STEM

LEARNING IS EVERYWHERE

Summary of a Convocation on Building Learning Systems

Steve Olson and Jay Labov, Rapporteurs

Planning Committee on STEM Learning Is Everywhere:
Engaging Schools and Empowering Teachers to Integrate Formal,
Informal, and Afterschool Education to
Enhance Teaching and Learning in Grades K-8

Teacher Advisory Council

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                              OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

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STEM LEARNING IS EVERYWHERE Summary of a Convocation on Building Learning Systems Steve Olson and Jay Labov, Rapporteurs Planning Committee on STEM Learning Is Everywhere: Engaging Schools and Empowering Teachers to Integrate Formal, Informal, and Afterschool Education to Enhance Teaching and Learning in Grades K-8 Teacher Advisory Council Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. This project was supported by the Samueli Foundation, by Grant #1012954 from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and by the President’s Fund of the National Research Council. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-30642-3 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-30642-6 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2014). STEM Learning Is Every- where: Summary of a Convocation on Building Learning Systems. S. Olson and J. Labov, Rapporteurs. Planning Committee on STEM Learning Is Everywhere: Engaging Schools and Empowering Teachers to Integrate Formal, Informal, and Afterschool Education to Enhance Teaching and Learning in Grades K-8, Teacher Advisory Council, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern- ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem- bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis- ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro- viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON STEM LEARNING IS EVERYWHERE: ENGAGING SCHOOLS AND EMPOWERING TEACHERS TO INTEGRATE FORMAL, INFORMAL, AND AFTERSCHOOL EDUCATION TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND LEARNING IN GRADES K-8 JENNIFER PECK (Cochair), Partnership for Children and Youth, Oakland, CA MIKE TOWN (Cochair), Redmond STEM School, Redmond, WA MARGARET GASTON, Gaston Education Policy Associates, Washington, DC LAURA HENRIQUES, Department of Science Education, California State University, Long Beach ANITA KRISHNAMURTHI, Afterschool Alliance, Washington, DC CLAUDIA WALKER, Murphey Traditional Academy, Greensboro, NC JAY B. LABOV, Senior Advisor for Education and Communication, Director, National Academies Teacher Advisory Council, and Project Study Director ELIZABETH CARVELLAS, Teacher Leader, Teacher Advisory Council v

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TEACHER ADVISORY COUNCIL STEVEN L. LONG (Chair), Rogers High School, Rogers, AR JULIANA JONES (Vice Chair), Longfellow Middle School, Berkeley, CA NANCY ARROYO, Riverside High School, El Paso, TX CHARLENE DINDO, Pelican’s Nest Science Lab, Fairhope, AL KENNETH HUFF, Mill Middle School, Williamsville, NY MARY MARGUERITE (MARGO) MURPHY, Camden Hills Regional High School, Rockport, ME JENNIFER SINSEL, Bostic Elementary School, Wichita, KS SHEIKISHA THOMAS, Jordan High School, Durham, NC BRUCE ALBERTS (Ex Officio), Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco JAY LABOV, Senior Advisor for Education and Communication and Staff Director MARY ANN KASPER, Senior Program Assistant ELIZABETH CARVELLAS, Teacher Leader vi

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Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Barnett Berry, Center for Teaching Quality, Carrboro, North Carolina; Kathy Bihr, Tiger Woods Learning Center, Irvine, California; and Caleb Cheung, Oakland Unified School District, California. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many con- structive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Eugenie C. Scott, previous executive director, National Center for Science Education. Appointed by the NRC’s Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution. We sincerely thank the following foundations in the STEM Funders vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Network for their generous support of this convocation: the Burroughs Wellcome Fund; the S.D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation; the Noyce Foundation; the Samueli Foundation; and the Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation. We especially thank Gerald Solomon, executive director of the Samueli Foundation, for his support and encouragement throughout the planning and implementation of the convocation and to the Samueli Foundation for providing direct logistical and travel support for all participants. Michelle Freeman and Katrina Gaudier of the Samueli Foundation were most help- ful in working with the committee, NRC staff, presenters, and participants in all phases of this effort. Michelle Kalista, Jan Morrison, and Meghan Sadler from Teaching Institute for Excellence in STEM also provided logis- tical support on behalf of the STEM Funders Network. We also thank Monica Champaneria, Danielle Crosser, and Edward Patte, National Academy of Sciences staff members at the Beckman Cen- ter, for assisting participants during the convocation.

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Contents 1 Introduction to the Convocation 1 Themes of the Convocation, 5 Organization of the Report, 7 2 Envisioning the Possible 9 The Business Case, 11 A Wealth of Resources, 11 Lessons for Effective Partnerships, 13 3 Achieving the Vision 15 A Survey of Cross-Sector Collaborations, 16 Concept of a Learning Ecosystem, 17 Strategies for Building Ecosystems, 18 Toward Integrated STEM Education, 20 A Framework for STEM Integration, 20 The Potential for Afterschool Programs, 23 The Need for New Policies, 24 Discussion About Opportunities for STEM in Afterschool Settings, 25 A Perspective from Schools, 25 The Power of Partnerships, 27 Discussion About the Realities of STEM Education in Formal Settings, 28 ix

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x CONTENTS 4 Implications for Research and Policy 29 Implications for Research, 29 Implications for Policy, 32 Discussion, 34 5 Breakout Sessions by Topic 37 Alignment of Learning Opportunities, 38 Pre-Service and Educator Professional Learning, 38 Assessment of Student Goals, 40 Online Collaboration, 40 Joint Funding and Policy Solutions, 42 6 Breakout Sessions by Sector 45 The Informal Sector, 45 The Afterschool Sector, 46 The Formal Sector, 47 7 Comments from Convocation Participants 49 An Ecosystems Approach, 49 The Roles of Educators, 51 Rural Schools, 53 Resources, 53 Allies, 54 References 57 Appendixes A Convocation Agenda 61 B Convocation Attendees 69 C Brief Biographies of Committee Members and Presenters 77