C. He currently serves as a member of the NRC Committee on International Security and Arms Control. JAMES S. JACKSON (IOM) is the director and research professor of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. He is also the Daniel Katz Distinguished University Professor of Psychology, a professor of health behavior and health education in the School of Public Health, and a professor of Afroamerican and African studies. He is past director of the Program for Research on Black Americans and the Center for Afroamerican and African Studies. His research focuses on issues of racial and ethnic influences on life course development, attitude change, reciprocity, social support, and coping and health among blacks in the diaspora. He is past chair of the Section on Social, Economic, and Political Sciences of the AAAS. He is a former national president of the Black Students Psychological Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. He served on the councils of the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute on Aging. He is a fellow of the Gerontological Society of America, the Society of Experimental Social Psychology, the American Psychological Association, the Association of Psychological Sciences, AAAS, and the W.E.B. Du Bois Fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. He received numerous awards, including the Distinguished Career Contributions to Research Award of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, the James McKeen Cattell Fellow Award for Distinguished Career Contributions in Applied Psychology of the American Psychological Association, and the Medal for Distinguished Contributions in Biomedical Sciences of the New York Academy of Medicine. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Jackson earned a Ph.D. in social psychology from Wayne State University. He is currently a member of the NRC Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences and has served as a member of the Committee on International Collaborations in Social and Behavioral Research, the Committee to Study the National Needs for Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Research Personnel, and the Committee on U.S. Competitiveness: Underrepresented Groups and the Expansion of the Science and Engineering Workforce Pipeline. FRANKLIN D. MARTIN is president of Martin Consulting, Inc. His interests include independent review services for NASA spaceflight projects. Over the past decade, he has taught nearly 100 team development workshops for organizations and flight projects across NASA while working as a subcontractor to 4-D Systems. He has more than 40 years of experience with space science, space systems, engineering, and management. His experience covers robotic, remote sensing, and human spaceflight. His career with NASA and Lockheed Martin includes the following: Science Mission Operations for Apollo 16 and Apollo 17; director, Solar Terrestrial and Astrophysics at NASA Headquarters; director for Space and Earth Science, Goddard Space Flight Center; NASA deputy associate administrator, Space Station; NASA assistant administrator, Human Exploration; and director of Space Systems and Engineering in Civil Space for Lockheed Martin, with responsibility for the Hubble PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-3

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Servicing Missions, Space Infrared Telescope Facility (Spitzer), Lunar Prospector, and the Relativity Mission (Gravity Probe-B). Dr. Martin also served as assistant editor of Geophysical Research Letters and worked as a physicist with the Naval Oceanographic Office. He resigned from NASA in 1990 at senior executive service (SES) Level ES-6 and retired from Lockheed Martin in 2001. He currently serves on the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts External Council for the NASA Chief Technologist Office. Dr. Martin received NASA’s Exceptional Service Medal, an Outstanding Leadership Medal, and the SES Presidential Ranks of Meritorious Executive and Distinguished Executive. He is a fellow of the American Astronautical Society (AAS). He earned a B.A. with majors in physics and in mathematics from Pfeiffer College (aka Pfeiffer University) and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Tennessee. Dr. Martin has served as a member of the NRC Committee on Human Spaceflight Crew Operations, the Committee on NASA’s Suborbital Research Capabilities, and the Committee on Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System. DAVID C. MOWERY is the William A. and Betty H. Hasler Professor of New Enterprise Development (Emeritus) at the Walter A. Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, and a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. Dr. Mowery’s research interests include the impact of technological change on economic growth and employment, the management of technological change, and international and U.S. trade policy. His academic awards include the Raymond Vernon Prize from the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, the Economic History Association’s Fritz Redlich Prize, the Business History Review’s Newcomen Prize, the Cheit Outstanding Teaching Award, and the Distinguished Scholar award from the Academy of Management. He received his undergraduate and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Stanford University and was a postdoctoral fellow at the Harvard Business School. Dr. Mowery has served on several NRC committees, including as vice chair of the Committee on Competitiveness and Workforce Needs of United States Industry and as a member of the Committee to Review the National Nanotechnology Initiative and the Committee to Assess the Capacity of the U.S. Engineering Research Enterprise. BRYAN D. O’CONNOR is an independent aerospace consultant and former Marine pilot and NASA senior executive. He previously served as NASA’s chief of the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance where he led an extensive restructure of system safety, reliability, quality, and risk management organizations throughout the agency in response to the findings of the Columbia Mishap Investigation Board. He was previously director of engineering for the Futron Corporation, providing system safety engineering and risk management consulting to the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), NASA, and industry. Prior to that, he was the director of the Space Shuttle Program. Mr. O’Connor served as a Marine Corps test pilot and as pilot of the STS-61B Space Shuttle mission and as commander of the STS-40 mission. He also served in a variety of RDT&E functions in support of the first test flights of the space shuttle. He is the recipient of several awards, including the Naval Test Pilot School Distinguished Graduate Award, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, and the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety’s Jerome Lederer Space Safety Pioneer Award. He currently serves on NASA’s Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel, which directly observes NASA operations and evaluates and advises NASA on its safety performance; the Panel submits an annual report to Congress and to the NASA Administrator. Mr. O’Connor earned an M.S. in aeronautical systems from the University of West Florida. He previously served as chair of the NRC Committee on Space Shuttle Upgrades. STANLEY PRESSER is a Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland where he teaches in the Sociology Department and the Joint Program in Survey Methodology. His research interests include questionnaire design and testing, the accuracy of survey responses, and the nature and consequences of survey nonresponse. Dr. Presser is a past president of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, a fellow of the American Statistical Association, and a recipient of the Paul F. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-4

