Enhancing the Value and Sustainability
of Field Stations and Marine Laboratories
in the 21st Century

Committee on Value and Sustainability of Biological Field Stations,
Marine Laboratories, and Nature Reserves
in 21st Century Science, Education, and Public Outreach

Board on Life Sciences

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
            Committee on Value and Sustainability of Biological Field Stations, Marine Laboratories, and Nature Reserves in 21st Century Science, Education, and Public Outreach Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, N.W.  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (1012215). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-30534-1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-30534-9 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334- 3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Front Cover: Top Left: Students take measurements of a gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus, before fitting it with a radio transmitter collar at Quail Ridge Reserve in Napa, California. Photo by Arielle Crews, UC Natural Reserve System. Top Right: Scientists from the Mountain Studies Institute collect lake sediment cores at Crater Lake. Photo provided by Mountain Studies Institute (www.mountainstudies.org). Middle Left: Scientist with Bluntnose Sixgill Shark on marine research vessel. Photo provided Florida State University Coastal and Marine Laboratory. Middle Right: Scientists conduct a laboratory experiment at LUMCON. Photo provided by Nicole Cotten, Louisiana University Marine Consortium. Bottom Right: Front view of Therkildsen Field Station at Emiquon, University of Illinois Springfield. Photo by Melissa Benedict. Bottom Left: Flathead Lake Biological Station (aerial view) is located on a peninsula of native forest on the east shore of Montana’s Flathead Lake. Photo provided by Flathead Lake Biological Station. Back Cover: Top Left: Installation of internet network equipment on Agave Hill tower for Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center. Photo by Mark Fisher, UC Natural Reserve System. Top Right: Botany class at Bodega Marine Reserve, Bodega Marine Lab in the background. Photo by Jackie Sones. Middle Left: Scientists from the Flathead Lake Biological Station collect aquatic insects from a floodplain spring. Photo provided by Flathead Lake Biological Station. Middle Right: Scientist at Hastings Natural History Reservation studying woodland star plants, Lithophragma sp. Photo by Mark Stromberg. Bottom Left: Aerial view of Louisiana University Marine Consortium. Photo by Nicole Cotten. Bottom Right: Lake Erie Center, University of Toledo. Photo by Donald Kemp.

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr. are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
COMMITTEE ON VALUE AND SUSTAINABILITY OF BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATIONS, MARINE LABORATORIES, AND NATURE RESERVES IN 21ST CENTURY SCIENCE, EDUCATION, AND PUBLIC OUTREACH JERRY R. SCHUBEL (Chair), Aquarium of the Pacific, Long Beach, California FELICIA C. COLEMAN, Florida State University Coastal and Marine Laboratory, St. Teresa CATHY CONRAD, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada DIANE DEBINSKI, Iowa State University, Ames PETER M. KAREIVA, The Nature Conservancy, Seattle, Washington GEORGE I. MATSUMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California DIANE M. MCKNIGHT, University of Colorado Boulder CAMILLE PARMESAN, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK; University of Texas, Austin ROBERT PLOWES, University of Texas Brackenridge Field Laboratory, Austin ALISON G. POWER, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York MARY E. POWER, Angelo Coast Range Reserve, University of California, Berkeley MARK R. STROMBERG, University of California Natural Reserve System (retired), Sonoita, Arizona STAFF KEEGAN SAWYER, Study Director and Program Officer CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer LAURENCE YEUNG, Christine Mirzayan Science & Technology Policy Fellow (until April 2014) LAUREN SONI, Senior Program Assistant NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor v 

OCR for page R1
BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES JAMES P. COLLINS (Chair), Arizona State University, Tempe ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Marshall, Virginia ROGER D. CONE, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee SEAN EDDY, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, Virginia SARAH C.R. ELGIN, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri DAVID R. FRANZ, Former Cdr USAMRIID, Consultant, Frederick, Maryland LOUIS J. GROSS, University of Tennessee, Knoxville ELIZABETH HEITMAN, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee JOHN G. HILDEBRAND, University of Arizona, Tucson RICHARD A. JOHNSON, Arnold & Porter, LLC, Washington, D.C. JUDITH KIMBLE, University of Wisconsin–Madison CATO T. LAURENCIN, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington ALAN I. LESHNER, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C. KAREN E. NELSON, J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland ROBERT M. NEREM, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta CAMILLE PARMESAN, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK; University of Texas, Austin ALISON G. POWER, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York MARGARET RILEY, University of Massachusetts, Amherst JANIS C. WEEKS, University of Oregon, Eugene MARY WOOLLEY, Research!America, Alexandria, Virginia STAFF FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar and Senior Project Director JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist and Program Director for Biology Education KATHERINE W. BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer INDIA HOOK-BARNARD, Senior Program Officer MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer KEEGAN SAWYER, Program Officer LAURENCE YEUNG, Christine Mirzayan S&T Policy Fellow (January–April 2014) BETHELHEM M. BANJAW, Financial Associate ANGELA KOLESNIKOVA, Administrative Assistant LAUREN SONI, Senior Program Assistant JENNA OGILVIE, Senior Program Assistant vi 

