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Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs 1 Introduction to the Convocation Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) permeate the modern world. The jobs people do, the foods they eat, the vehicles in which they travel, the information they receive, the medicines they take, and many other facets of modern life are constantly changing as STEM knowledge steadily accumulates. Yet STEM education in the United States, despite the importance of these subjects, is consistently falling short. (See Box 1-1.) Many students are not graduating from high school with the knowledge and capacities they will need to pursue STEM careers or understand STEM-related issues in the workforce or in their roles as citizens. For decades, efforts to improve STEM education have focused largely on the formal education system. Learning standards for STEM subjects have been developed, teachers have participated in STEM-related professional development, and assessments of various kinds have sought to measure STEM learning. But students do not learn about STEM subjects just in school. Much STEM learning occurs out of school—in organized activities such as afterschool and summer programs, in institutions such as museums and zoos, from the things students watch or read on television and online, and during interactions with peers, parents, mentors, and role models. Even during their elementary school, middle school, and high school years, U.S. students spend just 18.5 percent of their waking hours over the course of each year in school (Figure 1-1). If even a fraction of the activities and experiences that occupy much of the other 81.5 percent of their waking hours could be coordinated with the education they receive in school, students could emerge from their K-12 years much better prepared for the increasingly scientific and technical world in which they will live. To explore how connections among the formal education system, afterschool programs, and the informal education sector could improve STEM learning, a committee of experts from these communities and under the auspices of the Teacher Advisory Council (TAC) of the National Research Council (NRC),1 in association with the California Teacher Advisory Council (CalTAC),2 organized a convocation that was held at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on February 10–11, 2014. Entitled “STEM Learning Is Everywhere: Engaging Schools and Empowering Teachers to Integrate Formal, Informal, and Afterschool Education to Enhance Teaching and Learning in Grades K-8,” the convocation brought together more than 100 representatives of all three sectors, along with researchers, policy makers, advocates, and others, to explore a topic that could have far-reaching implications for how students learn about STEM subjects and how educational activities are organized and interact. The planning committee worked from the following Statement of Task, which was approved by the NRC’s Governing Board Executive Committee: 1 More information about the TAC is available at http://nas.edu/tac. 2 More information about CalTAC is available at http://www.ccst.us/ccstinfo/caltac.php. 1

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Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs An ad hoc steering committee will organize a convocation to explore the benefits that might accrue from engaging representatives from the formal, afterschool, and informal education sectors in California and from across the United States in strategic dialog and action planning to facilitate more deliberate connections among these three often independent communities. The emphasis of this convocation will be to foster more seamless learning of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) for students in the elementary and middle grades that respond to new expectations and opportunities for STEM education as articulated in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the Common Core Standards (CCS) for Mathematics and Language Arts. Convocation participants, drawn from these three communities as well as education researchers, policymakers, professional development specialists, and funders of STEM education, will also explore how strategic connections among the three communities might catalyze new avenues of teacher preparation and professional development, integrated curriculum development, and more comprehensive assessment of knowledge, skills, and attitudes about STEM. Based on this Statement of Task, the committee agreed that the convocation had five main goals: 1. Define the barriers to achieving more strategic, integrated approaches to STEM learning across the informal, afterschool, and formal learning platforms.3 2. Identify challenges and opportunities associated with developing a STEM learning “ecosystem.” 3. Identify key attributes and characteristics for possible prototypes of strategic collaborations to move forward. 4. Disseminate prototypes for community uses. 5. Secure attendee commitments and devise plans of action to work on these issues for the ensuing 18 months. The planning committee for the convocation was co-chaired by Mike Town, science teacher at the Redmond STEM School in Redmond, WA, and Jennifer Peck, executive director of the Partnership for Children and Youth in Oakland, CA. The committee also included Margaret Gaston, president and executive director of Gaston Education Policy Associates (who also served as manager of CalTAC); Laura Henriques, professor of science education at California State University, Long Beach; Anita Krishnamurthi, vice president of the Afterschool Alliance in Washington, DC; and Claudia Walker, a fifth-grade teacher at Murphey Traditional Academy in Greensboro, NC. The convocation was sponsored by the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the S. D. Bechtel, Jr., Foundation, the Noyce Foundation, the Samueli Foundation, and the Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation, which are all part of the STEM Funders Network. 3 As noted by several speakers at the convocation, the terminology used in different sectors can vary. In this report, “afterschool programs” include before-school, afterschool, and summer programs, which are sometimes collectively referred to as out-of-school programs. 2