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Lazarsfeld Award for a career of outstanding contributions to methodology in sociology. He earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Michigan. Dr. Presser has served as a member of the NRC Committee to Review the Bureau of Transportation Statistics’ Survey Programs and the NRC Panel to Review USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey, and he currently serves as a member of the NRC Panel on Measuring Civic Engagement and Social Cohesion to Inform Policy. HELEN R. QUINN (NAS) is a professor of particle physics and astrophysics (emeritus) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and co-chair of Stanford University’s K12 Initiative. Dr. Quinn is a theoretical physicist who holds numerous honors for her research contributions, including the prestigious Dirac (Italy) and Klein (Sweden) medals. She has had a long-term engagement in education issues and has worked at the local, state, and national level on them. Her interests range from science curriculum and standards to the preparation and continuing education of science teachers. She is a member and former president of the American Physical Society. She received her Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University. She currently chairs the NRC Board on Science Education and serves as a member of the Committee on a Framework for Assessment of Science Proficiency in K-12. She has also chaired the NRC Committee on Conceptual Framework for New Science Education Standards and served as a member of the Committee on Physics of the Universe; the Astro 2010 decadal Survey and many other NRC committees. ASIF A. SIDDIQI is an associate professor of history at Fordham University. He specializes in the history of modern science and technology and has authored numerous books and articles on the history of spaceflight. His book Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945-1974, published by NASA in 2000, was the first major work on the history of the Soviet space program and was based on evidence revealed after the end of the Cold War. The Wall Street Journal named it one of the five best books published on space exploration. His writings extend beyond the Russian/Soviet space program to such topics as Asian space initiatives, military space research, and the historiography of American space exploration. His most recent book, The Red Rockets’ Glare: Spaceflight and the Soviet Imagination, 1857-1957, focused on the cultural roots of space enthusiasm in Russia and was published in 2010. He has served as a visiting scholar at MIT and was one of the co-authors of The Future of Human Spaceflight, a report presented to members of Congress and NASA. In 2013-2014, Dr. Siddiqi will serve as the Charles A. Lindbergh Fellow in aerospace history at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. Dr. Siddiqi has a B.S. and M.S. in electrical engineering from Texas A&M University and a Ph.D. in history from Carnegie Mellon University. JOHN C. SOMMERER is a retired senior fellow in the Director’s Office of the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), the largest of the Department of Defense University Affiliated Research Centers. He also holds a permanent appointment as Daniel Coit Gilman Scholar at Johns Hopkins University. Until January 1, 2014, he led the APL Space Sector, with responsibility for all APL contributions to military, intelligence community, and civil space programs, including the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the New Horizons mission to Pluto, Van Allen Probes, Solar Probe Plus, the MDA Precision Tracking Space System, and ORSTech 1 and 2. Prior to 2008, he held a number of other senior executive positions at APL, including director of science & technology, chief technology officer, and director of the Milton S. Eisenhower Research Center, and he led a number of enterprise-level task forces, strategic plans, and other initiatives. Dr. Sommerer received bachelor’s and master’s degrees in systems science and mathematics from Washington University in St. Louis, a master’s degree in applied physics from Johns Hopkins University, and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Maryland. Dr. Sommerer has served on a number of advisory bodies for the U.S. government, including terms as chair and vice chair of the Naval Research Advisory Committee, senior technical advisory committee to the Secretary of the Navy, Chief of Naval Operations, and Commandant of the Marine Corps. He has also served on numerous NRC boards and committees. He is a full member of the International Academy of Astronautics. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-5

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ROGER TOURANGEAU is a vice president and associate director at Westat, Inc., one of the largest survey firms in the United States. Before joining Westat, he was research professor at the University of Michigan’s Survey Research Center and the director of the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland. He has been a survey methodologist for nearly 30 years. Dr. Tourangeau is an author on more than 60 research articles, mostly on survey methods topics. He is also the lead author of a new book on web survey design (Web Surveys) with Fred Conrad and Mick Couper. His earlier book, The Psychology of Survey Response, with Lance Rips and Kenneth Rasinski, received the 2006 Book Award from the American Association for Public Opinion Research. He was elected as a fellow of the American Statistical Association in 1999. Dr. Tourangeau has a Ph.D. in psychology from Yale University. He currently serves on the NRC Committee on National Statistics and has previously served as chair of the Panel on Research Agenda for the Future of Social Science Data Collection. ARIEL WALDMAN is the founder of Spacehack.org, a directory of ways to participate in space exploration, and is the global instigator of Science Hack Day, an event that brings together scientists, technologists, designers, and people with good ideas to see what they can create in one weekend. Ms. Waldman is also a fellow at Institute For The Future and was the recent recipient of an honor from the White House as a Champion of Change in citizen science. In 2012, Ms. Waldman authored a paper on democratized science instrumentation for the Science and Technology Policy Institute. Previously, she worked at NASA’s CoLab program, whose mission was to connect communities inside and outside NASA to collaborate. Ms. Waldman has also been a sci-fi movie gadget columnist for Engadget and a digital anthropologist at VML. She has keynoted O’Reilly’s Open Source Convention (OSCON) and DARPA’s 100 Year Starship Symposium, appeared on the SyFy channel, and regularly gives talks to a variety of global audiences. In 2008, she was named one of the top 50 most influential individuals in Silicon Valley. Ms. Waldman earned a B.S. from the Art Institute of Pittsburgh in graphic design. CLIFF ZUKIN is a professor of public policy and political science at Rutgers University’s Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Policy and the Eagleton Institute of Politics. He is also a senior research fellow at the Rutgers University John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development. Dr. Zukin’s research interests include public opinion, survey research, mass media, and political behavior. He was founding director of the Rutgers University Center for Public Interest Polling and the Star- Ledger/Eagleton-Rutgers Poll, a quarterly opinion survey. He also served as a consultant to the NBC News Election Unit and for 15 years was on the board of advisers for the Pew Research Center. Dr. Zukin is a member of the Public Opinion Quarterly editorial board and past president of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. His recent book A New Engagement? Political Participation, Civic Life, and the Changing American Citizen (co-authored with S. Keeter, M. Andolina, K. Jenkins, and M.X. Delli Carpini) uses survey data and the authors’ own primary research to examine generational differences in political participation. Dr. Zukin has a Ph.D. in political science from Ohio State University PUBLIC AND STAKEHOLDER OPINIONS PANEL ROGER TOURANGEAU, Chair. See the committee listing above. MOLLY ANDOLINA is associate professor in the department of political science at DePaul University. She researches civic practices and attitudes of the millennial generation toward politics, volunteerism, and community involvement. She co-authored the book A New Engagement? Political Participation, Civic Life and the Changing American Citizen and the chapter, A Conceptual Framework and Multi-Method Approach for Research on Political Socialization and Civic Engagement, in the Handbook of Research on Civic Engagement in Youth. In the past, she was survey director at the Pew Research Center for the PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-6

