Literacy for Science

Exploring the Intersection of the Next Generation
Science Standards and Common Core for ELA Standards

A Workshop Summary

Holly Rhodes and Michael A. Feder, Rapporteurs

Steering Committee on Exploring the Overlap between “Literacy in Science” and the
Practice of Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Board on Science Education

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

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Literacy for Science Exploring the Intersection of the Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core for ELA Standards A Workshop Summary Holly Rhodes and Michael A. Feder, Rapporteurs Steering Committee on Exploring the Overlap between “Literacy in Science” and the Practice of Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information Board on Science Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the Contract No. 10001820 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Carnegie Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-30517-4 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-30517-9 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2014). Literacy for Science: Exploring the Intersection of the Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core for ELA Standards, A Workshop Summary, H. Rhodes and M.A. Feder, Rapporteurs. Steering Committee on Exploring the Overlap between “Literacy in Science” and the Practice of Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information. Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the gen- eral welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro- viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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STEERING COMMITTEE ON EXPLORING THE OVERLAP BETWEEN “LITERACY IN SCIENCE” AND THE PRACTICE OF OBTAINING, EVALUATING, AND COMMUNICATING INFORMATION P. DAVID PEARSON (Chair), Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley JUAN-CARLOS AGUILAR, Georgia Department of Education SARAH MICHAELS, Department of Education, Clark University ELIZABETH BIRR MOJE, School of Education, University of Michigan SUSAN PIMENTEL, Student Achievement Partners HELEN QUINN, Emerita, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University MICHAEL FEDER, Study Director HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Deputy Director, Board on Science Education REBECCA KRONE, Senior Program Assistant v

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BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION HELEN QUINN (Chair), Emerita, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University GEORGE BOGGS, Emeritus, Palomar College and American Association of Community Colleges MELANIE COOPER, Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University RODOLFO DIRZO, Department of Biology, Stanford University JACQUELYNNE ECCLES, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan JOSEPH FRANCISCO, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University MARGARET HONEY, New York Hall of Science, Queens, New York SUSAN W. KIEFFER, Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign MATTHEW KREHBIEL, Kansas State Department of Education  MICHAEL LACH, Urban Education Institute, University of Chicago LYNN LIBEN, Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University BRIAN REISER, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University MARSHALL “MIKE” SMITH, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching ROBERTA TANNER, Retired Physics Teacher, Thompson School District, Loveland, Colorado SUZANNE WILSON, Department of Teacher Education and Center for the Scholarship of Teaching, Michigan State University YU XIE, Department of Sociology, University of Michigan MARTIN STORKSDIECK, Director (through June 2014) HEIDI A. SCHWEINGRUBER, Deputy Director MICHAEL A. FEDER, Senior Program Officer MARGARET HILTON, Senior Program Officer NATALIE NIELSEN, Senior Program Officer (through February 2014) REBECCA KRONE, Program Associate (through May 2014) KELLY ARRINGTON, Senior Program Assistant JOANNA ROBERTS, Program Assistant vi

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Preface T his summary was prepared by independent rapporteurs. The workshop was designed to explore the intersection between the “Literacy in Science” por- tions of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and the practices in the Next Generation Science Standards. The views contained in the report are those of individual workshop participants and do not necessarily represent the views of all workshop participants, the planning committee, or the National Research Council (NRC). The planning committee was responsible only for the quality of the agenda and the selection of participants. Neither the work- shop nor this summary is intended as a comprehensive review of what is known about the topic. The presentations and discussions were limited by the time avail- able for the workshop. This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsive- ness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confiden- tial to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: George I. Matsumoto, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute; P. David Pearson, Language and Literacy and Cognition and Development, Graduate School of vii

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Education, University of California, Berkeley; and Sam Shaw, Division of Learning and Instruction, South Dakota Department of Education. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Carlo Parravano, executive director (retired), Merck Institute for Science Education. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution. viii Preface

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CONTENTS 1 Introduction 1 2 Literacy for Science in English Language Arts and Science Standards 7 3 The Language of Science Text and Talk 19 4 Weaving Science and Literacy Together across the Grades: Exemplars 31 5 Preparing Teachers to Effectively Interweave Science and Literacy Instruction 45 6 Supporting Literacy for Science on Various Scales 65 7 Final Remarks 77 References 89 Appendixes A Workshop Agenda 95 B Registered Workshop Participants 101 C  Biographical Summaries of Steering Committee Members and Workshop Speakers 107 ix

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