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Prepu ublication copy, uncorr c rected proo ofs BOX 1-1 B Identifyi the Prob ing blem pening remar at the “STEM Learni Is Every During his op D rks ing ywhere” conv vocation, Ge erald Solomon executive director of th Samueli Foundation, pointed to some well-stu n, d he F udied proble ems in U.S. STEM educa S ation that the convocation was design to address: n ned  Stude in many other count ents y tries solidly outscore U.S students i internation comparis S. in nal sons of STTEM learning (e.g., Kelly et al., 2013 y 3).  Half or more of all first unive a ersity degree in Japan a China we in scienc and es and ere ce enginneering, commpared with just one-third in the Unit States, a Asian an European j d ted and nd colleg and univ ges versities are producing fa more scien p ar ntists and en ngineers than are U.S. n colleg and univ ges versities (Naational Science Board, 20 014).  Wom and mino men orities are unnderrepresen in many STEM edu nted y ucational proograms and STEM careers (N M National Scie ence Founda ation, 2013).  Grow in STEM jobs has be much fas than gro wth M een ster owth in non-S STEM jobs (Langdon et al., t 2011).  STEM workers have earnings advantages at nearly ev M h s very level of educationa attainment f al t (Carn nevale et al., 2011).  Solvi the grand challenges that exist to ing d oday in enginneering, hea alth, and othe fields will er l requi substantia contributio from ST ire al ons TEM profess sionals (National Researc Council, ch 2009, National Research Cou R uncil, 2014; National Ac N cademy of En ngineering, 22008; Varmu et mus al., 20003). Private philannthropies hav an “ethica and moral imperative” to take on these proble ve al l ” ems, Solomon said. As on of the few remaining sources of ri sk capital av n ne s vailable in th United Sta he ates, they can support initi iatives that government, businesses, and schools cannot. g s s FIGURE 1-1 Estima E ated time sp pent in scho and infor ool rmal learnin environm ng ments. NOTE: This diagram shows the relative perc T m r centage of w waking hours that people across the lifespan spend in form educatio environ s mal onal nments and o other activitie The calcu es. ulations werre 3

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Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs made on the best available statistics for a whole year basis on how much time people at different points across the lifespan spend in formal instructional environments. SOURCE: Reproduced with permission of The LIFE Center, University of Washington. Themes of the Convocation Over the course of the convocation, the organizers of the event identified some themes that emerged from the presentations, the question-and-answer sessions, comments from individual participants, and the reports of breakout groups. These themes are compiled here as an introduction to the major topics that were discussed at the convocation. They should not be seen as the conclusions or recommendations of the convocation, but they represent especially promising areas for future discussion and action as identified by many participants. Concentric circles of influences surround the individual learner, said Martin Storksdieck, director of the Board on Science Education at the NRC (see Figure 1-2). Closest to the learner are family, friends, role models, caregivers, mentors, and peers. Beyond these influences, a set of institutions seek to teach or otherwise provide experiences to learners, including schools, museums, media, libraries, afterschool clubs, and churches. Finally, infrastructural elements such as policies, culture, communities, and values create the rules of the game for institutions as well as individuals. The STEM learning system is remarkably diverse, Town noted, and all parts of the system have something to contribute to STEM learning. The challenge, said Henriques, is to mesh these contributions synergistically rather than duplicatively while adapting models that have worked well in one place to the culture, governance, and idiosyncrasies in other settings. In other words, they said, the goal is to create an actual integrated system for teaching and learning wherever learning occurs both in- and outside of school (as indicated in the title of this report summary) rather than a set of uncoordinated activities. Krishnamurthi observed that many other communities have engaged in cross-sector collaborations and that STEM learning systems could learn from those models. Solomon added that no single model of cross-sector collaboration is sufficient. Though different models may have common attributes, communities will be best served by models that reflect local cultures, environments, and stakeholders. Peck pointed to the major changes occurring in education that provide an opportunity to align the parts of the STEM learning system. She said that the advent of the Common Core State Standards,4 the Next Generation Science Standards,5 new assessments that are emerging to align with these standards (e.g., the Partnership for Assessment Readiness for College and Careers [PARCC],6 Smarter Balanced Assessment Curriculum,7 and NRC, 2013a), growing interest in the social and emotional development of children, a renewed focus on effective teaching, and education finance reform are producing dramatic changes and equally dramatic opportunities. But sophisticated professional development across the entire learning system will be needed for different sectors to work together, she observed. 4 http://www.corestandards.org/ 5 http://www.nextgenscience.org/ 6 https://www.parcconline.org/ 7 http://www.smarterbalanced.org/k-12-education/common-core-state-standards-tools-resources/ 4

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Prepu ublication copy, uncorr c rected proo ofs Different kind of metrics will be nee D ds s eded for poli makers to be convinc of the va icy o ced alue of cross-sector collab boration in producing su outcomes as persisten and havi a STEM p uch s nce ing M identity, said Town. Mutual under M rstanding, respect, and tr among t three sect are criti rust the tors ical, said Waalker. “We all have very sim h milar goals,” she said. “W need to f ” We find those go and wor together oals rk through them.” t Finally, Peck emphasized the passion of everyone at the conv d n e vocation and the surprisi d ing degree of unanimity among the participants. Even though the idea of collaboratio can raise the f p h f on concern that the effor of one sector will be co-opted to meet the im t rts mmediate nee of anothe eds er, the comm mitment of th convocati participa to collab he ion ants boration was inspiring, e s energizing, aand eye-openning, she said d. FIGURE 1-2 Individ learning is surround by layers of influenc that have an effect on E dual g ded s ces e n learning. SOURCE Reprinted with permission from Martin Stork E: d M ksdieck. Organizati of the Report O ion This report of the convoc T f cation summa arizes the pr resentations, discussions and reports to , s, s the plena group by representati ary ives of the breakout sesssions. After t introduc this ctory chapterr, Chapter 2 frames the problems th convocati was desi e he ion igned to addr and way of solving ress ys g those pro oblems. Chap 3 provid four diffe pter des ferent perspeectives on ho better to i ow integrate ST TEM 5

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Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs learning systems. Chapter 4 examines the implications of such integration for research and for policy. Chapters 5 and 6 summarize the main conclusions of breakout groups that discussed both particular issues and next steps in fostering collaboration among the informal, afterschool, and formal STEM education sectors. Chapter 7 compiles comments and reflections of convocation participants over the course of the event. 6