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People & the Press, where she conducted public opinion polling on attitudes toward public policy issues and co-directed a survey of political elites. Prior to joining the Pew Research Center, she wrote and designed qualitative interview guides and conducted stakeholder interviews with public officials and citizens. Dr. Andolina has a Ph.D. in government from Georgetown University. JENNIFER L. HOCHSCHILD is the Henry LaBarre Jayne Professor of Government, professor of African and African American Studies, and Harvard College Professor at Harvard University. She also holds a lectureship in the Harvard Kennedy School. Dr. Hochschild studies the intersection of American politics and political philosophy and works on issues in public opinion and political culture. Her current research interests include citizens’ use of factual information in political decision-making, and the political or ideological developments around genomic science. Dr. Hochschild is an expert in qualitative research methodologies, especially in-depth interviews and elite interviews. She is the author or co-author of numerous books, including What’s Fair: American Beliefs about Distributive Justice, a classic study based on in-depth interviews. She was founding editor of Perspectives on Politics, published by the American Political Science Association, and until recently was a co-editor of the American Political Science Review. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a former vice-president of the American Political Science Association, a former member and vice-chair of the board of trustees of the Russell Sage Foundation, and a former member of the board of overseers of the General Social Survey. Dr. Hochschild has a Ph.D. in political science from Yale University. She served two terms on the National Academies Division Committee for the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. JAMES S. JACKSON (IOM). See the committee listing above ROGER D. LAUNIUS is associate director for collections and curatorial affairs at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum, where he previously served as a senior curator in the Space History Department. From 1982-1990 he worked as a civilian historian with the United States Air Force. He then became chief historian of NASA until 2002. Dr. Launius has written or edited more than 20 books on aerospace history, and pursues research in other historical areas as well. He is frequently consulted by the media for his views on space issues, and has been a guest commentator on National Public Radio and major television networks. He is a member of the American Historical Association, the Organization of American Historians, the Society for History in the Federal Government, the National Council on Public History, the History of Science Society, and the Society for the History of Technology. He also is a fellow of AAAS, the American Astronautical Society, and the International Academy of Astronautics, and associate fellow of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics. He served as chair of the history and education panel of the U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission between 1999 and 2004. In 2003 he served as a consultant to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. He is a recipient of the Exceptional Service Medal and the Exceptional Achievement Medal from NASA. He holds a Ph.D. in American history from Louisiana State University. JON D. MILLER is research scientist and director of the International Center for the Advancement of Scientific Literacy, Institute for Social Research, at the University of Michigan. He has measured public understanding of science and technology in the United States for the last three decades, and has examined the factors associated with the development of attitudes toward science and science policy. He is currently the director of the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, which is a longitudinal study of the development of attitudes toward science, mathematics, and citizenship among two cohorts of students. In the past Dr. Miller was the PI for a national study of science policy leaders and space policy leaders. Another one of his recent studies, which involved in-depth interviews with leading scholars in the popularization of science and technology, developed recommendations for a longer-term research program to enhance our understanding of how various segments of the public views, conceptualizes, and understands scientific research. He is author of the book The American People and Science Policy: The Role of Public Attitudes in the Policy Process. He is a member of the Planetary Protection Subcommittee PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-7

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of NASA’s Advisory Council. Dr. Miller has a Ph.D. in political science from Northwestern University. Previous NRC experience includes service on the Committee on Assessing Technological Literacy in the United States and the Committee on NASA Education Program Outcomes Study. STANLEY PRESSER. See committee listing above. CLIFF ZUKIN. See committee listing above. TECHNICAL PANEL JOHN C. SOMMERER, Chair. See committee listing above.. DOUGLAS S. STETSON, Vice Chair, is founder and president of Space Science and Exploration Consulting Group, a network of senior advisors and experienced individuals drawn from NASA, national laboratories, industry, and universities. He is a consultant specializing in innovative mission and system concepts, strategic planning, decision analysis, proposal development, and university and industry partnerships. Prior to becoming a consultant, Mr. Stetson spent 25 years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in a variety of technical and management positions, including several assignments at NASA Headquarters. At JPL he was most recently the manager of the Solar System Mission Formulation Office, where he was responsible for development of all new planetary mission and technology strategies and programs. Earlier in his career, Mr. Stetson played key roles in the design and development of several major planetary missions, including Cassini and Galileo, and he was the leader of many planetary advanced studies and proposals. He received his M.S. in aeronautics and astronautics from Stanford University. He is a veteran of two NRC studies, most recently as a member of Committee on Planetary Protection Standards for Icy Bodies in the Outer Solar System. ARNOLD D. ALDRICH is an aerospace consultant. He joined the NASA Space Task Group at Langley Field, Virginia, in 1959, 6 months after the award of the contract to build the Mercury Spacecraft and 4 months following the selection of the seven original astronauts. He held a number of key flight operations management positions at Langley and at the NASA Johnson