OCR for page R1
OCEAN STUDIES BOARD ROBERT A. DUCE (Chair), Texas A&M University, College Station E. VIRGINIA ARMBRUST, University of Washington, Seattle KEVIN R. ARRIGO, Stanford University, Stanford, California CLAUDIA BENITEZ-NELSON, University of South Carolina, Columbia EDWARD A. BOYLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge RITA R. COLWELL, University of Maryland, College Park SARAH W. COOKSEY, State of Delaware, Dover CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Corporation, San Ramon, California ROBERT HALLBERG, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey DAVID HALPERN, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California SUSAN E. HUMPHRIS, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts BONNIE J. MCCAY, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick STEVEN A. MURAWSKI, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg JOHN A. ORCUTT, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California H. TUBA ÖZKAN-HALLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis STEVEN E. RAMBERG, Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Lab, Washington, D.C. MARTIN D. SMITH, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina MARGARET SPRING, Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California DON WALSH, International Maritime Incorporated, Myrtle Point, Oregon DOUGLAS WARTZOK, Florida International University, Miami LISA D. WHITE, University of California, Berkeley; San Francisco State University STAFF SUSAN ROBERTS, Board Director CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer PAMELA LEWIS, Administrative Coordinator PAYTON KULINA, Program Assistant STACEE KARRAS, Research Associate vii 

OCR for page R1
I believe that in the not too distant future a much larger share of biological research, from biochemistry to ecology, will be conducted at field stations that consist of nature preserves and have ready access to laboratories equipped to analyze and monitor processes at every level of biological organization, including the molecular. Field stations will also serve as key centers of education at all levels. Universities and other institutions wise enough to invest in such stations now, even in the face of limited financial resources, will assure themselves of a much larger share in the future action. Edward O. Wilson Field stations provide the best connection between a growing population and the wonders and mysteries of the natural environment. These institutions educate on what all citizens must do to preserve ocean health, the foundation of the basic ecosystem services that keep our planet habitable. Marcia McNutt

OCR for page R1
Preface The National Science Foundation (NSF) arranged for a review by the National Academy of Sciences to assess and explore mechanisms, in a time of declining resources, to maintain and enhance the important contributions of field stations, marine laboratories, and nature reserves in scientific discovery, innovation, education, and public outreach—roles encompassed by the missions of these institutions. In response, the National Research Council established the Committee on Value and Sustainability of Biological Field Stations, Marine Laboratories, and Nature Reserves in 21st Century Science, Education, and Public Outreach, which prepared this report. Biographic information on the committee members is presented in Appendix B. In the course of preparing this report, the committee met three times in person and once by teleconference. During its deliberations, it heard oral presentations by the following: John Wingfield, Scott Edwards, Peter McCartney, Kandace Binkley, and David Campbell (NSF); Guy Noll, Morakot Pilouk, Marten Hogeweg, and Jeff Donze (Esri); Hillary Swain (Archbold Biological Station); Ian Billick (Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory); Ivar Babb (University of Connecticut Northeast Underwater Research, Technology & Education Center); Clarissa Dirks (Evergreen State University); Diane Ebert-May (Michigan State University); Caroline Wagner (Ohio State University); and Anthony Michaels (Proteus Environmental Technologies). Interested members of the public at large were given an opportunity to speak at the first meeting. In addition to the information from those presentations and the peer-reviewed scientific literature, the committee made use of field station databases provided by the National Association of Marine Laboratories, the Organization of Biological Field Stations, and the National Geographic Society. The committee acknowledges and thanks those individuals and groups for their valuable input. This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The purposes of the review are to provide candid and insightful comments that will assist the institution in making the published summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: George Crozier, Daulphin Island Sea Lab William Farland, Colorado State University Elisabeth Gantt, University of Maryland Gary Jacobs, Strata-G LLC Geraldine Knatz, Bank of the West Terry McGlynn, California State University, Dominguez Hills ix 