Space Center during the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. Subsequently, he served as Skylab deputy program manager; Apollo Spacecraft deputy program manager during the successful Apollo Soyuz Test Project with the Soviet Union; Space Shuttle Orbiter project manager, where he oversaw 15 successful flights as well as the construction of the orbiters Discovery and Atlantis; and as Space Shuttle program manager. Following the space shuttle Challenger accident, Mr. Aldrich was appointed director of the National Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle Program) at NASA Headquarters where he led Space Shuttle Program recovery and return- to-flight efforts. Subsequently, Mr. Aldrich was appointed NASA associate administrator for Space Systems Development, overseeing the Space Station Freedom program, development of the Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank, and other space system technology initiatives, including single-stage- to-orbit concepts and feasibility. He also led political and technical initiatives with Russia, leading to the incorporation of the Russian Soyuz spacecraft as the on-orbit emergency rescue vehicle for the ISS. In 1994, Mr. Aldrich left NASA and joined Lockheed Missiles and Space Company in Sunnyvale, California, where he served as vice president of commercial space business development and subsequently as vice president of strategic technology planning. With the merger of Lockheed and Martin Marietta, he joined Lockheed Martin corporate headquarters in Bethesda, Maryland, where he oversaw X- 33/Venturestar single-stage-to-orbit program activity. Later, he became director of program operations and pursued a broad array of initiatives to enhance program management across the Corporation. Mr. Aldrich has received numerous honors during his career, including the Presidential Rank of Distinguished Executive and the NASA Distinguished Service Medal. He is an honorary fellow of the AIAA. Mr. Aldrich holds a B.S. in electrical engineering from Northeastern University. He is a member of the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-8

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DOUGLAS M. ALLEN is an independent consultant. Mr. Allen has more than 30 years of experience in advanced aerospace technology research, development, and testing. He is an expert in space power technology; his achievements include leading the successful first flight of multi-junction solar cells, leading the successful first flight of modular concentrator solar arrays, teaching AIAA’s Space Power Systems Design short course, leading development of high specific energy batteries, managing development of nuclear space power systems, and leading development of solar power systems designed to survive hostile threats. Mr. Allen was awarded AIAA’s Aerospace Power Systems Award for outstanding career achievements. Previously, he worked for the Schafer Corporation for 18 years. Mr. Allen led multiple modeling and simulation efforts for the Air Force Research Laboratory and the National Air and Space Intelligence Center. He was Schafer’s chief engineer for a NASA contract that included developing a concept for Moon and Mars exploration and conceptual design of a Crew Exploration Vehicle. Prior to that, Mr. Allen managed launch vehicle and power technology programs for the DOD’s Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. Mr. Allen received an M.S. in mechanical engineering/energy conversion and a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Dayton. His previous NRC membership service includes the Committee on Radioisotope Power Systems, the Committee on Thermionic Research and Technology, and the NASA Technology Roadmap: Propulsion and Power Panel. RAYMOND E. ARVIDSON is the James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis. He is also a fellow of the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences. He directs the Earth and Planetary Remote Sensing Laboratory (EPRSL), which is involved in many aspects of NASA’s planetary exploration program, including developing science objectives and plans for missions, participating in mission operations and data analysis, and archiving and distributing data (NASA PDS Geosciences Node) relevant to characterizing and understanding planetary surfaces and interiors. Dr. Arvidson has participated in the Viking Lander (Image Team), Mars Global Surveyor, Odyssey (interdisciplinary scientist), Mars Exploration Rover (Spirit and Opportunity as deputy principal investigator), Phoenix Mars Lander (Robotic Arm co-investigator), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (CRISM Team), Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity mobility scientist) and the European Space Agency’s Mars Express missions (OMEGA Team). He received his Ph.D. in planetary sciences from Brown University. His NRC experience includes previously serving as chair of the Committee on Data Management and Computation and as a member of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey: Mars Panel, the Panel on Remote Sensing, and the Space Studies Board. RICHARD C. ATKINSON (NAS/IOM) is president emeritus of the University of California (UC) and professor emeritus of cognitive science and psychology at UC, San Diego. He has also served as president of the UC system. His tenure was marked by innovative approaches to admissions and outreach, research initiatives to accelerate the UC’s contributions to the state’s economy, and a challenge to the country’s most widely used admissions examination—the SAT—that paved the way to major changes in the way millions of America’s youth now are tested for college admissions. Before becoming president of the UC system, Dr. Atkinson served for 15 years as chancellor of UC, San Diego, where he led that campus’s emergence as one of the leading research universities in the nation. Dr. Atkinson has also served as director of NSF, as president of AAAS, and as a long-term member of the faculty at Stanford University. His research has been concerned with problems of memory and cognition. He is a member of the National Academy of Education and the American Philosophical Society. Dr. Atkinson is the recipient of many honorary degrees and the Vannevar Bush Medal of the National Science Board. He received his Ph.D. in mathematical psychology in Indiana University and a B.A. in mathematical psychology the University of Chicago. Dr. Atkinson’s previous NRC service includes chair of the Division Committee for the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and the Board on Testing Assessment and member of the PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-9

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Committee on the Fiscal Future of the United States: Analysis and Policy Options, National Forum on Science and Technology Goals: Harnessing Technology for America’s Economic Future, and the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. ROBERT D. BRAUN serves as the David and Andrew Lewis Professor of Space Technology in the Daniel Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. As director of Georgia Tech’s Space Systems Design Laboratory, he leads an active research program focused on the design of advanced flight systems and technologies for planetary exploration. Dr. Braun has worked extensively in the areas of entry system design, planetary atmospheric flight, and space mission architecture development and has contributed to the design, development, test, and operation of several robotic space flight systems. In 2010 and 2011, he served as the first NASA chief technologist in more than a decade. In this capacity, he was the senior agency executive responsible for technology and innovation policy and programs. Earlier in his career, Dr. Braun served on the technical staff of the NASA Langley Research Center. He is an American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) fellow and the principle author or co-author of over 200 technical publications in the fields of planetary exploration, atmospheric entry, multidisciplinary design optimization, and systems engineering. Dr. Braun has a B.S. in aerospace engineering from the Pennsylvania State University, an M.S. in astronautics from George Washington University, and a Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics from Stanford University. He previously served as co-chair of the NRC’s Committee on Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts and as a member of the Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey: Mars Panel and the Committee on New Opportunities in Solar System Exploration. ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL is the director for economic development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. She previously served as the deputy associate laboratory director for the National Security Directorate at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to joining Oak Ridge, Dr. Cantwell was the division leader for the International, Space, and Response Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Her career began in building life support systems for human spaceflight missions with the NASA. She received an M.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania, an M.B.A. in finance from Wharton School, and a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Cantwell’s has extensive NRC experience including current memberships on the Space Studies Board and the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences Board; co-chair of the Committee on Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space; and member of the Committee on NASA’s Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, the Review of NASA Strategic Roadmaps: Space Station Panel, the Committee on Technology for Human/Robotic Exploration and Development of Space, and the Committee on Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space. DAVID E. CROW (NAE) is professor emeritus of mechanical engineering at the University of Connecticut and retired senior vice president of engineering at Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Engine Company. At Pratt and Whitney he was influential in the design, development, test, and manufacturing in support of a full line of engines for aerospace and industrial applications. He was involved with products that include high-thrust turbofans for large commercial and military aircraft; turboprops and small turbofans for regional and corporate aircraft and helicopters; booster engines and upper stage propulsion systems for advanced launch vehicles; turbopumps for the Space Shuttle; and industrial engines for land- based power generation. His involvement included sophisticated computer modeling and standard work to bring constant improvements in the performance and reliability of the company’s products, while at the same time reducing noise and emissions. Dr. Crow received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering in from the University of Missouri-Rolla, his M.S. in mechanical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and his B.S. in mechanical engineering from University of Missouri-Rolla. Dr. Crow’s current NRC service includes chair of the Panel on Air and Ground Vehicle Technology and as a member on the Army Research Laboratory Technical assessment Board. His previous membership service with the NRC PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-10

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is extensive and includes the Committee on Examination of the U.S. Air Force’s Aircraft Sustainment Needs in the Future and its Strategy to Meet those Needs, the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, the Committee for the Evaluation of NASA’s Fundamental Aeronautics Research Program, the Committee on Analysis of Air Force Engine Efficiency Improvement Options for Large Non-Fighter Aircraft, the Committee on Air Force/Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion and the NASA Technology Roadmap: Propulsion and Power Panel. RAVI B. DEO is president and founder of EMBR, an aerospace engineering and technology services company specializing in strategic planning, business development, program management and structural engineering. Dr. Deo formerly served as the director of the technology, space systems market segment at Northrop Grumman Corporation’s Integrated Systems Sector. He has worked as a program and functional manager for government sponsored projects on cryotanks, integrated airplane and space vehicle systems health management, and structures and materials, thermal protection systems, and software development. He has extensive experience in road mapping technologies, program planning, technical program execution, scheduling, budgeting, proposal preparation, and business management of technology development contracts. Among his significant accomplishments are the NASA-funded Space Launch Initiative, Next Generation Launch Technology, Orbital Space Plane, and High Speed Research programs, where he was responsible for the development of multidisciplinary technologies. Dr. Deo is the author of more than 50 technical publications and is the editor of one book. He has served on the Scientific Advisory Board to the Air Force Research Laboratories. Dr. Deo received a B.S. in aeronautical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology and an M.S. and Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology. His NRC service includes membership on the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, the Committee on the NASA Technology Roadmap, the Panel C: Structures and Materials and the Committee on Assessment of NASA Laboratory Capabilities ROBERT S. DICKMAN is an independent consultant for RDSpace, LLC. Prior to retirement, he served seven years as the executive director of the AIAA. He is also a USAF major general (retired), having served 34-years as an USAF officer. His military career spanned the space business from basic research in particle physics to command of the 45th Space Wing and director of the eastern range at Cape Canaveral, Florida. He served as the USAF director of space programs, the DOD Space Architect, and the senior military officer at the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). He retired from active duty in as a major general. Prior to joining the AIAA, he was deputy for military space in the office of the undersecretary of the U.S. Air Force. Major General Dickman has been a member of the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee and has served on the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and the NRO’s Technical Advisory Group. He is a fellow of the AIAA and a Corresponding Member of the International Academy of Astronautics. Major General Dickman earned a B.S. in physics from Union College, an M.S. in space physics from the Air Force Institute of Technology, and an M.S. in management from Regina College, as well he is a distinguished graduate of the Air Command and Staff College and the Naval War College. He previously served as a member on the NRC Committee for the Reusable Booster System: Review and Assessment. DAVA J. NEWMAN is a professor in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems at MIT. She also serves as affiliate faculty in the Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology Program; MacVicar Faculty Fellow and director of the Technology and Policy Program and the MIT Portugal Program at MIT. She specializes in investigating human performance across the spectrum of gravity. Dr. Newman has served as PI on four spaceflight experiments, and she is an expert in the areas of extravehicular activity (EVA), human movement, physics-based modeling, human-robotic cooperation, and design. Currently she is working on advanced space suit design and biomedical devices, especially to enhance locomotion implementing wearable sensors. Her exoskeleton innovations are now being applied to “soft suits” to study and enhance locomotion on Earth for children with Cerebral Palsy. Dr. Newman’s PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-11