OCR for page R1
x Enhancing the Value and Sustainability of Biological Field Stations Holly Menninger, North Carolina State University Dwayne E. Porter, University of South Carolina Shawn Rowe, Oregon State University Joshua Tewksbury, University of Washington Henry M. Wilbur, University of Virginia Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse, nor did they see, the final version of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by May R. Berenbaum of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and John E. Burris of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund. Appointed by the National Academies, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Research Council. The committee’s work was assisted by the staff of the National Research Council’s Board on Life Sciences and Ocean Studies Board. We thank the study directors, Keegan Sawyer and Claudia Mengelt. The world map of field stations was made possible through the research support of Laurence Yeung and Sarah Gizaw. We also acknowledge and thank Rob Greenway, Sharon Martin, Mirsada Karolic-Loncarevic, Stacee Karras, Carl Anderson, Sayeeda Ahmed, Payton Kulina, and Lauren Soni for their technical and logistical support. Jerry R. Schubel, Chair Committee on Value and Sustainability of Biological Field Stations, Marine Laboratories, and Nature Reserves in 21st Century Science, Education, and Public Outreach

OCR for page R1
Contents Summary 1 1 Contributing to Science and Society 7 Study Approach, 8 What Is a Field Station? 8 Enabling Scientific Discovery, 10 Education, Outreach, and the Building of a Scientific Community, 12 Field Stations in Jeopardy, 16 Conclusions and Report Roadmap, 18 2 Enhancing Science, Education, and Public Engagement 21 Promoting Convergence, 21 Expanding and Diversifying Discovery-Based Learning, 24 Actively Engaging the Public in Science, 26 Overcoming Barriers, 29 Conclusions, 30 3 Networking for Discovery and Innovation 33 What Is a Field Station Network? 33 Principles, Benefits, and Challenges, 35 Building and Establishing Networks and Partnerships, 39 Conclusions, 43 4 Building and Maintaining a Modern Infrastructure 45 Defining Infrastructure Needs, 46 Challenges of Maintaining and Upgrading Infrastructure, 48 Cyberinfrastructure and Connectivity, 49 Data Management, 49 The Dark-Data Problem, 51 Scaling Up and Sharing, 51 Conclusions, 52 5 Strategies for Financial Sustainability 55 Visionary Leadership, 56 Success in a Time of Declining Resources, 58 Return on Investment, 60 Stabilizing the Base, 60 Importance of a Diversified Funding Portfolio, 60 Conclusions, 62 6 Metrics for Achieving Goals and Demonstrating Impact 63 Key Elements for Developing Metrics, 63 Toward a Common Set of Metrics, 64 xi

OCR for page R1
xii Enhancing the Value and Sustainability of Biological Field Stations Measuring Progress and Impact, 66 Conclusions, 69 References 71 Appendixes 79 A Statement of Task, 79 B Committee Member Biographies, 81 Boxes 1-1 Definition of a Biological Field Station, Marine Laboratory, or Nature Reserve, 7 1-2 Invasive Fire Ants: The Hidden Value of Unwanted Guests, 14 1-3 Advancing Science and Education at Hopkins Marine Station, 15 1-4 Citizen Scientists Contribute to Research on Global Warming, 17 2-1 NAML-OBFS Report, Field Stations and Marine Laboratories of the Future: A Strategic Vision, 22 2-2 Definition of Convergence, 23 2-3 Essential Cultural and Structural Elements in Successful Convergence Ecosystems, 25 2-4 Six Strands of Science Learning, 28 3-1 What Is a Network? 34 3-2 The Utah Field Station Network, a Regional Network to Enhance Research and Education, 40 3-3 Partnerships with National Parks, 42 4-1 Definition of Infrastructure, 45 5-1 Definition of Value Proposition, 55 6-1 Key Elements for Developing Appropriate Metrics, 64 6-2 Examples of Some Metrics to Assess Field Station Programs, 65 6-3 University of California Natural Reserve System—Collecting and Aggregating Data, 69 Figures 1-1 World map of biological field stations and marine laboratories, 10 3-1 Field stations within the Mississippi River Basin, 38 3-2 Field stations in the range of Superstorm Sandy, 43 4-1 Large-scale research infrastructures funded by the European Union to provide transnational access to scientists across Europe, 47 5-1 NSF Field station and Marine Laboratory Award History (1999-2013), 59 5-2 Links between field stations, stakeholder communities, and economic benefits, 61 6-1 Google Scholar Page of the University of Alaska Museum Bird Collection, 67 6-2 Aggregated data on user activities within the UC Natural Reserve System, 68

OCR for page R1
Contributing to Science and Society xiii Tables 1-1 Aggregated Information About Field Stations from Three Publications, 9 1-2 Comparison of Four Global Metal-Analyses of the Impact of Climate Change on Wild Species, 11

OCR for page R1