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finite element modeling work provided NASA the first three-dimensional representation of bone loss and loading applicable for long-duration missions. Her teaching focuses on engineering design, aerospace biomedicine, and leadership, all involving active learning, hands-on design, and information technology to enhance student learning. Dr. Newman has over 175 research publications, including an Engineering Design text and CDROM. She was named one of the Best Inventors of 2007 for her BioSuit™ system by Time Magazine, which has been exhibited at the MET, Boston’s Museum of Science, Paris’ Le Cité des Sciences et Industrie, London’s Victoria and Albert Museum, and the American Museum of Natural History. She serves on the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Committee on Technology and Innovation. Dr. Newman received a B.S. in aerospace engineering from the University of Notre Dame, an M.S. in both aeronautics and astronautics and technology and policy, and a Ph.D. in aerospace biomedical engineering from MIT. Her prior NRC service includes membership for two terms on the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, the Steering Committee on the NASA Technology Roadmaps, the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space, the Committee on Engineering Challenges to the Long-Term Operation of the International Space Station, the Committee on Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space, and the Committee on Full System Testing and Evaluation of Personal Protection Equipment Ensembles in Simulated Chemical and Biological Warfare Environments. JOHN R. ROGACKI is associate director of the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition(IHMC)(Ocala). Prior to joining IHMC, Dr. Rogacki served as director of the University of Florida’s Research and Engineering Education Facility (REEF), a unique educational facility in Northwest Florida supporting U.S. Air Force (USAF) research and education needs through graduate degree programs in mechanical, aerospace, electrical, computer, industrial, and systems engineering. Under his leadership, REEF grew into a highly capable and internationally respected research and education facility. Among Dr. Rogacki’s past experiences, he served as the NASA’s deputy associate administrator for space transportation technology (in charge of the Space Launch Initiative); program director for the Orbital Space Plane and Next Generation Launch Technology Programs; co-chair of the NASA/DOD Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology Program; director of NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center’s Space Transportation Directorate; director of the propulsion directorate for the USAF Research Laboratory; director of the USAF Phillips Laboratory Propulsion Directorate; and deputy director of the Flight Dynamics Directorate of the USAF Wright Laboratory. An accomplished pilot, Dr. Rogacki has logged over 3,300 flying hours as pilot, instructor pilot, and flight examiner in aircraft ranging from motorized gliders to heavy bombers. He has served as primary NASA liaison for the National Aerospace Initiative; co-chair of the DOD Future Propulsion Technology Advisory Group; co- chair of the DOD Ground and Sea Vehicles Technology Area Readiness Assessment Panel; member of the National High Cycle Fatigue Coordinating Committee; and senior NASA representative to the Joint Aeronautical Commanders Group. Later, Dr. Rogacki became associate professor of engineering mechanics (and chief of the materials division) at the USAF Academy. In 2005, he graduated from the Senior Executives Program in National and International Security at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. Dr. Rogacki earned his Ph.D. and M.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Washington and his B.S. in engineering mechanics from the USAF Academy. He previously chaired the NRC NASA Technology Roadmap: Propulsion and Power Panel. GUILLERMO TROTTI is president of Trotti and Associates, Inc. (TAI), a firm specializing in sustainable architecture and design for extreme environments such as remote islands, the Antarctic, space, and underwater environments in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He is an internationally recognized architect and industrial designer with more than 35 years of experience designing space habitats and structures, architectural projects for the eco-tourism, entertainment, medical and education sectors. Previously, Mr. Trotti was the president of Bell and Trotti, Inc. (BTI), a design and fabrication studio that specialized in space architecture and exhibit design. His experience includes designing diverse elements of the ISS for NASA and leading aerospace companies. He co-founded Space Industries Inc. for the purpose of building PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-12

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a privately owned space station. His lunar base design is included in the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum’s permanent collection. He and his students won the NSF design competition for the U.S. South Pole Station. He has worked with NASA’s Institute of Advanced Concepts on revolutionary mission architecture concepts for exploring the Moon with habitable and inflatable rovers. His Extreme Expeditionary Architecture: Mobile, Adaptable Systems for Space and Earth Exploration research proposed a revolutionary way for humans and machines to explore the lunar surface. Currently, TAI collaborates with MIT leading the design of the BioSuit™ System, an advanced mechanical counterpressure spacesuit for lunar and Mars planetary exploration; and the design of novel EVA injury protection and countermeasure devices for astronaut safety. Mr. Trotti’s teaching experience includes architecture and industrial design at the University of Houston (UH) and the Rhode Island School of Design, respectively. At UH, he co-founded the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture. He received a B.A. in architecture from the University of Houston, and a M.A. in architecture from Rice University. Mr. Trotti has served on the NRC Committee to Review NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Programs and the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space: Translation to Space Exploration Systems Panel. LINDA A. WILLIAMS is a Program Manager for the Wyle Aerospace Group. She leads a team of analysts for a major government customer’s Cost Assessment and Analysis Group. She is also a Wyle subject matter expert in cost estimating and analysis, with more than 30 years of experience with space system cost estimating at Wyle, RCA Astro Electronics (now Lockheed Martin), Futron, Harris and L-3 Communications. She has developed numerous space system cost models, collected and normalized data, conducted price-to-win analyses, participated in satellite industry demand-based forecasts, and developed economic and strategic planning analyses. She has provided support to national, civil and commercial space programs. Some of the projects she has lead or supported include development of cost and technical trade studies for the Space Station Work Package 3 study, development of a demand based forecast for the NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle 2 project, participated in the development of a demand based forecast for a major commercial communications satellite operator, and conducted cost trades and estimates for satellite systems including Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), Television and Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS), Mars Observer, Earth Observing System (EOS), Mobile User Objective System (MUOS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and many commercial satellite programs. She has co-authored several papers focused on the commercial satellite market and price analyses. She has an MBA from Rider University and a BA in economics from Rutgers University. Ms. Williams is a certified cost estimating analyst (CCEA) and a project management professional (PMP). For the last four years she has provided an annual training course and problem solving workshop at the International Cost Estimating Analysts Association (ICEAA) annual conference in support of the industry certification exam. This course covers all aspects of cost estimating and economic/program analysis. STAFF Committee and Technical Panel Staff SANDRA J. GRAHAM, Study Director, has been a senior program officer at the National Research Council’s Space Studies Board (SSB) since 1994. During that time Dr. Graham has directed a large number of major studies, many of them focused on space research in biological and physical sciences and technology. Studies in other areas include an assessment of servicing options for the Hubble Space Telescope, a study of the societal impacts of severe space weather, and a review of NASA’s Space Communications Program while on loan to the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB). More recently, she directed the work of the committee and seven panels to develop the comprehensive decadal report Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration—Life and Microgravity Sciences Research for a New Era. Prior to joining the SSB, Dr. Graham held the position of senior PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-13

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scientist at the Bionetics Corporation, where she provided technical and science management support for NASA’s Microgravity Science and Applications Division. She received her Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from Duke University, where her research focused primarily on topics in bioinorganic chemistry, such as rate modeling and reaction chemistry of biological metal complexes and their analogs. MICHAEL MOLONEY is the director for Space and Aeronautics at the Space Studies Board and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board of the National Research Council of the U.S. National Academies. Since joining the ASEB/SSB. Dr. Moloney has overseen the production of more than 40 reports, including four decadal surveys—in astronomy and astrophysics, planetary science, life and microgravity science, and solar and space physics—a review of the goals and direction of the U.S. human exploration program, a prioritization of NASA space technology roadmaps, as well as reports on issues such as NASA’s Strategic Direction, orbital debris, the future of NASA’s astronaut corps, and NASA’s flight research program. Before joining the SSB and ASEB in 2010, Dr. Moloney was associate director of the BPA and study director for the decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics (Astro2010). Since joining the NRC in 2001, Dr. Moloney has served as a study director at the National Materials Advisory Board, the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, and the Center for Economic, Governance, and International Studies. Dr. Moloney has served as study director or senior staff for a series of reports on subject matters as varied as quantum physics, nanotechnology, cosmology, the operation of the nation’s helium reserve, new anti-counterfeiting technologies for currency, corrosion science, and nuclear fusion. In addition to his professional experience at the National Academies, Dr. Moloney has more than 7 years’ experience as a foreign- service officer for the Irish government—including serving at the Irish Embassy in Washington and the Irish Mission to the United Nations in New York. A physicist, Dr. Moloney did his Ph.D. work at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland. He received his undergraduate degree in experimental physics at University College Dublin, where he was awarded the Nevin Medal for Physics. ALAN C. ANGLEMAN has been a senior program officer for the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) since 1993, directing studies on the modernization of the U.S. air transportation system, system engineering and design systems, aviation weather systems, aircraft certification standards and procedures, commercial supersonic aircraft, the safety of space launch systems, radioisotope power systems, cost growth of NASA Earth and space science missions, and other aspects of aeronautics and space research and technology. Previously, Mr. Angleman worked for consulting firms in the Washington area providing engineering support services to the DOD and NASA Headquarters. His professional career began with the U.S. Navy, where he served for 9 years as a nuclear-trained submarine officer. He has a B.S. in engineering physics from the U.S. Naval Academy and an M.S. in applied physics from the Johns Hopkins University. ABIGAIL A. SHEFFER joined the Space Studies Board (SSB) in fall 2009 as a Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow to work on the report Visions and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. She continued with the SSB to become an associate program officer. Dr. Sheffer earned her Ph.D. in planetary science from the University of Arizona and her A.B. in geosciences from Princeton University. Since coming to the SSB, she has worked on several studies, including Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies, Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Collaboration on Space and Earth Science Missions, and The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth’s Climate: A Workshop Report. AMANDA R. THIBAULT, research associate, joined the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board in 2011 and left in January 2013. Ms. Thibault is a graduate of Creighton University where she earned her B.S. in atmospheric science in 2008. From there she went on to Texas Tech University where she studied lightning trends in tornadic and non-tornadic supercell thunderstorms and worked as a teaching and research assistant. She participated in the VORTEX 2 field project from 2009-2010 and graduated with a PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-14

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M.S. in atmospheric science from Texas Tech in August 2010. She is a member of the American Meteorological Society. DIONNA J. WILLIAMS is a program associate with the SSB, having previously worked for the National Academies’ Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education for 5 years. Ms. Williams has a long career in office administration, having worked as a supervisor in a number of capacities and fields. Ms. Williams attended the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, and majored in psychology. F. HARRISON DREVES was a Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern for the SSB during the study and is now a communications/media specialist for the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences. Mr. Dreves recently received a B.A. degree from Vanderbilt University with concentrations in the communication of science and technology and Earth and environmental sciences. His academic interests include science policy, climate science, and science communication through video. At Vanderbilt, he served as a senior video producer for student media. Mr. Dreves hopes to pursue a career in science journalism or science policy, working to translate between the scientific community and the public. He is interested in combining his lifelong passion for space exploration (attending Space Camp in Huntsville at age 11) with his interest in science policy at the Space Studies Board, especially to gain insight into the political and economic structures behind space science programs. As a future space science communicator, Mr. Dreves would like to explain how research is funded, how a research target is selected, and, most importantly, why space science research funding matters. JINNI MEEHAN, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern, Fall 2013 (SSB) is a Ph.D. student at Utah State University in the department of physics. Her research is directed towards alleviating space weather effects on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) by better characterizing the ionosphere, which can improve forecast models. Jinni developed an interest for science policy when she spent a summer with the American Meteorological Society as a policy fellow working on space weather policy issues. She has authored several publications and presentations and has been a contributing author to numerous workshop reports for the space sciences community. The societal impacts due to space weather effects on GNSS is something she is passionate about and understands the importance of effective communication between scientists and government and she plans to pursue a career in the field when she completes her Ph.D. CHERYL MOY, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow, Fall 2012, received her Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Michigan. In her graduate work, Dr. Moy focused on elucidating the interactions that drive the formation of unique materials categorized as molecular gels. During her graduate career, she also helped design and implement a class-project centered on students editing Wikipedia pages as means of improving science education and the public’s access to science. She holds a B.A. from Willamette University, and her experiences there led to an interest in bridging the gap between scientists and the general public. In 2011, she interned at the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Dr. Moy is excited for the opportunity to be a Mirzayan Fellow to learn how to connect scientific discoveries with everyone who can benefit outside of the research atmosphere—from consumers to government to industry. SIERRA SMITH, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern, Fall 2013 (SSB), recently graduated from James Madison University with an MA in history. The research for her master’s thesis focused on the sociopolitical context of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence and its broader relationship to space sciences. While working at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, she conducted research on the evolution of radio astronomy in the United States. She plans to continue her studies by pursuing a PhD in the history of science. An internship with the Space Studies Board presents her an exciting opportunity to experience the real time development of space policy. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-15

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PADAMASHRI SURESH, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow, Winter 2014 (SSB/ DEPS), is currently finishing her Ph.D. in electrical engineering at Utah State University. Ms. Suresh is a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellow working on understanding the effects of space weather. Her dissertation focuses on studying the effects of solar storms on the Earth’s upper atmosphere. Her other research interests include instrumentation for CubeSats and sounding rocket missions. She is also a member of the student government working as the graduate research director and serving as the graduate student liaison across various research and student welfare committees. Ms. Suresh’s interest in the Mirzayan fellowship stems from her interest to pursue a career in space program management. As a Mirzayan fellow, she hopes to learn how the different stakeholders of the space industry interface when deciding system-level problems and making enterprise-level decisions. Originally from Bangalore, India, Ms. Suresh obtained her B.S. in electrical engineering from Visveswaraiah Technological University. Following which, she worked with IBM as a systems engineer and architect for 2 years and then moved to Utah to pursue a master’s with a focus on space systems. Public and Stakeholder Opinions Panel Staff KRISZTINA MARTON is a senior program officer with the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT). She is currently serving as study director for the Panel on Addressing Priority Technical Issues for the American Community Survey and has lead CNSTAT’s contribution to the Committee onHuman Spaceflight. Previously, she was the study director for the Panel on the Statistical Methods for Measuring the Group Quarters Population in the American Community Survey, the Panel on Redesigning the Commercial Buildings and Residential Energy Consumption Surveys of the Energy Information Administration, the Workshop on the Future of Federal Household Surveys, and an expert meeting on more efficient screening methods for the Health and Retirement Study of the National Institute on Aging. Prior to joining CNSTAT, she was a survey researcher at Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) where she conducted methodological research and oversaw data collections for the National Science Foundation, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and other clients. Previously, she was a survey director in the Ohio State University Center for Survey Research. She has a Ph.D. in communication with an interdisciplinary specialization in survey research from the Ohio State University. CONSTANCE F. CITRO is director of the Committee on National Statistics, a position she has held since May 2004. She previously served as acting chief of staff (December 2003-April 2004) and as senior study director (1986-2003). She began her career with CNSTAT in 1984 as study director for the panel that produced The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990. Dr. Citro received her B.A. in political science from the University of Rochester, and M.A. and Ph.D. in political science from Yale University. Prior to joining CNSTAT, she held positions as vice president of Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., and Data Use and Access Laboratories, Inc. She was an American Statistical Association/National Science Foundation/Census research fellow in 1985-1986, and is a fellow of the American Statistical Association and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. For CNSTAT, she directed evaluations of the 2000 census, the Survey of Income and Program Participation, microsimulation models for social welfare programs, and the NSF science and engineering personnel data system, in addition to studies on institutional review boards and social science research, estimates of poverty for small geographic areas, data and methods for retirement income modeling, and a new approach for measuring poverty. She coedited the 2nd–5th editions of Principles and Practices for a Federal Statistical Agency, and contributed to studies on measuring racial discrimination, expanding access to research data, the usability of estimates from the American Community Survey, the National Children’s Study research plan, and the Census Bureau’s 2010 census program of experiments and evaluations. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-16

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JACQUELINE R. SOVDE has been a program associate with the Committee on National Statistics since December 2011. Before joining CNSTAT, she was with the Committee on Population. Prior to joining the Academies, she worked for the National Museum of Women in the Arts and for Alice Smith & Associates. Ms. Sovde received her B.A. from the University of California, Santa Cruz, in 2003, where she had an independent major in writing and communication. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION G-17